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N’chifukwa Chiyani Baibulo la King James Linatchuka Kwambiri?

N’chifukwa Chiyani Baibulo la King James Linatchuka Kwambiri?

 N’chifukwa Chiyani Baibulo la King James Linatchuka Kwambiri?

ANTHU osiyanasiyana ku England anachita zikondwerero m’chaka cha 2011, zokumbukira kuti Baibulo la King James (limene limadziwikanso kuti Authorized Version) latha zaka 400 kuchokera pamene linatuluka. Pa zikondwerero zimenezi anachita zinthu monga kuulutsa mapulogalamu apadera pa TV ndi m’mawayilesi osiyanasiyana komanso anachititsa misonkhano ndi maphunziro osiyanasiyana okhudza Baibulo limeneli.

Prince Charles ndi amene anatsogolera zochitika zosiyanasiyana zokondwerera Baibulo limeneli, lomwe anthu ambiri a ku England amalikonda. Baibuloli analipatsa dzina lakuti King James polemekeza Mfumu James Yoyamba ya ku England, ndipo linatuluka m’mwezi wa May, m’chaka cha 1611. Koma kodi n’chiyani chinachititsa kuti Baibulo limeneli lizikondedwa ndi anthu ambiri olankhula Chingelezi?

Ntchito Yomasulira Baibulo Limeneli

Pofika zaka za m’ma 1550, anthu ambiri ku Ulaya anali ndi chidwi chofuna kudziwa zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa. Pafupifupi zaka 200 m’mbuyomo, m’chaka cha 1382, John Wycliffe anali atamasulira Baibulo kuchokera m’Chilatini kupititsa m’Chingelezi ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri ayambe kukhala ndi chidwi chowerenga Baibulo. Otsatira ake anagawira Mabaibulo olembedwa pamanja m’dziko lonselo.

M’chaka cha 1525, munthu wina wa ku England, dzina lake William Tyndale, anamasulira Baibulo kuchokera ku Chigiriki choyambirira kupititsa m’Chingelezi. Baibulo limeneli linkadziwika kuti Chipangano Chatsopano (New Testament). Pasanapite nthawi yaitali, mu 1535, munthu winanso, dzina lake Miles Coverdale anamasulira Baibulo lathunthu m’Chingelezi. Pa nthawiyi n’kuti patangotha chaka chimodzi kuchokera pamene Mfumu Henry yanambala 8 inasemphana maganizo ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika ku Rome, n’kupanga zoti papa asakhale ndi mphamvu ku England. Pofuna kuti akhale ndi mphamvu zambiri pa tchalitchi cha ku England, iye analoleza anthu kumasulira Baibulo m’Chingelezi. Baibulo limene linamasuliridwalo limadziwika kuti Great Bible. Baibuloli linasindikizidwa m’chaka cha 1539, ndipo linali la zilembo zikuluzikulu zakuda.

Anthu Achipulotesitanti amene anathamangitsidwa ku Ulaya anakhazikika ku Geneva, m’dziko la Switzerland. M’chaka cha 1560 kunatulutsidwa Baibulo limene linkadziwika kuti Baibulo la Geneva (Geneva Bible). Baibuloli linali losavuta kuwerenga komanso linagawidwa m’machaputala ndi mavesi. Kenako, anthu anayamba kulitumiza ku England ndipo pasanapite nthawi yaitali linatchuka kwambiri. M’chaka cha 1576, ku England anayamba kusindikizanso Baibulo limeneli. Baibuloli linali ndi mapu komanso m’mbali mwake munali mawu ofotokozera malemba. Koma anthu ena sanasangalale ndi mawu ofotokozerawo chifukwa ankaona kuti ndi onyoza papa.

Kuthana ndi Vutoli

Chifukwa chakuti anthu ambiri sanakonde Baibulo la Great Bible komanso Baibulo la Geneva, panali  maganizo akuti Baibulo lina limasuliridwe. Baibulo la Great Bible linasankhidwa kuti ligwiritsidwe ntchito pomasulira Baibulo latsopanolo. Ntchito yomasulirayo inaperekedwa kwa mabishopu a tchalitchi cha Katolika ku England ndipo m’chaka cha 1568 kunatulutsidwa Baibulo lakuti Bishops’ Bible (Baibulo la Mabishopu). Baibuloli linali lalikulu kwambiri komanso linali ndi zithunzi zambiri. Koma anthu a tchalitchi cha John Calvin, omwe ankadana ndi zopatsana mayina audindo, sanasangalale ndi mawu akuti “mabishopu” amene anali pa Baibulowo. Choncho anthu ambiri ku England sanalilandire ndi manja awiri.

James atasankhidwa kukhala mfumu ya ku England m’chaka cha 1603, * anavomereza kuti pamasuliridwe Baibulo lina. Iye analamula kuti m’Baibulo limenelo musalembedwe zinthu zimene zingakhumudwitse anthu ena, n’cholinga choti anthu onse azilikonda.

Mfumu James inalimbikitsa ntchito yomasulira Baibulo limeneli. M’kupita kwa nthawi, akatswiri 47 omasulira Baibulo ochokera m’magulu 6 osiyanasiyana a m’dzikolo, anapatsidwa ntchito yomasulira zigawo zina za Baibulo. Akatswiriwa analisinthiratu Baibulo la mabishopu lija ndipo ankachita zimenezi pogwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Tyndale ndi la Coverdale. Komanso ankagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Geneva ndi Baibulo lachikatolika lotchedwa Rheims New Testament, lomwe linatuluka mu 1582.

Mfumu James inachita maphunziro okhudza Baibulo ndipo anthu ankailemekeza kwambiri. Mawu amene analembedwa pa Baibuloli litamalizidwa, amatsimikizira zimenezi. Mawuwo amati: “Baibuloli tikulipereka kwa James, yemwe ndi wolemekezeka kwambiri komanso Kalonga wamphamvu.” Anthu a ku England ankaona kuti James, monga m’tsogoleri wa tchalitchi cha ku England, analamula kuti Baibulo limasuliridwe n’cholinga choti iye akhale ndi mphamvu zambiri komanso kuti agwirizanitse anthu a m’dzikolo.

Anthu Ambiri Analikonda

Akuluakulu a tchalitchi anasangalala kwambiri atapatsidwa ndi mfumuyi Baibulo, limene “linasankhidwa kuti liziwerengedwa m’matchalitchi.” Koma funso linali lakuti, Kodi anthu alilandira bwanji?

Zimene omasulira Baibuloli analemba m’mawu awo oyamba zimasonyeza kuti ankakayikira zoti anthu angalikonde. Koma Baibuloli litatuluka anthu analikonda , ngakhale kuti zinatenga zaka 30 kuti anthu azilikonda kwambiri kuposa Baibulo la Geneva lija.

Buku lina limati: “Pofika nthawi imeneyi, linali Baibulo lovomerezeka, osati chifukwa chakuti  winawake analamula kuti anthu aziligwiritsa ntchito, koma chifukwa chakuti linali lomveka bwino.” (The Bible and the Anglo-Saxon People) Buku linanso limati: “Mawu ake ankamveka opatulika, mongadi mawu a Mulungu; Akhristu ambiri olankhula Chingelezi ankaona kuti kusintha mawu a m’Baibulo la King James kuli ngati kuchitira mwano Mulungu.”—The Cambridge History of the Bible.

Linafalikira Padziko Lonse

Anthu oyambirira omwe anapita kukakhala ku North America kuchokera ku England, anapita ndi Baibulo la Geneva. Koma patapita nthawi, Baibulo limene linatchuka linali la King James. Pamene ufumu wa Britain unkakula, amishonale Achipulotesitanti ankapititsa Baibuloli kumadera atsopano. Ndipo ntchito yomasulira Mabaibulo m’zinenero za m’maderawo itayamba, ankagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Chingelezi la King James chifukwa chakuti omasulira ambiri sankadziwa Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki.

Malinga ndi zimene akuluakulu a ku nyumba yaikulu yosungira mabuku ku Britain ananena, “Baibulo la King James ndi limene limafalitsidwa kwambiri kuposa Baibulo lililonse mpaka pano m’mayiko olankhula Chingelezi.” Ena amanena kuti Mabaibulo onse a King James amene asindikizidwa amaposa 1 biliyoni.

Linayamba Kukonzedwanso

Kwa zaka zambiri, anthu akhala akukhulupirira kuti Baibulo la King James ndi lokhalo limene lili “Baibulo lenileni.” M’chaka cha 1870, ntchito yokonzanso Baibulo lonse inayambika ku England ndipo panatuluka Baibulo lotchedwa English Revised Version. Patapita nthawi omasulira ena anakonzanso Baibulo la English Revised Version ndipo anatulutsa Baibulo lotchedwa American Standard. * M’mawu oyamba a Baibulo la Revised Authorised Version, lomwe linakonzedwa komaliza m’chaka cha 1982, omasulira ake ananena kuti anayesetsa kwambiri kuti “asachotse mawu amene anthu ankawakonda kwambiri m’Baibulo la [King James]” lomwe linatuluka m’chaka cha 1611.

Ngakhale kuti Baibulo, makamaka la King James, ndi buku lokondedwa kwambiri mpaka pano, Pulofesa Richard G. Moulton anati: “Tachita zonse zimene tikanatha kuti timvetse Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki. . . . Tamasulira Mabaibulo ambiri kuchokera m’zilankhulo zimenezi . . . Chatsala ndi kuliwerenga basi.”

N’zoona kuti Baibulo la King James linamasuliridwa bwino kwambiri ndipo anthu ambiri amalikonda ndi kulilemekeza chifukwa chakuti limakoma kuliwerenga. Koma kodi anthu amadziwa kufunika kwa uthenga wake? Mawu a m’Baibulo anauziridwa ndi Mulungu ndipo amatithandiza kudziwa mmene mavuto amene anthu amakumana nawo panopa adzathetsedwere. Kaya inuyo mumagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lotani, Mboni za Yehova zingasangalale kukuthandizani kuphunzira zambiri zokhudza Baibulo.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 10 James anabadwa m’chaka cha 1566 ndipo anasankhidwa kukhala Mfumu James yanambala 6 ya ku Scotland m’chaka chotsatira. M’chaka cha 1603 anasankhidwa kukhala Mfumu James Yoyamba ya ku England ndipo anayamba kulamulira mayiko onse awiri. Ndipo m’chaka cha 1604, mfumuyi inayamba kudziwika ndi dzina lakuti “Mfumu James ya ku Britain.”

^ ndime 21 Onani bokosi lakuti “Baibulo la American Standard.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 23]

BAIBULO LA AMERICAN STANDARD

Baibulo la American Standard linamasuliridwa mu 1901 pogwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la King James. Mawu ake oyamba anali akuti: “Tikuzindikira kuti Baibulo la King James ndi labwino komanso lokoma kuwerenga.” Ngakhale zili choncho, anthu amene anamasulira Baibulo la American Standard anapewa kuika zinthu zambiri zimene zinali m’Baibulo la King James.

M’mawu awo oyambawo iwo anapitiriza kuti: “Omasulira Baibulo lino atafufuza mosamala, anaona kuti sayenera kuchotsa dzina la Mulungu m’Baibulo lawo chifukwa chotsatira zimene Ayuda ankakhulupirira, zoti dzinali ndi lopatulika kwambiri moti siliyenera kutchulidwa. Iwo anatsatira zimene amishonale ambiri amakono omasulira Baibulo anachita, pobwezeretsa dzina la Mulungu.”

Komabe zimenezi sizikutanthauza kuti dzina lakuti Yehova silipezeka n’komwe m’Baibulo la King James. M’Baibuloli, dzina lakuti Yehova limapezeka malo anayi, pa Ekisodo 6:3; Salimo 83:18; Yesaya 12:2, ndi pa Yesaya 26:4. Koma Baibulo la American Standard lomwe linatuluka m’chaka cha 1901, linabwezeretsa dzina lakuti Yehova m’malo ake oyenerera pafupifupi 7,000.

[Chithunzi]

1901

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 24]

KUTHANDIZA ANTHU KUMVETSA BAIBULO

M’chaka cha 1907, bungwe la Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society linayamba kusindikizitsa Mabaibulo a King James oti Ophunzira Baibulo (dzina la Mboni za Yehova pa nthawiyo) azigwiritsa ntchito. Mabaibulowa anali ndi zakumapeto (Berean Bible Teachers’ Manual). Kenako a Mboni za Yehova anayamba kusindikiza Mabaibulo a King James pogwiritsa ntchito makina awo. Pofika m’chaka cha 1992, anali atasindikiza Mabaibulo a King James okwana 1,858,368.

[Chithunzi]

1907

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 24]

BAIBULO LOMASULIRIDWA MOSAVUTA KUMVA

Pafupifupi zaka 50 zapitazi, kwatuluka Mabaibulo osiyanasiyana m’zinenero zosiyanasiyananso. Limodzi mwa Mabaibulo amenewa ndi Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la Malemba Opatulika, limene anthu ambiri amalikonda. Kuchokera pamene Baibuloli linatulutsidwa, Mabaibulo oposa 170 miliyoni asindikizidwa athunthu kapena mbali imodzi chabe, m’zilankhulo zokwana 100. Baibulo limeneli lili ndi mapu, mlozera mawu wolembedwa motsatira zilembo za afabeti komanso lili ndi zakumapeto. Zimenezi zimathandiza owerenga kumvetsa bwino uthenga wa m’Baibulo.

[Chithunzi]

1961

[Chithunzi patsamba 22]

1611

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 22]

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