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Nyama Zokongola Mogometsa

Nyama Zokongola Mogometsa

 Nyama Zokongola Mogometsa

“Sizinanditengere nthawi yaitali kuti ndiyambe kukonda mahatchi. Ndi okongola ndipo amayenda mochititsa chidwi kwambiri.”—ANATERO TOMASZ, KATSWIRI WOWETA MAHATCHI.

ANTHU ambiri amaona kuti mahatchi ndi nyama zokongola kwambiri ndipo amawakonda chifukwa chakuti amayenda mochititsa chidwi kwambiri, ndi amphamvu ndiponso amasangalatsa akamafwenthera mokweza, akamaimirira ndi miyendo yawo yakumbuyo, akamachita masewera othamanga komanso akamadumpha n’kuponda pansi. Nyama zimenezi n’zokongoladi mogometsa.

Pa zaka zambiri zapitazi, mahatchi a mitundu yosiyanasiyana akhala akuwetedwa n’kumapanga mitundu ina yatsopano ya mahatchi. Akhala akuwetedwa m’mayiko okhala ndi nyengo komanso nthaka zosiyanasiyana. Mahatchi osasakanirana ndi mtundu wina uliwonse a Arabia ndi amene amaonedwa kuti ndi okongola kwambiri pa mahatchi onse. Mahatchi amenewa ndi amphamvu kwambiri, othamanga ndiponso anzeru, ndipo nthawi zambiri amapambana pamipikisano.

Ku Poland, dziko lomwe lili ku Ulaya, n’kumene mahatchiwa akhala akuwetedwa kuyambira kale kwambiri. Malinga ndi zimene anthu oweta mahatchi komanso akatswiri ena a mahatchi amanena, ku Poland n’kumene kumapezeka mahatchi a Arabia apamwamba kwambiri ndiponso ochokera m’mitundu yodziwika bwino kwambiri. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani zili choncho? Anthu oweta mahatchi ndi akatswiri ena a mahatchi amayankha funso limeneli ndi mafunso enanso ambiri.

Mmene Anthu Okonda Mahatchi Amaonera Mahatchiwa

Poyamba, tiyeni tione zinthu zingapo zokhudza mahatchi a Arabia amenewa. Anthu ambiri akamva za mahatchiwa amangoganiza kuti ndi ochokera ku Middle East. Tomasz, yemwe ndi katswiri woweta mahatchi, anati: “Kwa zaka zambiri aluya a ku Arabia ndi kumpoto kwa Africa ndi amene ankaweta mahatchiwa mosamala kuti asasakanikirane ndi mitundu ina. Anthu amenewa anagwira ntchito yotamandika kwambiri yoonetsetsa kuti mahatchi abwino kwambiri amenewa sanasakanikirane ndi mitundu ina. Ambiri a mahatchiwa amakhala otuwirako, ena ofiira pang’ono, ena ofiira moderako, ndipo ena ndi ena amakhala akuda.”

Żaneta, yemwe amaweta mahatchi, anati: “Mahatchiwa ndi okongola mogometsa ndipo ndi mahatchi akale kwambiri komanso amene sanasakanikirane ndi mahatchi a mitundu ina.” Mahatchiwa ndi olimba mtima komanso amphamvu kwambiri, koma sachedwa kulusa. Ndiponso ali ndi mapapo amphamvu ndipo chifukwa cha zimenezi, anthu amatha kukwera mahatchiwa n’kuyenda mtunda wautali. Mapapowa ali mkati kwambiri mwa chifuwa cha  mahatchiwa, chomwe chimakhala chachikulu kwambiri.

Anachoka ku Arabia Kupita ku Poland

“Kodi mahatchiwa anayenda bwanji kuchoka ku Arabia kupita ku Poland?” Tinamufunsa Tomasz funso limeneli, yemwe amaweta mahatchi amenewa. Iye anatiuza kuti: “Mahatchiwa ayenera kuti anabwera ndi nthumwi ya mfumu [ya ku Poland], pa nthawi yomwe nthumwiyi inkabwerera kuchokera ku umodzi wa maulendo ake okaonana ndi mfumu ya ku Stambul m’zaka za m’ma 1500. Koma zimene zili zodziwika bwino n’zoti anthu anayamba kuweta mahatchiwa ku Poland m’zaka za m’ma 1700.” Izabela Pawelec-Zawadzka, yemwe ndi katswiri woweta mahatchiwa, anafotokoza ntchito imene wolamulira wina wa ku Poland wotchedwa Wacław Rzewuski anagwira. Iye anali katswiri wa chikhalidwe cha anthu a Kum’mawa yemwe “anayambitsa ntchito yogula mahatchi kuchokera ku Arabia, ndipo anaonetsetsa kuti ntchito imeneyi ikuyenda bwino.” Iye anabweretsa ku Ulaya mahatchi okwana 137 a mtundu wa Arabia, osasakanirana ndi mtundu wina uliwonse.

Chifukwa cha khama komanso kudzipereka kwa Rzewuski, ku Poland kunakhazikitsidwa famu yoyamba yoweta mahatchi a Arabia m’chaka cha 1817. Famuyi inakhazikitsidwa ku Janów Podlaski, kum’mwera kwa Poland. Tomasz anafotokoza kuti: “Ntchito yoweta mahatchiwa inayamba bwino kwambiri. Mahatchiwa ankasamalidwa ndi akatswiri odziwa kuweta mahatchi. Koma nkhondo ziwiri zapadziko lonse zimene zinasakaza madera ambiri a chigawo chapakati ku Ulaya, zinachititsa kuti mafamu a ku Poland oweterako mahatchi awonongeke. Mahatchi ambiri anafa, ena anathawa, ndipo enanso anabedwa.” Koma nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse itatha, anthu anayambiranso kuweta mahatchiwa.

Panopa mahatchi a Arabia akuwetedwa m’mafamu osachepera 30 ku Poland. Mahatchi ake amakhala abwino kwambiri chifukwa akhala akuwetedwa mosamala kwambiri kwa zaka zokwana 200. N’chifukwa chake dziko la Poland lakhala limodzi mwa mayiko amene amadziwika bwino kwambiri pa nkhani yoweta mahatchi a Arabia. M’dzikoli mumabwera akatswiri ambiri oweta mahatchi komanso anthu ambiri okonda mahatchi ochokera padziko lonse kudzaonerera zionetsero zotchuka zapachaka ndiponso malonda a mahatchi.

Kasamalidwe ka Mahatchiwa

Kuti munthu awete bwino mahatchi ochokera ku mitundu yodziwika bwino, amafunika kuti aziwasamalira bwino kwambiri. Małgorzata, yemwe ali ndi famu ya mahatchi, anati: “Kusamalira mahatchi a Arabia si ntchito yamasewera. Timafunika kuwapatsa zakudya zoyenerana ndi mtundu wawo kuti akhalebe amphamvu komanso okongola. Mahatchi amene atsala pang’ono kubereka amafunika chisamaliro chapadera.” * Kodi chakudya chabwino kwambiri cha mahatchiwa n’chiyani?

Małgorzata ananenanso kuti: “Kukangocha, timapatsa mahatchiwa udzu wouma. Udzuwu umakhala ndi zinthu zonse zofunika kuti mahatchiwa akhale athanzi, kuphatikizapo mavitamini ndi michere. Chakudya chinanso chabwino kwambiri chimene timapatsa mahatchiwa ndi mbewu zinazake zimene timazisakaniza ndi udzu. Komanso gaga wa balele ndi tirigu ndi chakudya chabwino kwa mahatchiwa. Koma mahatchiwa amakonda kwambiri zinthu monga udzu wobiriwira, mbatata, karoti ndi zomera zinazake zangati karoti koma zofiira kwambiri. M’nyengo yozizira, alimi amagula zakudya zopangapanga zokhala ndi mapulotini ambiri. Mahatchi a Arabia amafunikanso kuwaikira mchere m’zakudya zawo. Mcherewu umakhala ndi mankhwala amene amathandiza kuti mahatchiwa azifatsa. Koma mfundo yomwe tiyenera kukumbukira ndi yakuti udzu wobiriwira ndi wofunika kwambiri kwa mahatchi kuposa zakudya zochita kukonza. Komanso chinthu chomaliza, mahatchiwa amafunika kuwapatsa madzi  abwino nthawi zonse. Iwo sayerekeza ngakhale pang’ono kumwa madzi akuda.”

Munthu woweta mahatchiwa amafunikanso kusamalira khungu ndi tsitsi lawo nthawi zonse. Kuti zimenezi zitheke, amafunika kuwasambitsa, kuwapesa ndi zipeso zinazake zapadera komanso kuwasisita ndi manja. Komanso pali zina zimene zimafunika. Tomasz anafotokoza kuti: “Timafunika kuchotsa litsiro m’mapazi a mahatchiwa tsiku lililonse chifukwa zimenezi zimathandiza kuti asadwale matenda osiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo khansa. Timafunikanso kutsuka mosamala kwambiri maso, mphuno, milomo ndi makutu awo.” Żaneta anati: “Kuti hatchi ikhale yamphamvu komanso izioneka yokongola, imafunika kukhala ndi malo okwanira oti izithamangathamanga, komanso mchenga, matope kapena udzu woti izigubudukamo. Hatchi ikachita thukuta pambuyo pothamanga, amaipukuta ndi chibulangete.”

Akatswiri a mahatchiwa anatsindika mfundo yakuti hatchi iliyonse imafunika kuisamalira mogwirizana ndi mmene ilili. Małgorzata anafotokoza mfundo imeneyi motere: “Mahatchi a Arabia ali ndi nzeru zinazake zapadera chifukwa amakonda kukhala ndi anthu, amasangalala ukamawasisita ndiponso ukamawakumbatira. Zinthu ngati zimenezi zimathandiza kuti hatchiyo izidalira kwambiri mbuye wake moti imatha kuchita pafupifupi chilichonse chimene wailamula. Akuti munthu akaimwetulira, kuikumbatira kapena kuipatsa chakudya monga karoti ndi zakudya zashuga, hatchiyi imalira mosonyeza kuti yasangalala. Anthu amene amakonda mahatchi amasangalala kwambiri kuwaweta.” Tomasz anafotokoza mmene amawakondera mahatchiwa. Iye anati: “Sizinanditengere nthawi yaitali kuti ndiyambe kukonda mahatchi. Ndi okongola ndipo amayenda mochititsa chidwi kwambiri. Koma kuti afike poyamba kukudalira, zimatenga nthawi. Ineyo zinanditengera zaka zambiri kuti mahatchiwa afike pondizolowera.”

Kodi Tsogolo la Mahatchiwa Ndi Lotani?

Kuyambira kale kwambiri, anthu akhala akuchita chidwi ndi kukongola kwa mahatchi, liwiro lawo, mphamvu zawo ndiponso nzeru zawo, ndipo zimenezi zachititsa kuti anthu aziwakonda. Mahatchi a Arabia ndi amene anthu amachita nawo chidwi kwambiri. Koma n’zomvetsa chisoni kuti nthawi zina anthu amagwiritsa ntchito mahatchiwa mwankhanza. Mwachitsanzo, m’mbuyomu mahatchi akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kunkhondo, ndipo zotsatira zake n’zakuti mahatchi ambiri anaphedwa. Koma Ufumu wa Mulungu ukadzayamba kulamulira padzikoli, anthu azidzagwiritsa ntchito mahatchi pa zinthu zabwino zokhazokha, ndipo zimenezi zidzachititsa kuti Mlengi wathu, Yehova Mulungu, atamandidwe.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 14 Mwiniwake wa mahatchiwo amatha kusankha nthawi imene akufuna kuti hatchi yake ibereke. Hatchi imatha kubereka chaka ndi chaka, koma nthawi zina chaka chimatha osabereka. Mahatchi ambiri aakazi amakhala ndi moyo zaka 25 mpaka 30, ndipo pa nthawi imeneyi amatha kubereka ana 15 mpaka 18.

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Mayi ndi kamwana kake

 [Zithunzi patsamba 16]

Ntchito ya Tsiku ndi Tsiku Yosamalira Mahatchi a Arabia ndi Monga:

1. Kupukuta ndi bulashi khungu ndi ubweya wawo

2. Kuchotsa litsiro ku mapazi awo

3. Kuwasonyeza kuti mumawakonda

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Mahatchi amphongo akusewera pachipale chofewa