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Buku Lachiweruzo

Buku Lachiweruzo

 Buku Lachiweruzo

William, yemwe anali wolamulira wa chigawo cha Normandy, ku France, analanda dziko la England m’chaka cha 1066. Patatha zaka 19, William analamula kuti pachitike kalembera wofufuza zinthu zosiyanasiyana m’dera lonse limene iye analanda. Zotsatira za kalemberayo zinaikidwa m’buku limene linayamba kudziwika ndi dzina lakuti Buku Lachiweruzo. Bukuli panopa ndi limodzi mwa mabuku ofunika kwambiri pa mbiri yokhudza dziko la England. N’chifukwa chiyani?

WILLIAM anafika mumzinda wa Hastings ku England, mu September chaka cha 1066. Pa October 14 m’chaka chomwecho, anagonjetsa asilikali a Mfumu Harold ndipo mfumuyo inaphedwa. Pa tsiku la Khirisimasi chaka cha 1066, William, yemwe anayamba kudziwika kuti Ngwazi, anavekedwa ufumu ku London pamalo otchuka otchedwa Westminster Abbey. Kodi ulamuliro wake unali wotani?

Sanali Kalembera Wamasewera

Mfumu William Yoyamba inathamangitsa anthu ambirimbiri m’madera akumpoto kwa England. Mphunzitsi wina wa pa yunivesite ya Oxford, dzina lake Trevor Rowley, ananena kuti: “Ngakhale kuti nthawi imeneyo kunkachitika zinthu zankhanza, nkhanza zimene [William] anachita (m’chaka cha 1068 mpaka 1070) zinali zoopsa kwambiri.” William atalanda maderawa kunkachitika zipolowe zambiri ndipo zinali zovuta kuti asilikali ake okwana 10,000 asungitse mtendere m’maderawa, momwe munali anthu pafupifupi 2 miliyoni. Patapita nthawi, nzika za ku Normandy zinamanga nyumba zokhala ndi mipanda zopitirira 500 kuzungulira dziko lonselo. Nyumba yotchuka kwambiri pa nyumbazi ndi Nsanja ya ku London.

Mu December chaka cha 1085, William anatha masiku asanu ali ndi nduna zake mumzinda wa Gloucester, ku England, akukambirana zoti achite pa kalembera wokhudza dziko lonselo, kupatulapo mzinda wa London ndi Winchester. Apa n’kuti patapita zaka 19 kuchokera pamene analanda dzikolo. Chakumayambiriro kwa chaka chotsatira, anatumiza nthumwi m’zigawo 7 za dzikolo kuti zikafunse mafunso olamulira a zigawozo n’cholinga choti adziwe chuma chimene dzikolo lili nacho.

Mfumuyi inkafunika kupeza ndalama zolipirira asilikali ake amene ankasungitsa chitetezo m’dzikolo. Ankafunikanso kuthetsa mikangano yokhudza malo. Kuchita zimenezi kukanathandiza kuti anthu ochokera ku Normandy ndi kumadera ena a ku France athe kupeza malo okhala ku England, ndipo zimenezi zikanachititsa kuti ufumu wake ukhale wamphamvu.

“Tsiku Lachiweruzo”

Atangogonjetsa dziko la England, William analanda malo a anthu olemera a m’dzikolo n’kuwapereka kwa anthu ovutika a ku Normandy. William atachita kafukufuku, anapeza kuti theka la chuma chonse cha dzikolo linali m’manja mwa anthu osapitirira 200 ndipo pa anthuwa, awiri okha anali nzika za ku England. Nzika 6,000 za ku England zinalandidwa malo awo ndipo ambiri mwa anthuwa ankachita lendi malo awo omwe. Ndiyeno panali anthu  ena osauka amene analibiretu malo okhala, omwe ankavutika kwambiri.

Kalemberayu anachititsa kuti anthu a ku Normandy apatsidwe ufulu wokhala ndi malo awoawo ku England. Anachititsanso kuti msonkho wolipirira malo olima, malo okhala ndi wa malo ena onse, uunikidwenso. Pa kalemberayu anawerenganso ziweto zonse monga ng’ombe zokoka ngolo, ng’ombe zazikazi komanso nkhumba. Kalembera ameneyu anakhumudwitsa kwambiri anthu a ku England chifukwa ankadziwa kuti kulibe kulikonse kumene angakadandaule. Iwo ankanena kuti kalembera ameneyu ali ngati “Tsiku Lachiweruzo.” N’chifukwa chake patapita zaka zingapo, buku la kalemberayu linayamba kutchedwa kuti Buku Lachiweruzo.

Buku Lachiweruzo linalembedwa pazikopa m’chinenero cha Chilatini ndipo linapangidwa ndi mabuku awiri. Buku loyamba ndi lamasamba 413 aakulu, pamene lachiwiri ndi lamasamba 475 ang’onoang’ono. * Pamene William ankamwalira m’chaka cha 1087 n’kuti Buku Lachiweruzo lisanamalizidwe kulembedwa. Koma kodi zinatheka bwanji kuchita kalembera wotere m’chaka chimodzi chokha?

Chimene chinawathandiza n’chakuti, anthu a ku Normandy anapitiriza zimene olamulira a ku England ankachita zokhala ndi mayina a eni malo, anthu ochita lendi, komanso zokhala ndi kaundula wokhudza misonkho ndi zinthu zina zaboma. Pogwiritsa ntchito njira imeneyi, anthu a ku Normandy anatumiza anthu m’zigawo zosiyanasiyana kuti akafufuze nkhani zokhudza kaperekedwe ka misonkho.

Kumene Mungapeze Bukuli Masiku Ano

Kuyambira m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500, Buku Lachiweruzo linkapezeka ndi anthu ochokera ku banja lachifumu lokha. Poyamba, bukuli linkagwiritsidwa ntchito poweruza milandu yokhudza malo basi, koma m’zaka za m’ma 1700, loya wina wotchuka wa ku England, dzina lake Sir William Blackstone, analigwiritsa ntchito koyamba pofuna kudziwa anthu amene anali ndi ufulu wovota. Bukuli lakhala likusungidwa m’malo osiyanasiyana koma panopa limapezeka kumalo a boma osungira zinthu zakale ku United Kingdom.

M’chaka cha 1986, pokondwerera kuti bukuli latha zaka 900, linagawidwa n’kukhala mabuku asanu. Pofuna kuthandiza akatswiri olemba mbiri yakale komanso anthu ena ophunzira, bukuli linamasuliridwanso m’chingelezi chamakono. Bungwe loulutsa mawu la BBC linanena kuti bukuli ndi “chinthu chofunika kwambiri pa zinthu zonse zimene zimapezeka kumalo a boma osungira zinthu zakale ndipo . . . lidakagwiritsidwabe ntchito pa milandu yokhudza malo.” Mwachitsanzo, m’chaka cha 1958, bukuli linagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna kuona ngati anthu a m’tawuni inayake yakale kwambiri anali ndi ufulu wokhala ndi msika wawowawo.

Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale amagwiritsirabe ntchito bukuli kuti adziwe malo amene anthu a ku England ndi a ku Normandy ankakhala m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka 1500. Mpaka pano, bukuli limathandiza anthu kudziwa mbiri ya dziko la England.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 11 Buku Lachiweruzo loyamba linali ndi mayina olembedwa mwachidule a zinthu zoyenera kulipirira msonkho, pomwe lachiwiri linalemba zinthuzo mwatsatanetsatane, popanda kudula mayina.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 23]

NKHONDO YA WILLIAM

William atayamba kumenya nkhondo, anapempha papa kuti alamule kuti nkhondo yake ikhale m’gulu la nkhondo zomenyera ufulu wachipembedzo, ndipo anamuuza papayo kuti zimenezi zikatheka, akhala ndi mphamvu zowonjezereka zoyendetsa mpingo wa ku England. Papa anavomera mosavuta. Pulofesa David C. Douglas analemba kuti William “anasonyeza ukathyali kwambiri ndi zimene anachitazi.” Katswiri winanso wa mbiri yakale, dzina lake George M. Trevelyan, analemba kuti: “Thandizo limene anapatsidwa ndi papa linachititsa kuti William amenye nkhondo yomwe cholinga chake chinali kubera anthu, osati kumenyera ufulu wachipembedzo.”

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© The Bridgeman Art Library

[Mapu patsamba 22]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

ENGLAND

LONDON

Hastings

Nyanja ya English Channel

NORMANDY

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 22]

Book: Mary Evans/The National Archives, London, England