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Mbiri ya Anthu a Mtundu wa Chitata

Mbiri ya Anthu a Mtundu wa Chitata

 Mbiri ya Anthu a Mtundu wa Chitata

KUYAMBIRA ndili mwana ndakhala ndikumva mawu akuti, “Mukumbeni munthu wa ku Russia, ndipo mupeza kuti ndi wa mtundu wa Chitata.” Ineyo poyamba ndinkangoona kuti ndine wa ku Russia basi, koma ndadziwa posachedwapa kuti bambo awo a bambo anga anali a mtundu wa Chitata. * Ndikauza anzanga zimenezi, iwonso amandiuza kuti makolo awo ena anali a Chitata.

Posachedwapa ndadziwa zambiri za anthu ena otchuka a mtundu wa Chitata omwe anali akatswiri pa nkhani ya zinthu zojambulajambula, masewera ndi zinthu zina zotero. Mwachitsanzo, ndadziwa zoti katswiri wotchuka pa nkhani zovina, Rudolf Nureyev, anabadwira m’banja la Chitata ku Russia komanso kuti ku Soviet Union kunali anthu a mtundu wa Chitata okwana 7 miliyoni. Ndikufuna ndikuuzeni zambiri zokhudza anthu a mtundu wa Chitata.

Kale Lawo

Mbiri ya anthu a Chitata ndi yogwirizana kwambiri ndi mbiri ya anthu a ku Mongolia komanso a ku Turkey. M’zaka za m’ma 1200, anthu a mtundu wa Chitata anamenya nawo nkhondo motsogoleredwa ndi mfumu ya ku Mongolia, dzina lake Genghis Khan. * Ufumu wake unali waukulu kwambiri ndipo kukula kwake tingakuyerekezere ndi dziko lakale la Soviet Union. M’chaka cha 1236, asilikali ake pafupifupi 150,000 anapita ku Ulaya, kumadzulo kwa mapiri a Ural. Atafika kumeneko anayamba ndi kugonjetsa mizinda ya ku Russia, yomwe inali cha ku Ulaya.

Pasanapite nthawi yaitali asilikaliwo analanda dziko lonse la Russia, ndipo dzikolo linayamba kulamulidwa ndi anthu a ku Mongolia komanso Turkey. Likulu lawo linali Sarai Batu, ndipo linali kumunsi kwa mtsinje wa Volga. Ufumu umenewu unali waukulu kwambiri ndipo unatenga mbali ina ya dziko la Siberia komanso mapiri a Ural ndipo unakafika mpaka ku mapiri a ku Ukraine ndi ku Georgia. Ufumu watsopanowu unalamula kuti mizinda ya ku Russia izilipira msonkho. M’zaka za m’ma 1400, mizinda imeneyi inayamba kugawikana n’kukhala zigawo za Crimea, Astrakhan, ndi Kazan’.

Dziko la Tatarstan

Dziko la Tatarstan limapezeka kum’mwera kwa mzinda wa Moscow, womwe ndi likulu la dziko la Russia. Panopa m’dzikoli muli anthu a mitundu yosiyanasiyana pafupifupi 4 miliyoni. Dziko la Tatarstan linatenga dera lalikulu pafupifupi mahekitala 6.8 miliyoni ndipo ambiri amati ndi limodzi mwa “mayiko olemera kwambiri a ku Russia.” Dziko la Tatarstan ndi limene limapanga mafuta ndiponso gasi wambiri kuposa mayiko ena onse a ku Russia. Lili ndi mafakitale opanga ndege ndi magalimoto komanso lili ndi mabwalo a ndege angapo.

Mzinda wa Kazan’ ndiye likulu la dziko la Tatarstan. Mzindawu uli ndi anthu pafupifupi 1 miliyoni ndipo uli pafupi ndi malo amene mtsinje wa Volga ndi wa Kazanka umakumana. Mzinda wa Kazan’ ndi wotukuka kwambiri ndipo ndi umodzi wa mizinda ya ku Russia imene ili ndi misewu ya pansi pa nthaka yokongola kwambiri. * Malo alionse okwerera sitima anawakongoletsa mosiyana ndi malo ena. Ena  anamangidwa mwamakono pamene ena anamangidwa mwachikalekale. Mwachitsanzo malo ena anakongoletsedwa ndi zithunzi zokwana 22 zokongola kwambiri zosonyeza chikhalidwe cha anthu a mtundu wa Chitata.

Yunivesite ya Kazan inamangidwa m’chaka cha 1804 ndi mfumu ya ku Russia, dzina lake Alexander Woyamba. Yunivesiteyi ili ndi laibulale yaikulu kwambiri. Yunivesite ya Kazan ndi yoyamba kumangidwa ku Tatarstan konse, ndipo ndi yotchuka kwambiri pa nkhani ya maphunziro komanso chikhalidwe. Laibulale yake ili ndi mabuku okwana 5 miliyoni ndipo 30,000 pa mabuku amenewa ndi mipukutu yakale kwambiri yolembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 800 C.E.

Ambiri amasangalala kuyenda mumsewu wa Bauman womwe unadutsa mkatikati mwa mzindawu. M’mphepete mwa msewuwu muli masitolo ndi malo odyera ambirimbiri okongola kwambiri. Posachedwapa ine ndi mkazi wanga titapita mumzindawu, tinasangalala kwambiri kuyenda mumsewu umenewu komanso kukwera bwato mumtsinje wa Volga.

Chinthu china chochititsa chidwi chimene tinaona ku Kazan’ ndi tawuni yakale yotchedwa kremlin, yomwe ili ndi nyumba zomangidwa m’zaka za m’ma 1500. Nyumbazi zinazunguliridwa ndi mpanda wa miyala ndipo ndi zokhazi zimene zidakalipobe pa nyumba zonse zakale kwambiri zomangidwa ndi anthu a mtundu wa Chitata ku Russia. Zina mwa nyumba zimenezi ndi nsanja ya Syuyumbeki, nyumba zaboma, mzikiti, ndi tchalitchi cha Orthodox.

M’chaka cha 2000, nyumba zakale zimenezi zinaikidwa m’gulu la zinthu zochititsa chidwi kwambiri padziko lonse ndi bungwe la UNESCO. Nyumba zimenezi zimaoneka zokongola kwambiri usiku chifukwa chakuti zinayandikana ndi mtsinje. Kuwala kwa magetsi a nyumbazi kukaphatikizana ndi kuwala kwa madzi a mumtsinjewo zimapangitsa kuti malowa azioneka mochititsa chidwi.

Zilankhulo Zawo

Anthu ena amanena kuti ku Russia kuli anthu pafupifupi 5.5 miliyoni a mtundu wa Chitata. Komabe poti dzikoli ndi lalikulu sizikudziwika bwinobwino kuti anthuwa alipo angati.

Chilankhulo cha Chitata chili m’gulu la zilankhulo za ku Turkey, zomwe zimaphatikizapo zinenero za Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Nogai, Turkish, Turkoman, Tuvinian, Uzbek, ndi Yakut. Zina mwa zilankhulo zimenezi ndi zofanana kwambiri, moti anthu ake amatha kumvana.

 Anthu olankhula zinenero zimenezi alipo mamiliyoni ambiri padziko lonse. Koma m’mizinda ya ku Tatarstan anthu amakonda kulankhulana m’Chitata ndi Chirasha. Mabuku, manyuzipepala, TV, ndi mawailesi amagwiritsanso ntchito zinenero ziwiri zimenezi. Anthu ochita zisudzo a ku Tatarstan amapanga zisudzo zokhudza mbiri, nthano ndi chikhalidwe chawo m’chilankhulo cha Chitata.

Munthu ukamayenda m’misewu, umaona masitolo ndi zikwangwani zitalembedwa m’zinenero za Chitata ndi Chirasha. Ngakhale chinenero cha Chirasha chili ndi mawu ena ochokera ku Chitata. Pa nthawi imene ndale zinkasintha ku Soviet Union, chinenero cha Chitata anachisintha. Kuyambira m’chaka cha 1928, anasiya kugwiritsa ntchito afabeti ya Chiarabu n’kuyamba kugwiritsa ntchito afabeti ya Chilatini. Koma kuyambira m’chaka cha 1939, chinenero cha Chitata chinayamba kugwiritsa ntchito afabeti ya mtundu wina yofanana ndi imene imagwiritsidwa ntchito m’chinenero cha Chirasha, yotchedwa Cyril.

Chikhalidwe Chawo

Kale, anthu a mtundu wa Chitata anali osaka nyama komanso ankakonda kuweta ziweto. Mpaka pano anthuwa amakonda kudya nyama. Mtundu umodzi wa chakudya chimene anthuwa amachikonda kwambiri chimatchedwa belesh. M’chakudyachi amaikamo zinthu monga mbatata, nyama, anyezi ndi tokometsera tina ndi tina. Chakudyachi amachiphika kwa maola pafupifupi awiri ndipo chikapsa amapita nacho patebulo n’kuchiduladula chikadali chotentha. Kenako amayamba kudya.

Mwina chikondwerero chakale komanso chotchuka kwambiri pa zikondwerero zawo zonse ndi chimene chimatchedwa  Sabantui. Chikondwerero chimenechi chinayamba ndi anthu achikunja. Kalelo pa chikondwererochi, anthu ankapemphera komanso kupereka nsembe kwa mulungu wawo wa dzuwa ndi kwa mizimu ya makolo. Ankakhulupirira kuti nsembe zimenezi zimathandiza kuti anthu a mtundu wawo asamafe chisawawa, ziweto zawo zizichulukana kwambiri, komanso kuti azikolola zakudya zambiri.

Anthu a mtundu wa Chitata amakonda kwambiri mahatchi. Iwo akhala akuweta mahatchi kuyambira nthawi imene ankakhala moyo woyendayenda ndipo amawaona kuti ndi ofunika kwambiri pa chikhalidwe chawo. Mumzinda wa Kazan’ muli malo ochitira mipikisano ya mahatchi, omwe ndi amodzi a malo abwino kwambiri padziko lonse. Malowa ali ndi makola 12 ndi chipatala chimodzi cha mahatchi. Alinso ndi damu loti mahatchi azisambiramo.

Tsogolo la Anthu a ku Tatarstan

Buku la Koran limati: “Ndithudi Ife tidalemba m’Buku la Masalimo, titalemba mu Buku limene liri ndi Mulungu kuti akapolo anga ochita ntchito zabwino adzakhala m’dziko ili.” (Sura 21, Al-Anbiya [Aneneri], vesi 105). Mawu amenewa ayenera kuti anatengedwa m’masalimo a Davide, omwe analembedwa m’Baibulo zaka 1,500 buku la Koran lisanalembedwe. Lemba la Salimo 37:29 limati: “Olungama adzalandira dziko lapansi, ndipo adzakhala mmenemo kwamuyaya.”

Kodi anthu osangalala komanso olungama amenewa, adzachokera mu mtundu uti wa anthu? Ulosi wa mu Injil (zolemba za m’Chipangano Chatsopano) umati: “Ndinaona khamu lalikulu la anthu, limene palibe munthu aliyense amene anatha kuliwerenga, lochokera m’dziko lililonse, fuko lililonse, mtundu uliwonse, ndi chinenero chilichonse.” (Chivumbulutso 7:9) Zidzakhala zosangalatsa kwambiri kuti kutsogoloku anthu a mitundu yosiyanasiyana adzakhala mogwirizana padziko lapansi. *

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 2 Mtundu wa Chitata ndi gulu lalikulu kwambiri pa mitundu yonse ya anthu ochokera ku Turkey omwe amakhala ku Russia.

^ ndime 5 Onani nkhani yakuti “Mtundu wa Anthu Umene Unatenga Malo ku Asia,” mu Galamukani! ya May 2008.

^ ndime 9 Mizinda inanso ya ku Russia imene ili ndi misewu ya pansi pa nthaka ndi Yekaterinburg, Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg, ndi Samara.

^ ndime 25 Ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zokhudza zimene Mulungu akufuna kudzachita m’tsogolo, onani kabuku kakuti Chilangizo Cha Mulungu Ndicho Njira Yathu ya ku Paradaiso, lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

[Bokosi patsamba 25]

DZINA LA MULUNGU M’CHILANKHULO CHA CHITATA

Buku lina lolembedwa ndi munthu wa mtundu wa Chitata, dzina lake M. Khuzhayev, limanena kuti Adamu analengedwa ndi Yakhve Allah, kapena kuti Yehova Mulungu. (Dinnər Tarixb) Komanso Baibulo la Chitata, lokhala ndi mabuku asanu a m’Baibulo oyambirira omwe amadziwikanso kuti Pentatuke, pa Genesis 2:4 lili ndi mawu a m’munsi akuti: “N’kutheka kuti m’Chiheberi dzina la Mulungu linkatchulidwa kuti Yahveh.”

[Bokosi patsamba 26]

Mboni Za Yehova Ku Tatarstan

Mboni za Yehova ku Russia zimaphunzitsa anthu kulemba ndi kuwerenga chilankhulo cha Chitata. Mbonizi zimafunitsitsa kuti anthuwa amve uthenga wabwino wa Ufumu wa Mulungu. Mayi wina ku Tatarstan ananena kuti: “Ndimaona kuti ndi chinthu chapadera kuphunzira za Mulungu m’chilankhulo changa moti nthawi zina ndimagwetsa misozi chifukwa cha chisangalalo.”

Mu 1973, anthu ochepa a Mboni za Yehova anayamba kukhala ndi misonkhano yophunzira Baibulo m’chilankhulo cha Chitata. Mu 1990, Mboni za Yehova zinayamba kutulutsa mabuku ophunzitsa Baibulo m’chinenero cha Chitata. * M’chaka cha 2003, mpingo woyamba wa Mboni za Yehova wa anthu olankhula chinenero cha Chitata unakhazikitsidwa ku Naberezhnye Chelny, m’dziko la Tatarstan. Masiku ano, ku Russia kuli mipingo 8 yolankhula Chitata komanso magulu 20 omwe pakali pano sanakhale mipingo.

Anthu a kumadera osiyanasiyana monga ku Astrakhan, ku chigawo cha Volga, ku mapiri a Ural, kumadzulo kwa dziko la Siberia, ndi a kumadera a kumpoto kwa dziko la Russia, anakhala ndi msonkhano wawo woyamba wa m’chinenero cha Chitata m’chaka cha 2008. Panopa ku Tatarstan kuli mipingo ndi magulu 36 a zinenero za Chitata, Chirasha komanso chinenero chamanja cha ku Russia, ndipo anthu onse amene amagwira ntchito yothandiza anthu kudziwa Mulungu woona ku Tatarstan alipo oposa 2,300.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 37 Bungwe la Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society latulutsa Mabaibulo komanso mabuku ofotokoza Baibulo m’zilankhulo zoposa 560.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 27]

KATSWIRI WONYAMULA ZITSULO ANAYAMBA NTCHITO YOPHUNZITSA ANTHU BAIBULO

Pyotr Markov anabadwa m’chaka cha 1948 m’mudzi winawake ku Tatarstan. Kwa zaka 30, iye ankatchuka kwambiri kwawoko ndi ukatswiri wonyamula zitsulo ndi masewera ogwetsana pansi. Nthawi ina iye ananyamula chitsulo cholemera makilogalamu 32 n’kumachikweza m’mwamba maulendo okwana 130. Koma panopa iye ndi wa Mboni za Yehova ndipo amadziwika kwambiri ndi ntchito yake yothandiza anthu kudziwa Mulungu woona m’chinenero cha Chitata ndi Chirasha. Iye amawapatsanso malangizo a mmene angathetsere mavuto awo.

Iye amachita zimenezi potsanzira Mlengi wathu, yemwe amatisamalira kwambiri. Ponena za Mlengi ameneyu, lemba Yesaya 40:11, limati: “Adzaweta gulu lake lankhosa ngati m’busa. Adzasonkhanitsa pamodzi ana a nkhosa ndi dzanja lake, ndipo adzawanyamulira pachifuwa pake. Nkhosa zoyamwitsa adzayenda nazo mosamala.”

[Chithunzi]

Panopa Pyotr amaphunzitsa anthu Baibulo

[Mapu patsamba 24]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

RUSSIA

MAPIRI A URAL

MOSCOW

St. Petersburg

TATARSTAN

Kazan’

Mtsinje wa Volga

[Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Nyumba za zakale za mumzinda wa Kazan’, pafupi ndi mtsinje wa Kazanka

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Michel Setboun/CORBIS

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Chakudya chimene anthu a mtundu wa Chitata amachikonda kwambiri, chotchedwa “belesh”