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Nyengo Inalepheretsa Anthu Kupambana Nkhondo Zikuluzikulu

Nyengo Inalepheretsa Anthu Kupambana Nkhondo Zikuluzikulu

 Nyengo Inalepheretsa Anthu Kupambana Nkhondo Zikuluzikulu

MABUKU a mbiri yakale amanena kuti nyengo inachititsa kuti magulu amphamvu kwambiri alephere kupambana nkhondo. Tiyeni tione zitsanzo ziwiri zokha.

Mphepo ya Mkuntho

Mu chaka cha 1588, mfumu Philip ya ku Spain inatumiza sitima zapamadzi ndi asilikali ake kuti akalande dziko la England. Koma zinthu sizinawayendere bwino chifukwa nyengo inawasokoneza.

Sitima zankhondo za ku Spain zitalowa m’nyanja ya English Channel, zinakumana ndi sitima zankhondo za ku England ndipo nkhondo inaulika. Pa kumenyanako, sitima zingapo za Spain zingawonongeka. Kenako sitima za ku Spain zinakakocheza pa doko linalake lakufupi ndi ku Calais, n’cholinga choti akatenge asilikali ena.

Tsiku lomwelo usiku, asilikali a ku England anayatsa moto sitima zawo zingapo, n’kuzisiya zokha kuti zitengedwe ndi madzi komanso mphepo kukafika kumene kunali sitima za ku Spain zija. Pofuna kuthawa mwachanguchangu, asilikali a ku Spain anadula anangula a sitima zawo. Koma analakwitsa kwambiri kudula anangula a sitimazo chifukwa zimenezi anadzanong’oneza nazo bondo pambuyo pake.

Kenako, sitima za magulu onse awiri zinapita ku nyanja ya North Sea, chifukwa n’kumene mphepo inkalowera. Pa nthawiyi onga wa mfuti za asilikali a ku England unatha, choncho anabwerera kugombe la nyanja mbali ya kwawo. Sitima za ku Spain zinkafuna kubwerera kwawo, koma zinkalephera chifukwa cha mphepo komanso zinkaopa kukumana ndi adani awowo. Choncho zinayenda mozungulira. Zinayamba kulowera kumpoto kukafika ku Scotland, n’kubwereranso kum’mwera kukafika ku Ireland ndipo kenako zinakafika kwawo ku Spain.

Pofika nthawi imeneyi n’kuti sitima za ku Spain zilibiretu chakudya ndi madzi komanso zinali zitawonongeka. Zinali ndi asilikali ambirimbiri ovulala komanso odwala chiseyeye. Popeza kuti asilikaliwo analibe chakudya chokwanira, ambiri anafooka ndi njala.

Pamene sitimazo zimadutsa ku Scotland, mphepo yamphamvu inazikankhira kugombe la ku Ireland. Chinthu chanzeru chimene akanachita ndi kuponya anangula a sitimazo m’madzi n’kuima kaye kudikira  kuti mphepo ithe. Komabe popeza kuti sitima zambiri zinalibe anangula, sitima zokwana 26 zinasweka, ndipo asilikali pakati pa 5,000 ndi 6,000 anafa.

Pamene sitima za ku Spain zimafika kwawo, n’kuti asilikali pafupifupi 20,000 atafa. Anthu ambiri sakaikira kuti mphepo ndi imene inachititsa kuti asilikali ambirimbiri ataye moyo wawo komanso kuti sitima zambiri ziwonongeke. Anthu a ku Netherlands nawonso amanena kuti nyengo ndi imene inachititsa zonsezi. Pa mwambo wina wokumbukira kugonjetsedwa kwa sitima za ku Spain, dziko la Netherlands linakonza mendulo imene inali ndi mawu akuti: “Yehova atatumiza mphepo, anthu onse anabalalika.” Mawu amenewa anali ogwirizana ndi zimene anthu ambiri ankakhulupirira pa nthawiyo zoti Mulungu ndiye amachititsa masoka achilengedwe.

Mvula Yamphamvu

Nkhondo inanso imene inakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi nyengo inali imene inamenyedwa m’chaka cha 1815 pamalo otchedwa Waterloo. Malowa ali pamtunda wa makilomita 21 kum’mwera kwa mzinda wa Brussels, ku Belgium. Mabuku a mbiri yakale amanena kuti, anthu oposa 70,000 anaphedwa m’maola ochepa chabe ndipo ena anavulazidwa kwambiri pa nkhondoyi. Kalonga wina wa ku Wellington ndiye anasankha malowa, choncho iye ndi asilikali ake anali ndi mwayi woti akhoza kupambana nkhondoyi. Asilikali a kalongayi anali ochepa poyerekezera ndi asilikali a gulu la ku France lotsogoleredwa ndi Napoleon. Koma Napoleon anali ndi cholinga chogonjetsa adaniwo kunja kusanade, chifukwa ankadziwa kuti akachedwa asilikali enawo athandizidwa ndi asilikali a ku Germany. Komabe, ulendo unonso nyengo inasintha zinthu.

Usiku woti nkhondo imenyedwa mawa, kunagwa chimvula champhamvu kwambiri. Asilikali ambiri amakumbukira kuti sanayambe avutikapo ngati mmene anavutikira usiku umenewo. Ngakhale kuti anamanga matenti, msilikali wina ananena kuti mkati mwa matentimo munali madzi okhaokha ngati m’nyanja. Paliponse pamene ankadutsa panali matope okhaokha. Popeza kuti Napoleon ankafuna kugonjetsa asilikali enawo mwachangu, anaganiza zoyamba kumenya nkhondoyo m’bandakucha. Komabe analephera kuyamba kumenya nkhondoyo mwamsanga moti panadutsa maola angapo nkhondoyo isanayambe.

Matope ndi amene anawalepheretsa kuyamba kumenya nkhondoyo mofulumirirapo, chifukwa ankadikira kuti panja payambe pauma kaye. Komanso atayamba kumenya nkhondoyo matope ankachititsa kuti akasinja amene Napoleon ankawadalira kwambiri, asamagwire ntchito bwinobwino. Choyamba, matopewo ankachititsa kuti akasinjawo azititimira. Chachiwiri, ankafuna kuti akawombera, zipolopolo zizinjanja pansi n’kuwombera adani. Koma zimenezi sizimatheka chifukwa chipolopolo chimati chikangofika pansi chinkangolowa m’matope, osanjanja. Chifukwa cha mvula yamphamvu imeneyi, Napoleon ndi asilikali ake anagonjetsedwa, ndipo iyeyo anagwidwa n’kutengedwa ku ukapolo.

Choncho mungaone kuti pa nkhondo zikuluzikulu ziwiri zonsezi, nyengo ndi imene inachititsa kuti magulu ankhondo amphamvu kwambiri agonje. Ndipo nkhondo zimenezi n’zimene zinachititsa kuti ufumu wa Britain uyambe kukula mphamvu.

[Chithunzi patsamba 24]

Sitima za Nkhondo za ku Spain

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© 19th era/Alamy

[Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Nkhondo ya ku Waterloo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Bettmann/CORBIS