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Njira Yomwe Akapolo Ankadutsa

Njira Yomwe Akapolo Ankadutsa

 Njira Yomwe Akapolo Ankadutsa

KUYAMBIRA cha m’ma 1600 mpaka cha m’ma 1800, mzinda wa Ouidah unali likulu lochitira malonda a ukapolo kumadzulo kwa Africa. Akapolo oposa 1 miliyoni anagulitsidwa kuchokera mumzindawu, womwe unali m’dziko limene panopa limadziwika kuti Benin. Nthawi zambiri, anthu a ku Africa ankagulitsa azinzawo. Iwo ankasinthanitsa akapolo ndi zinthu ngati mowa, nsalu, zibangili, mipeni ndiponso zida makamaka mfuti zimene ankazigwiritsa ntchito pa nkhondo.

Pakati pa zaka za m’ma 1500 ndi 1800, akapolo pafupifupi 12 miliyoni anatengedwa ku Africa n’kuwoloka nawo nyanja ya Atlantic kupita kumayiko a ku America kuti azikagwira ntchito m’minda komanso m’migodi. Buku lina lonena za ukapolo (American Slavery—1619-1877), linanena kuti pafupifupi akapolo 85 pa akapolo 100 alionse, anapita ku Brazil ndi ku mayiko ena apafupi ndi nyanja ya Carribean. Mayiko amenewa ankalamuliridwa ndi mayiko monga Britain, France, Spain ndi Netherlands. Pafupifupi akapolo 6 pa 100 alionse anapita ku America. *

Akapolo ankachitidwa nkhanza kwambiri. Nthawi zambiri akagwidwa, ankamenyedwa, kumangidwa komanso kuikidwa chizindikiro chosonyeza kuti ndi akapolo. Kenako ankayenda nawo ulendo wa makilomita anayi kuchokera m’dera limene panopa kuli malo osungira zinthu zakale a Ouidah, kukafika nawo kudoko, pamalo otchedwa Khomo Losabwerera. Pa khomo limeneli m’pamene panathera njira yodutsa akapolo. Koma sikuti ndi akapolo onse amene ankafikira pamalo amenewa popita kumayiko ena. N’chiyani chinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri ayambe kuchita malonda a ukapolo?

Mbiri Yosasangalatsa

Kale kwambiri, mafumu ena ku Africa ankagulitsa kwa Aluya akaidi amene awagwira kunkhondo. Kenako azungu a ku Ulaya anayamba kuchita nawo malonda amenewa, makamaka pa nthawi imene anayamba kulamulira mayiko a ku America. Pa nthawi imeneyi, anthu ambiri ankakonda nkhondo chifukwa akaidi amene awagwira kunkhondoko ankakawagulitsa kwa anthu amalonda. Nthawi zinanso anthu ankabedwa m’midzi mwawo kuti akakhale akapolo kapena ankagulidwa kuchokera kwa anthu ena a m’mudzimo. Anthu ankangogulitsana  chisawawa, moti ngakhale munthu wochokera ku banja lachifumu ankatha kugulitsidwa ndi mfumuyo akangotsemphana maganizo pang’ono.

Munthu wodziwika bwino pa nkhani yochita malonda a ukapolo anali Francisco Félix de Souza, wa ku Brazil. M’chaka cha 1788, iye anakula mphamvu moti nyumba imene munkafikira akapolo ku Ouidah, kufupi ndi gombe la nyanja ya Atlantic, inakhala m’manja mwake. Pa nthawiyi, mzinda wa Ouidah unali pansi pa ufumu wa Dahomey. Koma kenako De Souza ndi mfumu ya ku Dahomey, dzina lake Adandozan, anasemphana maganizo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, m’chaka cha 1818, De Souza mothandizana ndi mchimwene wa mfumuyo, dzina lake Ghezo, * anakonza chiwembu n’kuchotsa mfumuyo pa mpando. De Souza ayenera kuti anakonza chiwembu chimenechi ali kundende. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyi, awiriwa anayamba kugwirizana kwambiri, moti De Souza anapatsidwa udindo woyang’anira malonda a ukapolo.

Ghezo ankafunitsitsa kwambiri kuti ufumu wake ukule ndipo kuti akwanitse zimenezi ankafuna zida zochokera kumayiko a azungu. Choncho, iye anasankha De Souza kuti akhale wolamulira wa ku Ouidah n’cholinga choti azimuthandiza pochita malonda ndi azungu. Popeza kuti De Souza ndiye ankayang’anira malonda a ukapolo m’dera lonselo, pasanapite nthawi yaitali analemera kwambiri, ndipo msika umene unali panyumba pake unakhala likulu lochitira malonda a ukapolo.

Akapolo Ankazunzidwa Kwambiri Munjira

Ngati munthu atafuna kuti akaone njira imene akapolo ankadutsa, ulendo wake umayambira pa nyumba inayake imene Apwitikizi anamanga. Nyumbayi inamangidwa mu 1721, ndipo panopa anthu amapita kukaiona monga chinthu chakale. Anthu ogwidwa kunkhondo akamayembekezera kuti akagulitsidwe monga akapolo, ankasungidwa pabwalo pa nyumbayi. Ambiri ankakhala kuti ayenda usiku wokhawokha kwa masiku angapo asanafike pamalowa ndipo nthawi zambiri ankayenda atamangidwa pamodzi. N’chifukwa chiyani ankayenda nawo usiku? Chifukwa chakuti mdima unkachititsa akapolowo kuti asamaone bwinobwino ndipo zimenezi zinkathandiza kuti asathawe.

Akapolo akafika panyumba imene amawagulitsira, amawaonetsa kwa anthu ogula ndipo anthuwo amasankha akapolo amene akuwafuna n’kuwaika chizindikiro. Akapolo amene asankhidwa kuti atumizidwe ku mayiko ena amapita nawo kugombe, kumene kunali mabwato kapena timaboti ting’onoting’ono. Kenako amapita nawo kumalo kokwerera sitima.

Malo ena ochititsa chidwi amene akapolo ankadutsa ankatchedwa kuti Mtengo wa Iwala Kwanu. Akapolo akafika pamtengowu, akapolo aamuna ankauzidwa kuti azungulire mtengowo maulendo 9 ndipo aakazi ankauzidwa kuti auzungulire maulendo 7. Iwo ankauzidwa kuti zimenezi ziwathandiza kuiwala kwawo. Masiku ano, pamalo pamene panali mtengowu pali chipilala chachikumbutso.

Masiku ano munjiramo mulinso chipilala chachikumbutso  cha tinyumba totchedwa Zomaï timene akapolo ankagonamo. Tinyumbati anatipatsa dzina limeneli chifukwa chakuti mkati mwake munkakhala mdima nthawi zonse. Zimenezi zinkachititsa kuti akapolowo asamakavutike kwambiri akakakwera sitima, momwe ankakhala mothithikana kwambiri komanso munkakhala mdima. Akapolowa ankakhala m’tinyumba timeneti kwa miyezi yambiri ndithu podikirira kuti adzatengedwe. Akapolo amene ankafera m’tinyumba timeneti, ankangoponyedwa m’chidzenje n’kuwakwirira.

Malo amene munthu amakhudzidwa kwambiri akawaona ndi pamene pali chipilala chotchedwa Zomachi. Cholinga cha chipilalachi ndi kulimbikitsa anthu kukhala ndi mtima wolapa ndiponso wokhululukirana. Chaka chilichonse m’mwezi wa January, ana a kapolo komanso anthu amene ankachita malonda a ukapolo amafika pamalo amenewa n’cholinga chopempha Mulungu kuti akhululukire anthu amene ankachita zinthu zankhanzazi.

Pomaliza ulendowu munthu amafika pamalo pomwe pali chipilala chotchedwa Khomo Losabwerera. Akapolo akafika malo amenewa, ankadziwa kuti atsala pang’ono kusiyana ndi nthaka ya ku Africa. Pa chipilalachi anajambulapo zithunzi za akapolo ataima m’mizere iwiri ali omangidwa, kutsogolo kwawo kuli nyanja ya Atlantic. Akuti akapolo ena akafika pamalo amenewa ankabwira mchenga n’cholinga choti asaiwale kwawo ku Africa. Ena ankangodzipha podzimangirira ndi tcheni.

Kutha kwa Ukapolo

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 1800, panali anthu ambiri amene anayamba kumenyera ufulu kuti ukapolo uthe. Sitima yomaliza kunyamula akapolo kuchoka ku Ouidah kupita nawo kumayiko a ku America, inali imene inafika ku Mobile, mumzinda wa Alabama, m’mwezi wa July, 1860. Koma ukapolo wawo sunakhalitse chifukwa mu 1863 boma la America linakhazikitsa lamulo lothetsa ukapolo. Ukapolo unatheratu mu 1888 pamene dziko la Brazil nalonso linathetsa ukapolo. *

Ukapolo unachititsa kuti anthu ambirimbiri a ku Africa azipezeka m’mayiko a azungu, zomwe zinakhudza chiwerengero komanso chikhalidwe cha anthu a ku America. Ukapolo unachititsanso kuti chipembedzo cha voodoo chimene chimalimbikitsa zamatsenga ndi ufiti chifale. Ku Haiti kuli anthu ambiri otsatira chipembedzo chimenechi. Buku lina linati: “Mawu akuti voodoo anachokera ku mawu akuti vodun, omwe amatanthauza mulungu, kapena mzimu, m’chilankhulo cha anthu a mtundu wa Fon ku Benin (dziko limene kale linkadziwika kuti Dahomey).”

Ngakhale kuti malonda a ukapolo anatha, n’zomvetsa chisoni kuti masiku ano kulinso ukapolo wina. Mwachitsanzo anthu mamiliyoni ambiri ali pa ukapolo chifukwa cha mavuto a zachuma. Ena ali pa ukapolo chifukwa choponderezedwa ndi atsogoleri andale ankhanza. (Mlaliki 8:9) Ndipo anthu enanso mamiliyoni ambiri ali pa ukapolo chifukwa chophunzitsidwa zinthu zabodza ndi zipembedzo zawo. Kodi maboma a anthu angathe kumasula anthu ku ukapolo umenewu? Ayi. Ndi Yehova Mulungu yekha amene angakwanitse kuchita zimenezi, ndipo adzachitadi. Mawu ake, Baibulo, amalonjeza kuti anthu onse amene amamulambira mogwirizana ndi choonadi cha m’Baibulo tsiku lina adzamasulidwa ku ukapolo “n’kukhala ndi ufulu waulemerero wa ana a Mulungu.”—Aroma 8:21; Yohane 8:32.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 3 Ngakhale kuti poyambirira ku America kunapita akapolo ochepa, m’kupita kwa nthawi chiwerengero cha akapolo chinawonjezereka kwambiri, makamaka chifukwa chakuti akapolowo ankakwatira n’kumabereka ana.

^ ndime 7 Dzinali limalembedwa mosiyanasiyana.

^ ndime 17 Nkhani ya mmene Baibulo limaonera ukapolo ikupezeka m’nkhani yakuti “Lingaliro Labaibulo: Kodi Mulungu Ankakondwera ndi Malonda a Ukapolo?” mu Galamukani! ya September 8, 2001.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 24]

“MUNTHU WAPWETEKA MUNTHU MNZAKE POMULAMULIRA”

Anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti anthu ochita malonda a ukapolo ankangobwera m’mudzi n’kugwira anthu amene akuwafuna. Ngakhale kuti zimenezi n’zotheka, sizingatheke kuti anthuwo agwire anthu mamiliyoni ambirimbiri “popanda kugwirizana ndi mafumu awo komanso anthu ena ochita malonda a ku Africa,” anatero Dr.  Robert Harms, yemwe ndi katswiri wa mbiri ya ku Africa. Zimenezi zikugwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena zakuti “munthu wapweteka munthu mnzake pomulamulira.”—Mlaliki 8:9.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY

[Mapu patsamba 22]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Pafupifupi anthu 12 miliyoni a ku Africa anawoloka nyanja ya Atlantic n’kumakagwira ntchito yakalavula gaga kumayiko a ku America

AFRICA

BENIN

Ouidah

Gombe lofikira Akapolo

[Chithunzi patsamba 22]

Nyumbayi inamangidwa mu 1721 ndi Apwitikizi ndipo panopa anthu ambiri amabwera kudzaiona

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Gary Cook/​Alamy

[Chithunzi patsamba 23]

Khomo Losabwerera, malo omaliza kwa akapolo kuponda nthaka ya ku Africa

[Chithunzi patsamba 23]

Chosema chosonyeza kapolo atamangidwa manja ndi kukamwa

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Danita Delimont/​Alamy