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N’chifukwa Chiyani Anthu Wamba Sankaloledwa Kukhala ndi Baibulo?

N’chifukwa Chiyani Anthu Wamba Sankaloledwa Kukhala ndi Baibulo?

 N’chifukwa Chiyani Anthu Wamba Sankaloledwa Kukhala ndi Baibulo?

PATAPITA nthawi, anthu anachita khama kwambiri kumasulira Baibulo m’zilankhulo zimene anthu ambiri ankazidziwa, chifukwa ndi anthu ochepa okha amene ankatha kuwerenga Baibulo m’Chiheberi ndi m’Chigiriki, zomwe ndi zilankhulo zake zoyambirira. Ndipo ngakhale masiku ano ambirife sitidziwa zilankhulo zimenezo.

Patatsala zaka pafupifupi 300 kuti Yesu abadwe, ntchito yomasulira Baibulo kuchoka m’Chiheberi kupita m’Chigiriki inayambika. Baibulo limene linamasuliridwalo limatchedwa kuti Greek Septuagint. Kenako patatha zaka zinanso 700, munthu wina dzina lake Jerome, anamasulira Baibulo kuchoka m’Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki kupita m’Chilatini, chomwe chinali chilankhulo chofala kwambiri mu ufumu wa Roma. Baibuloli linkadziwika kuti Vulgate ndipo linatchuka kwambiri.

Patapita nthawi, anthu amene ankadziwa Chilatini anali anthu ophunzira okhaokha basi ndipo anthu wamba sankachidziwa. Tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkaletsa anthu kumasulira Baibulo m’zilankhulo zina. Akuluakulu a tchalitchicho ankanena kuti Baibulo liyenera kukhala mu Chiheberi, Chigiriki ndi Chilatini basi. *

Kumasulira Baibulo Kunagawanitsa Tchalitchi

M’zaka za m’ma 800 C.E., amishonale awiri a ku Tesalonika, mayina awo Methodius ndi Cyril, m’malo mwa matchalitchi a ku Byzantium, analimbikitsa  maganizo akuti tchalitchi chizigwiritsanso ntchito chilankhulo cha Chisilaviki, chomwe anthu a kum’mawa kwa Ulaya ankalankhula. Cholinga chawo chinali chakuti anthu amenewa, omwe sankadziwa Chigiriki kapena Chilatini, aziwerenga Baibulo m’chilankhulo chawo.

Koma amishonalewa anasemphana maganizo ndi ansembe a ku Germany omwe sankafuna kuti zimenezi zichitike. Ansembewo ankafuna kuti anthu azigwiritsa ntchito Chilatini basi. Cholinga cha ansembewa chinali chakuti akhale ndi mphamvu zambiri pa matchalitchi a ku Byzantium. Kwa iwo ndale zinali zofunika kwambiri kuposa kuphunzitsa anthu Baibulo. M’kupita kwa nthawi kusagwirizana kwa atsogoleri a tchalitchi kunawonjezereka ndipo m’chaka cha 1054 tchalitchi cha Katolika chinasiyiratu kugwirizana ndi tchalitchi cha Orthodox.

Nkhondo Yolimbana ndi Ntchito Yomasulira Baibulo

Patapita nthawi, tchalitchi cha Katolika chinayamba kulimbikitsa maganizo akuti Chilatini ndi chilankhulo chopatulika. M’chaka cha 1079, wolamulira wa ku Bohemia, dzina lake Vratislaus, anapempha kuti azichita mapemphero awo m’Chisilaviki. Koma Papa Gregory wa nambala 7 anamuyankha kuti: “Sitingakuloleni kuchita zimenezi ngakhale pang’ono.” N’chifukwa chiyani papayu anakana?

Papayu anati: “Kwa anthu amene amaona nkhaniyi bwinobwino, n’zoonekeratu kuti Mulungu amafuna kuti Malemba Opatulika asamapezeke kumadera ena, chifukwa ngati atamapezeka mwachisawawa, anthu akhoza kusiya kuwalemekeza, komanso anthu ochepa nzeru akhoza kumawatanthauzira molakwika chifukwa chosawamvetsa.”

Zinali zovuta kwambiri kuti anthu wamba apeze Baibulo, ndipo akuluakulu a tchalitchi ankafuna zoterezi n’cholinga choti akhale ndi mphamvu zambiri pa anthu awo. Iwo sankafuna kuti anthu wamba azifufuza okha nkhani zina zomwe atsogoleriwo ankaona kuti ndi zongokhudza iwowo basi.

M’chaka cha 1199, Papa Innocent Wachitatu analemba nkhani yonyoza anthu ena amene ankatsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika, omwe anamasulira Baibulo m’Chifulenchi n’kumaliphunzira m’magulu. Papayu ananena kuti mawu a Yesu akuti, “musamapatse agalu zinthu zopatulika, kapena kuponyera nkhumba ngale zanu,” akugwira ntchito pa iwowo. (Mateyu 7:6) Kodi mfundo ya papayo inali yotani? Iye anati: “Munthu wamba aliyense yemwe ndi wosaphunzira asayerekeze n’komwe kuwerenga Malemba kapena kuwalalikira kwa ena chifukwa ndi opatulika kwambiri.” Nthawi zambiri anthu amene sankamvera lamulo la papa limeneli ankaperekedwa kwa anthu amene ankawazunza n’cholinga choti alape. Ndipo anthu amene ankakana kulapa ankawotchedwa.

Pa nthawi yonse yomwe anthu ankazunzidwa chifukwa chopezeka ndi Baibulo, kalata ya Papa Innocent ndi imene inkagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati maziko oletsera anthu kuwerenga kapena kumasulira Baibulo. Papayo atangopereka lamuloli, Mabaibulo komanso anthu amene ankapezeka nawo anayamba kuwotchedwa. Kwa zaka zambiri, mabishopu ndi atsogoleri ena Achikatolika ku Ulaya ankaonetsetsa kuti lamulo limene Papa Innocent Wachitatu anakhazikitsa likutsatiridwa.

Akuluakulu a tchalitchi cha Katolika ankadziwa  kuti ziphunzitso zawo sizinali zochokera m’Baibulo. Mwina chimenechi n’chifukwa chimodzi chomwe sankafunira kuti anthu awo akhale ndi Baibulo. Iwo ankadziwa kuti ngati anthuwo atawerenga Baibulo paokha, aona kuti zimene akuphunzitsidwa n’zosiyana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena.

Anthu Otsutsa Chikatolika Anathandiza kuti Baibulo Limasuliridwe

Kuyamba kwa Chipulotesitanti kunasintha zinthu kwambiri ku Ulaya. Martin Luther, yemwe anali wachikatolika, atawerenga Baibulo bwinobwino, anaona kuti tchalitchicho chiyenera kusintha zinthu zina zimene chimaphunzitsa. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti m’chaka cha 1521, iye achotsedwe mumpingo wa Katolika, ndipo popeza kuti anali waluso pa ntchito yomasulira, anayamba kumasulira Baibulo n’cholinga choti anthu ambiri azitha kuliwerenga.

Luther anamasulira Baibulo m’Chijeremani ndipo popeza kuti Baibulo lakeli linkakondedwa kwambiri, tchalitchi cha Katolika sichinasangalale chifukwa chinkaona kuti anthu aleka kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lovomerezedwa ndi tchalitchicho. Pasanapite nthawi yaitali, Luther anamasulira Mabaibulo a mitundu iwiri m’Chijeremani. Koma kenako pa msonkhano umene unachitikira ku Trento ku Italy, mu 1546, akuluakulu a tchalitchi cha Katolika anakhazikitsa lamulo lakuti ntchito yosindikiza mabuku achipembedzo, kuphatikizapo ntchito yomasulira Mabaibulo, ikhale m’manja mwa tchalitchicho basi.

Lamuloli linati: “Kuyambira panopa, Malemba opatulika . . . azisindikizidwa m’njira yovomerezeka. Palibe munthu aliyense amene aziloledwa kusindikiza kapena kuuza ena kusindikiza mabuku a malemba opatulika popanda kusonyeza dzina lake. Palibenso amene aziloledwa kugulitsa mabukuwo, ngakhalenso kukhala nawo, pokhapokha ngati mabukuwo afufuzidwa ndi kuvomerezedwa ndi bishopu.”

Mu 1559, Papa Paulo Wachinayi anatulutsa mayina a Mabaibulo amene anali oletsedwa ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika. Tchalitchichi chinalamula kuti anthu asamapezeke ndi Mabaibulo a Chidatchi, Chingelezi, Chifulenchi, Chijeremani, Chitaliyana, Chisipanishi komanso Chilatini. Munthu aliyense wofuna kugula Baibulo ankafunika kukapempha kaye chilolezo kwa mabishopu kapena kwa anthu amene anapatsidwa udindo umenewu. Zimenezi zinali zokhumudwitsa kwambiri, chifukwa munthu aliyense akadziwika kuti ali ndi Baibulo ankatengedwa kuti ndi woukira tchalitchi.

Choncho, anthu amene ankalimba mtima n’kukhala ndi Baibulo m’chilankhulo chawo kapena kulifalitsa ankadedwa kwambiri ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika. Ambiri ankamangidwa kwa moyo wawo wonse, kuwotchedwa atawamangirira pamtengo, kapena kunyongedwa. Mabaibulo amene ankalandidwa ankawotchedwa. Ansembe a Chikatolika anapitirizabe kulanda ndi kuwotcha Mabaibulo mpaka m’zaka za m’ma 1900.

Komabe zimenezi sizikutanthauza  kuti matchalitchi Achipulotesitanti akhala akuphunzitsa zimene Baibulo limanena komanso kuthandiza kuti Baibulo lizipezekabe masiku ano. M’zaka za m’ma 1700 mpaka m’ma 1800, atsogoleri ena Achipulotesitanti anayamba kutsutsa kwambiri zimene Baibulo limaphunzitsa. Patapita nthawi, anthu ambiri anayamba kukhulupirira zimene Darwin ankaphunzitsa zakuti zinthu sizinachite kulengedwa ndi Mlengi koma zinachita kusintha zokha kuchokera ku zinthu zina.

Abusa ambiri ankaphunzitsa kuti nkhani za m’Baibulo ndi nthano chabe. N’chifukwa chake si zachilendo masiku ano kumva atsogoleri Achipulotesitanti ndi anthu awo komanso anthu ena ambiri, akunena kuti sakhulupirira Baibulo. Iwo amati silinena zinthu zolondola pofotokoza nkhani zakale.

Mwina mwaonapo anthu akutsutsa Baibulo komanso mwamvapo kuti anthu ena kale ankaliwotcha n’cholinga choti lisamapezekenso. Komabe, Baibulo lapulumuka zonsezi ndipo likupezekabe mpaka pano.

Zatheka Bwanji Kuti Lizipezekabe Mpaka Pano?

N’zoona kuti pali anthu ambiri amene amakonda kwambiri Baibulo ndipo afika poika moyo wawo pachiswe n’cholinga choti aliteteze. Koma chifukwa chachikulu chimene chachititsa kuti Baibulo lizipezekabe masiku ano n’chakuti anthu amene analemba Baibulo anachita kuuziridwa ndi Mulungu.—Yesaya 40:8; 1 Petulo 1:25.

Anthu amene amawerenga Baibulo ndi kutsatira zimene limanena amakhala ndi moyo wathanzi, mabanja abwino, komanso zinthu zimawayendera. Mulungu amafuna kuti Baibulo lizipezeka mosavuta komanso kuti limasuliridwe m’zilankhulo zambiri. Zimenezi zingachititse kuti tizimukonda komanso kumutumikira kuti tidzapeze moyo wosatha, zomwe tonsefe timalakalaka.

Nthawi ina Yesu akupemphera kwa Atate ake akumwamba, anati: “Mawu anu ndiwo choonadi.” (Yohane 17:17) Mawu a Mulungu amene Yesu ankawerenga ndi kuphunzitsa amathandiza anthu a mitima yabwino kupeza mayankho a mafunso amene amakhala nawo.

Tikukupemphani kuti muphunzire zambiri zokhudza Baibulo, lomwe ndi uthenga wochokera kwa Mulungu. A Mboni za Yehova, omwe amafalitsa magazini ino, akhoza kukuthandizani kuti mudziwe zambiri zokhudza Baibulo. *

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Zikuoneka kuti maganizo amenewa anawayambitsa ndi bishopu Isidore wa ku Seville, ku Spain (yemwe anabadwa mu 560 n’kumwalira mu 636 C.E.). Bishopuyu ananena kuti: “Pali zilankhulo zitatu zopatulika izi: Chiheberi, Chigiriki, ndi Chilatini. Ndipo zilankhulo zimenezi n’zapamwamba kuposa zilankhulo zonse padzikoli, chifukwa mlandu wa Ambuye unalembedwa pamtanda ndi Pilato m’zilankhulo zitatu zimenezi.” Koma mfundo imeneyi si yomveka chifukwa si Mulungu amene analamula kuti mlanduwo ulembedwe m’zilankhulo zimenezi.

^ ndime 28 Mungathe kuwalembera kalata pogwiritsa ntchito adiresi yoyenera pa maadiresi amene ali patsamba 5 m’magazini ino, kapena ngati muli ndi Intaneti mungapite pa adiresi iyi: www.jw.org.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 6]

Zinali zovuta kwambiri kuti anthu wamba apeze Baibulo, ndipo akuluakulu a tchalitchi ankafuna zoterezi n’cholinga choti akhale ndi mphamvu zambiri pa anthu awo

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 8]

Anthu amene ankalimba mtima n’kukhala ndi Baibulo akagwidwa, ankawawotcha atawamangirira pamtengo kapena ankawalamula kuti akhale m’ndende kwa moyo wawo wonse

[Bokosi patsamba 9]

MAFUNSO AMENE BAIBULO LIMAYANKHA

Mlengi wathu amafuna kuti tidziwe mayankho a mafunso ofunika kwambiri awa:

● Kodi moyo wathu uli ndi cholinga?

● N’chifukwa chiyani anthu akukumana ndi mavuto ambirimbiri?

● Kodi munthu akafa amapita kuti?

● Kodi moyo wathu ukulowera kuti?

Baibulo limayankha mafunso amenewa komanso limapereka malangizo a zimene tingachite kuti tikhale ndi moyo wosangalala.

[Tchati/Chithunzi pamasamba 6, 7]

MMENE BAIBULO LAKHALA LIKUTSUTSIDWIRA

Cha m’ma 636 C.E.

Isidore wa ku Seville ankalimbikitsa maganizo akuti Chiheberi, Chigiriki, ndi Chilatini ndi zilankhulo “zopatulika” ndipo n’zosatheka kuti Buku lopatulika limasuliridwe m’zilankhulo zina

1079

Papa Gregory wa nambala 7 anakana pempho la Vratislaus lakuti azichita mapemphero m’Chisilaviki, ponena kuti Malemba sayenera kuwerengedwa ndi anthu “ochepa nzeru”

1199

Papa Innocent Wachitatu analetsa anthu kumasulira ndi kukambirana nkhani za m’Baibulo. Anthu amene sankamvera lamuloli ankatengedwa kuti ndi oukira ndipo ankazunzidwa ndi kuphedwa

1546

Tchalitchi cha Katolika chinakhazikitsa lamulo lakuti ntchito yomasulira Baibulo izivomerezedwa kaye ndi tchalitchichi

1559

Papa Paulo Wachinayi analetsa anthu kuti asamakhale ndi Baibulo m’zilankhulo zina. Anthu amene ankapezeka ndi Mabaibulo a m’zilankhulo zawo ankawawotchera limodzi ndi Mabaibulo awowo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Pope Gregory VII: © Scala/White Images/Art Resource, NY; Pope Innocent III: © Scala/Art Resource, NY; Council of Trent: © Scala/White Images/Art Resource, NY; Pope Paul IV:© The Print Collector, Great Britain/HIP/Art Resource, NY

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 8]

From Foxe’s Book of Martyrs