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John Foxe Anakhala ndi Moyo pa Nthawi Yovuta Kwambiri

John Foxe Anakhala ndi Moyo pa Nthawi Yovuta Kwambiri

 John Foxe Anakhala ndi Moyo pa Nthawi Yovuta Kwambiri

KODI anthu amaphunzira pa zolakwa zimene anthu ena anachita? Ganizirani funso limeneli pamene tikukambirana nkhani yokhudza John Foxe. Iye anali munthu wa ku England yemwe analemba za nkhanza zosaneneka zimene zinkachitika m’nthawi yake n’cholinga choti anthu atengerepo phunziro.

Zimene John Foxe analemba zinakhudza kwambiri anthu a ku England kwa zaka zambiri. Buku lake, lomwe linamutengera zaka 25 akulilemba, linali ndi mutu wakuti Zinthu Zosaiwalika Zimene Tchalitchi Chinachita (Acts and Monuments of the Church). Ndipo anthu ena amaona kuti kuwonjezera pa Baibulo, bukuli linasintha kwambiri chikhalidwe ndiponso chilankhulo cha anthu a ku England.

Nthawi Yovuta Kwambiri

John Foxe anabadwa m’chaka cha 1516 kapena 1517, ku Boston, m’dziko la England. Panthawi imeneyi m’pamene Martin Luther analemba mfundo 95 zotsutsana ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika n’kukazikhoma pakhomo la tchalitchi cha ku Wittenberg, ku Germany. Choncho, Foxe, yemwe anali wa Katolika anabadwa pa nthawi imene anthu ena anayamba kutsutsa ulamuliro wa tchalitchi cha Katolika komanso ziphunzitso zake.

Foxe anachita maphunziro ake a kuyunivesite ku Oxford ndipo ankaphunzira Chigiriki ndi Chiheberi, zomwe zinamuthandiza kuwerenga Baibulo m’zinenero zake zoyambirira. Kuwerenga Baibulo m’zinenero zimenezi kunamuthandiza kuti azilimvetsa bwino ndipo kenako anayamba kutsutsa ziphunzitso za Chikatolika. Anzake ena ankaganiza kuti iye wayamba Chipulotesitanti moti anakamunenera kwa akuluakulu a payunivesiteyo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, akuluakuluwo ankamulondalonda kuti adziwe chilichonse chimene iye akuchita.

Atamaliza maphunziro ake n’kulandira digiri m’chaka cha 1543, amayembekezereka kukhala wansembe. Koma iye anakana kukhala wansembe chifukwa sankagwirizana ndi zoti ansembe asamakwatire. Kukana kwake kunautsa mapiri pachigwa. Iye ankaganiziridwa kuti akuphunzitsa zinthu zotsutsana ndi tchalitchi, ndipo ngati akanapezeka wolakwa chilango chake chikanakhala kuphedwa. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, m’chaka cha 1545 iye anasiyira panjira maphunziro ake. Kenako Foxe anayamba kuphunzitsa banja linalake lomwe linkakhala pafupi ndi tawuni ya Stratford-upon-Avon, ku Warwickshire. Ndipo ali komweko iye anakwatira mkazi winawake, dzina lake Agnes Randall, yemwe anabadwira m’dera linalake, pafupi malo okhala masisitere a mpingo wa Katolika.

Mkazi wakeyu anamuuza Foxe za nkhani inayake yokhudza mayi wina wamasiye dzina lake Smith (kapena Smythe) wa kudera kumene ankakhala. Mayiyu anaphunzitsa ana ake Malamulo Khumi komanso Pemphero la Ambuye m’Chingelezi m’malo mwa Chilatini. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, mayiyu komanso anthu ena 6 omwe anapezeka ndi mlandu ngati womweyu, anakhomereredwa pamtengo n’kuwotchedwa. Popeza kuti anthu ambiri anakwiya ndi nkhanza zimenezi, bishopu wa m’deralo anayamba kufalitsa nkhani yakuti anthuwo anawotchedwa chifukwa chakuti anapalamula mlandu wodya nyama tsiku Lachisanu ndi masiku ena omwe amafunika kusala kudya.

Kodi anthu amene anaphedwawa anapeza kuti  Baibulo la Chingelezi? Pafupifupi zaka 150 m’mbuyomo, Baibulo linamasuliridwa kuchokera ku Chilatini kupita m’Chingelezi ndi John Wycliffe, ngakhale kuti pa nthawiyi kuchita zimenezi kunali kutsutsana ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika. John Wycliffe ankaphunzitsa komanso kutumiza amishonale m’mayiko ena. Amishonalewa ankawerengera anthu mbali zina za Baibulo zolembedwa pa manja. Kenako Nyumba ya Malamulo inaletsa zimenezi. M’chaka cha 1401, nyumbayi inakhazikitsa lamulo lopatsa mphamvu mabishopu kuti azimanga ndi kuzunza anthu onse otsutsana ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika n’kuwawotcha pamtengo.

Poopa kumangidwa, Foxe pamodzi ndi banja lake anathawira ku London, ndipo patapita nthawi anayamba Chipulotesitanti. Ali kumeneko anamasulira timapepala timene anthu otsutsa Chikatolika a ku Germany analemba komanso timapepala tina ta m’Chilatini kupititsa m’Chingelezi. Iye analembanso timapepala take tingapo.

Foxe anayambanso kulemba buku lofotokoza mbiri ya amishonale a John Wycliffe ku England, lomwe analimaliza m’chaka cha 1554. Bukuli linasindikizidwa ku Strasbourg, m’dziko la France, ndipo linali ndi masamba 212. Bukuli linali ngati gawo loyamba la buku lake, lomwe kenako linadzakhala ndi masamba 750.

Anthu Ambiri Otsutsana ndi Tchalitchi Anaphedwa

Pa nthawi imene anthu ankatsutsa Chikatolika ku Ulaya, anthu ambiri anaphedwa. M’chaka cha 1553, mayi wina dzina lake Mary yemwe ankatsatira kwambiri Chikatolika anaikidwa kukhala mfumukazi ku England. Iye anali munthu wankhanza kwambiri. Popeza kuti kuyambira m’chaka cha 1534 dziko la England linali litasiyiratu kugwirizana ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika ku Rome, mfumukazi Mary inkafunitsitsa kuti tchalitchi cha ku England chikhale pansi pa Papa. Pa zaka zisanu zokha zimene Mary anali mfumukazi ku England, anthu pafupifupi 300, kuphatikizapo atsogoleri achipembedzo, anawotchedwa chifukwa chotsutsana ndi mfundo za mpingo wa Katolika. Ndipo anthu enanso ambiri anafera m’ndende.

Foxe anapulumuka chifukwa Mary atangoikidwa kukhala mfumukazi, iye ndi banja lake anathawira ku Basel, m’dziko la Switzerland. Foxe komanso anthu ena omwe anathawa pa nthawi ya ulamuliro wankhanza wa mfumukazi Mary, anabwerera ku England m’chaka cha 1559. Apa n’kuti patatha  chaka chimodzi kuchokera pamene Elizabeth, yemwe sankagwirizana ndi mfundo za Chikatolika, anaikidwa kukhala mfumukazi ku England. Elizabeth anali mchemwali wake wa Mary. M’chaka chomwechi, Elizabeth anabwezeretsa lamulo lopatsa mphamvu wolamulira wa ku England kuti azitsogoleranso tchalitchi. * Chifukwa cha zimenezi, m’chaka cha 1570 Papa Pius Wachisanu anachotsa mfumukazi Elizabeth mumpingo. Pasanapite nthawi, ziwembu zofuna kulanda dziko la England kuphatikizapo kupha mfumukazi Elizabeth zinaululika. Zotsatira zake zinali zakuti anthu ambirimbiri a Katolika anapezedwa ndi milandu youkira boma ndipo Elizabeth analamula kuti anthuwo aphedwe.

Kodi zimene tchalitchi cha Katolika ndi matchalitchi achipulotesitanti akhala akuchita n’zogwirizana ndi zimene Yesu Khristu ankaphunzitsa? Ayi, chifukwa Yesu ankaphunzitsa kuti: “Pitirizani kukonda adani anu ndi kupempherera amene akukuzunzani.” (Mateyu 5:44) Chifukwa chakuti matchalitchi onsewa sanatsatire lamulo lomveka bwino limeneli, ananyozetsa kwambiri Chikhristu. Ndipo Baibulo linalosera zimenezi kuti: “Anthu adzalankhula monyoza njira ya choonadi.”—2 Petulo 2:1, 2.

Foxe Anamaliza Kulemba Buku Lake

Atabwerera ku England, Foxe anayamba kulemba buku lalikulu, lofotokoza zinthu zimene anthu ena amene anawerenga buku lake loyamba, anaona zikuchitika. Mu 1563 anatulutsa buku lake loyamba m’Chingelezi. Bukuli linali la masamba 1,800 ndipo linali ndi zithunzi zambiri. Bukuli litangotuluka linkayenda malonda kwambiri.

Iye anatulutsa buku lake lachiwiri patapita zaka zina 7. Buku limeneli linali lamasamba 2,300 komanso linali ndi zithunzi zokwana 153. Chaka chotsatira, tchalitchi cha ku England chinalamula kuti kuwonjezera pa Baibulo, buku la Foxe lizipezeka m’matchalitchi akuluakulu onse a Katolika komanso m’nyumba za akuluakulu a tchalitchichi n’cholinga choti antchito awo komanso alendo azitha kuliwerenga. Pasanapite nthawi yaitali bukuli linkapezekanso ngakhale m’mapalishi. Popeza kuti bukuli linkakhala ndi zithunzi linkathandizanso anthu omwe sankatha kuwerenga.

Pa nthawiyi, Foxe anali atalowa m’gulu linalake la anthu achipulotesitanti amene ankaona kuti kungochoka m’tchalitchi cha Katolika si kokwanira koma afunikiranso kusiya chilichonse chokhudzana ndi tchalitchichi. Maganizo amenewa anachititsa kuti Foxe asemphane maganizo ndi tchalitchi cha Pulotesitanti. Izi zinali choncho chifukwa chakuti tchalitchi cha Pulotesitanti ku England chinkatsatirabe miyambo ndi zikhulupiriro zina za Chikatolika.

Chifukwa chakuti John Foxe anaulula zinthu zambiri zankhanza zimene matchalitchi onsewa ankachita m’nthawi yake, zimene analembazo zinasintha maganizo a anthu pa nkhani ya ndale komanso chipembedzo ku England kwa zaka zambiri.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 14 Buku lina lolembedwa ndi D. H. Montgomery, linanena kuti m’chaka cha 1534, Nyumba ya Malamulo inavomereza kuti “mfumu Henry akhale mtsogoleri wa tchalitchi ku England, komanso munthu aliyense wotsutsana ndi zimenezi aziimbidwa mlandu woukira boma. Mfumuyi itangosaina lamuloli, ulamuliro wa apapa womwe unkayendetsa tchalitchi cha ku England kwa zaka zambiri unatha ntchito ndipo tchalitchi cha ku England chinakhala chodziimira pachokha.”

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 28]

BUKU LA FOXE LA ANTHU OFERA CHIKHULUPIRIRO

Pamene tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkalimbana ndi anthu otsutsana nacho, anthu olemba mabuku, monga Jean Crespin, analemba za anthu amene anazunzidwa komanso kuphedwa ndi akuluakulu a tchalitchichi, lomwe linkadziwika kuti “Buku la Jean Crespin la Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro.” * N’chifukwa chake buku limene Foxe analemba, patapita nthawi linayambanso kudziwika ndi dzina lakuti “Buku la Foxe la Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro.” Pamene bukuli linalembedwanso ndi kuwonjezeredwa, linkadziwikabe ndi dzina latsopanoli.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 25 Onani nkhani yakuti “Buku la Jean Crespin la Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro,” mu Galamukani! ya March 2011.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Classic Vision/​age fotostock

[Chithunzi patsamba 27]

John Wycliffe ankatumiza amishonale ake m’mayiko ena

[Mawu a Chithunzi 27]

Lollards: From The book The Church of England: A History for the People, 1905, Vol. II

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 26]

From the book Foxe’s Book of Martyrs