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Maulendo a Ibn Battuta

Maulendo a Ibn Battuta

 Maulendo a Ibn Battuta

M’CHAKA cha 1325, mnyamata wina anachoka kwawo ku Tangier, m’dziko la Morocco, n’kuyamba ulendo wake woyamba pa maulendo ake amene anakamufikitsa m’mayiko monga China, India, Indonesia, Mali, Persia, Russia, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, ndi m’mayiko onse a Aluya. Dzina la mnyamatayu linali Abu Abdallah ibn Battuta. Mtunda wonse umene iye anayenda unakwana makilomita 120,700 ndipo iye anali munthu woyamba kuyenda ulendo wautali chonchi.

Ibn Battuta amadziwika kuti ndi Msilamu amene anayenda kwambiri, ndipo ngakhale masiku ano amatengedwa kuti ndi munthu wa m’nthawi yamakedzana amene anayenda kwambiri. Nkhani zokhudza ulendo wake, zimene zinalembedwa atabwerera kwawo pambuyo pa zaka 30, zimafotokoza zambiri zokhudza moyo ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu m’zaka za m’ma 1300, makamaka m’mayiko achisilamu.

Ulendo wa ku Mecca

Ibn Battuta anachoka ku Tangier n’cholinga choti akaone malo opatulika osiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo mzinda wa Mecca, womwe Msilamu aliyense amene ali ndi ndalama komanso thanzi labwino amafunika kupitako. Ulendo wochoka ku Tangier kupita ku Mecca unali wa makilomita 4,800, kulowera kum’mawa. Mofanana ndi anthu ambiri amene anapita ku Mecca, Ibn Battuta anayenda ndi gulu la anthu.

Ibn Battuta anachita maphunziro oweruza milandu chifukwa bambo ake ankagwira ntchito yoweruza milandu kukhoti. Nthawi imeneyo, maphunziro amenewa anali apamwamba kwambiri ku Tangier konse. Anzake amene anayenda nawo atadziwa zimenezi, anamusankha kuti aziweruza milandu ya anthu amene ayambana m’njira.

Anakafika ku Alexandria, Cairo, ndi Kumtsinje wa Nile

Iye pamodzi ndi anthu amene anali nawo anayenda motsatira gombe la kumpoto kwa Africa kuchoka ku Morocco kukafika ku Egypt. Atafika ku Egypt, Ibn Battuta anaona nsanja yotchuka ya ku Alexandria, yomwe ndi chimodzi mwa zinthu zochititsa chidwi za nthawi yamakedzana. Pa nthawiyi n’kuti nsanjayo itayamba kuwonongeka. Pofotokoza za mzinda wa Cairo, iye ananena kuti unali ndi nyumba zazikulu zambirimbiri zokongola mogometsa. Ndipo anthu ochokera m’mayiko osiyanasiyana anali pikitipikiti mumzindamo. Iye anachita chidwi kwambiri ndi zinthu zambiri za kumeneko monga mabwato, minda, masitolo, nyumba zopemphereramo ndiponso chikhalidwe cha anthu a mumzinda wotchuka umenewu. Nthawi zambiri iye akapita ku dziko lina ankadziwana ndi anthu otchuka n’cholinga choti azimuthandiza pa zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Ndipo ali ku Egypt anadziwana ndi azibusa, akatswiri a maphunziro ndi anthu ena otchuka.

Atachoka mumzinda wa Cairo, anayenda ndi mtsinje wa Nile kulowera kumpoto kwa Egypt. M’njira monsemo, ankalandiridwa bwino m’nyumba za abusa, ansembe, komanso m’masukulu ndi m’makoleji, omwe anali ofala kwambiri m’mizinda  yachisilamu. Cholinga chake chinali chakuti adutse m’chipululu cha Arabia, kukawoloka Nyanja Yofiira mpaka kukafika kumadzulo kwa Arabia, ndipo kenako kukafika ku Medina ndi ku Mecca. Ku Medina n’kumene kunali mzikiti wa mneneri Muhammad. Koma iye sanakafike, anabwerera ku Cairo chifukwa cha nkhondo.

Anatengeka ndi Zinthu Zina

Popeza kuti Ibn Battuta ankafunitsitsa kukafika ku Medina ndi ku Mecca, anayamba ulendo wolowera kumpoto n’kukafika ku Gaza ndi ku Hebron, ndipo kenako anakafika pamalo amene anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti m’pamene pali manda a Abulahamu, Isaki ndi Yakobo. Akupita kumzikiti wa ku Yerusalemu, anaima ku Betelehemu ndipo ali kumeneko anaona anthu amene ankati ndi Akhristu akuchita mwambo wolemekeza malo amene Yesu anabadwira.

Kenako Ibn Battuta analowera kumpoto n’kukafika ku Damasiko, kumene anaphunzitsidwa ndi aphunzitsi otchuka achisilamu ndipo atamaliza maphunzirowo anapatsidwa zikalata zomuvomereza kukhala mphunzitsi. Iye ananena kuti mzikiti wa Umayyad, womwe anauona mumzindawu, unali “waukulu komanso wokongola kwambiri” padziko lonse lapansi. M’misika ya mumzindawu munkagulitsidwa zinthu zosiyanasiyana zopangidwa ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali, ndiponso nsalu, mabuku ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana zagalasi. Munalinso malo omangitsira ukwati omwe ankakhala ndi “munthu mmodzi womangitsa ukwati yemwe ankavomerezedwa ndi woweruza, komanso anthu 5 kapena 6 ochitira umboni.” Ndipotu ali ku Damasiko Ibn Battuta anakwatira. Koma mofanana ndi akazi ake ena, mkazi ameneyu anangotchulidwa pang’ono chabe m’mabuku ofotokoza za moyo wake.

Kuchokera ku Damasiko, Ibn Battuta anatengananso ndi anthu ena omwe ankapita ku Mecca. Ali m’njira, gulu lake linaima pachitsime chinachake pomwe anthu ankapanga mathanki osungira madzi kuchokera ku zikopa za njati. Iwo anamwetsa madzi ngamila zawo pamalo amenewa ndiponso anatunga madzi ena oti azimwa m’njira. Kenako anafika ku Mecca. Uwu unali ulendo woyamba pa maulendo ake 7 a ku Mecca. Anthu ambiri akamaliza zimene apitira ku Mecca, ankabwerera kwawo. Koma Ibn Battuta sanabwerere. Munthu wina wolemba mbiri ya Battuta, anafotokoza kuti iye atachoka kumeneko anapita ku Baghdad “n’cholinga chokangoonako.”

Anayamba Maulendo Ataliatali

Ali ku Baghdad, komwe pa nthawiyo kunali kuchimake kwa Chisilamu, Ibn Battuta anachita chidwi kwambiri ndi malo osambira amene anawaona kumeneko. Iye anati: “Malo alionse anali ndi mabafa ambirimbiri osambira. Ndipo kukona kwa bafa iliyonse kunali sinki yokhala ndi mipopi iwiri, wina wa madzi otentha, wina wa madzi ozizira.” Iye anadziwana ndi mkulu winawake wa asilikali amene anamuthandiza kuti akakumane ndi mfumu ya kumeneko, dzina lake Abu Sa’id. Posiyana, mfumuyo inapatsa Ibn Battuta mphatso zamtengo wapatali monga hatchi, mkanjo, ndi kalata yoti apite nayo kwa bwanamkubwa wa mumzinda wa Baghdad, yopempha kuti apatse Ibn Battuta ngamila ndi zinthu zina.

Kenako Ibn Battuta anapita kumadoko a kum’mawa kwa Africa monga ku Mogadishu, Mombasa, ndi Zanzibar ndipo kenako anakafika ku Arabia ndi ku Persian Gulf. Patapita nthawi, Ibn Battuta analemba nkhani yokhudza anthu, chikhalidwe komanso malonda amene anawaona m’njira. Anafotokoza za anthu a ku Somalia omwe anali okonda kuchereza alendo, za ulimi wa kokonati ku Yemen ndi khalidwe la anthu a kumeneko lotafuna mtedza wa betel-nut. Anafotokozanso kuti anaona anthu a ku Persian Gulf akusambira n’kupita pansi pa nyanja kukatola ngale. Kenako Ibn Battuta anayenda ulendo wozungulira kwambiri wopita ku India. Anadutsira ku Egypt, Syria, ndi ku Anatolia (Turkey); kenako n’kuwoloka Nyanja Yakuda; n’kuwolokanso nyanja ya Caspian; ndipo kenako anakafika kumayiko amene masiku ano amadziwika kuti Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, ndi Pakistan. Kenako anafika ku India.

Kuchoka ku India Kupita ku China

Ali ku India, Ibn Battuta analembedwa ntchito yoweruza milandu ndi mfumu ya mumzinda wa Delhi, ndipo anagwira ntchitoyi kwa zaka 8. Mfumuyi itadziwa kuti Ibn Battuta ankakonda kuyenda, inamutuma kwa mfumu ya chigawo cha Mongolia ku China, dzina lake Togon-temür. Iye anapatsidwa mphatso zoti akapereke kwa mfumuyi. Zina mwa mphatsozi zinali “mahatchi 100, akapolo achizungu 100, atsikana 100 achihindu odziwa kuvina ndi kuimba, nsalu zamitundu yosiyanasiyana zokwana 1,200, zoikapo nyale zagolide ndi zasiliva, mabeseni agolide ndi asiliva, mikanjo yapamwamba, zipewa, tizikwama tonyamulira mivi, malupanga, magulovesi okongoletsedwa ndi ngale, komanso amuna 15 ofulidwa.”

Atafika kudoko la kum’mwera kwa India la Calicut, Ibn Battuta anaona sitima zikuluzikulu zonyamula katundu zomwe zimadikirira kupita ku China, komwe iyenso ankafuna kupita. Sitima iliyonse inali  ndi mphasa 12 zopangidwa ndi nsungwi, zomwe zinkathandiza kuti sitimayo iziyenda ndi mphepo. M’sitimamo munali anthu 600 ogwira ntchito zosiyanasiyana komanso asilikali 400. Mabanja a anthu ogwira ntchitowo ankakhalanso momwemo ndipo Ibn Battuta ananena kuti mabanjawo “ankaika dothi m’mabokosi amatabwa n’kumalima mbewu zakudimba ndi jinja m’sitima momwemo.”

Koma Ibn Battuta analephera kukafika ku China chifukwa sitima imene anakwera inachita ngozi m’njira. Zitatero, iye anayamba ntchito ku Maldives, chomwe ndi chilumba cha kum’mwera kwa dziko la India. Analembedwa ntchitoyo ndi mtsogoleri winawake wachisilamu. Ibn Battuta anali munthu woyamba kulemba za chikhalidwe cha anthu akumeneko. Patapita nthawi anayambanso ulendo wake ndipo anakafika ku China. Ngakhale kuti anaona zinthu zambiri zosangalatsa, iye anaonanso zinthu zina zimene zinali zosagwirizana ndi chipembedzo chake. Popeza kuti iye analemba zinthu zochepa zokhudza dziko la China, anthu ena amakayikira zoti anaona malo ambiri kumeneko ngati mmene iye ananenera. Ena amaganiza kuti mwina iye anangofika kumadoko a kum’mwera kwa China.

Pobwerera Anapeza Anthu Ambiri Atamwalira

Atabwerera ku Damasiko, Ibn Battuta, anapeza kuti mwana wake amene anamusiya zaka 20 zapitazo anamwalira ali ndi zaka 8. Anamvanso kuti bambo ake amene ankakhala ku Tangier, anali atamwalira zaka 15 zapitazo. Umu munali m’chaka cha 1348 ndipo ku Middle East anthu ankafa kwambiri chifukwa cha matenda amene ankafalitsidwa ndi makoswe. Ibn Battuta analemba kuti mumzinda wa Cairo anthu 21,000 ankafa tsiku lililonse ndi matendawa.

M’chaka chotsatira Ibn Battuta anafika kwawo ku Morocco. Pa nthawiyi n’kuti ali ndi zaka 45. Atafika anamva zoti mayi ake anamwalira ndi matenda a makoswe miyezi ingapo m’mbuyomo. Iye anachoka kwawo ali ndi zaka 21, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti anatha zaka 24 ali muliyenda. Kodi Ibn Battuta anakhutira ndi maulendo amene anayendawa? Ayi, chifukwa atangofika anayambanso ulendo wina wopita ku Spain. Patapita zaka zina zitatu, iye anayenda ulendo womaliza umene unakamufikitsa kumtsinje wa Niger ndi mumzinda wa Tombouctou (Timbuktu), m’dziko limene panopa limadziwika kuti Mali.

Analamulidwa Kulemba za Maulendo Ake

Mfumu ya ku Fez, m’dziko la Morocco, itadziwa za maulendo a Ibn Battuta, inamulamula kuti alembe zonse zokhudza maulendo akewo ndipo inamupatsa mlembi, dzina lake Ibn Juzayy. Buku limene analembalo linali m’Chiarabu koma anthu ambiri sanalikonde. Kenako bukulo litapezedwa ndi azungu m’zaka za m’ma 1800, linayamba kumasuliridwa m’zinenero za ku Ulaya.

Ibn Juzayy ananena kuti iye analemba mwachidule nkhani zimene Ibn Battuta ankamuuza zokhudza maulendo ake, koma zikuoneka kuti mlembiyu anawonjezera zina ndi zina. Ngakhale zili choncho, zimene analembazo zimatithandiza kumvetsa nkhani za malonda, chikhalidwe, chipembedzo, ndi za ndale komanso mmene moyo unalili m’madera amene Ibn Battuta anafikako, makamaka m’mayiko achisilamu.

[Chithunzi patsamba 14]

Chithunzi cha m’zaka za m’ma 1200 chojambulidwa ndi al-Wasiti, chosonyeza Asilamu akupita ku Mecca

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Scala/White Images/Art Resource, NY

[Chithunzi patsamba 16]

Buku la mapu lolembedwa mu 1375, losonyeza malo ena amene Ibn Battuta anafikako

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Snark/Art Resource, NY