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Zida Zoimbira za M’nthawi ya Aisiraeli

Zida Zoimbira za M’nthawi ya Aisiraeli

 Zida Zoimbira za M’nthawi ya Aisiraeli

AISIRAELI ankakonda kwambiri kuimba. Mwachitsanzo pa zochitika zikuluzikulu, kapena poitana anthu kuti apite kolambira, ankaimba malipenga. Pofuna kukhazika mtima pansi mafumu, ankaimba azeze osiyanasiyana. (1 Samueli 16:14-23) Komanso pazikondwerero zosiyanasiyana anthu ankaimba ng’oma, zinganga ndi maseche posonyeza kusangalala.—2 Samueli 6:5; 1 Mbiri 13:8.

Sizikudziwika bwinobwino kuti anthu anayamba liti kugwiritsa ntchito zida zoimbira. Koma Baibulo limati Yubala, mbadwa ya Kaini, “ndiye anali tate wa onse oimba zeze ndi chitoliro.” (Genesis 4:21) Mwina iye ndiye anali munthu woyamba kupanga zida zazingwe ndi zouzira.

Ngakhale kuti Baibulo limafotokoza kuti nyimbo zinkaimbidwa pa zochitika zosiyanasiyana, silinena zambiri zokhudza zida zoimbira zimene zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito. Komabe, pogwiritsa ntchito zinthu zimene akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale apeza komanso zimene anthu ena kalelo analemba, akatswiri a Baibulo ayesa kudziwa mmene zida zoimbira zakale zinkaonekera ndiponso mmene zinkamvekera. Zina zimene akatswiri a Baibulowa amanena zilibe umboni weniweni, koma tiyeni tione zitsanzo zingapo zotsimikizirika bwino za zida zoimbira.

Maseche ndi Zinganga

Mulungu atawolotsa mozizwitsa Mose ndi Aisiraeli pa Nyanja Yofiira, mlongo wake wa Mose, dzina lake Miriamu, pamodzi ndi “akazi ena onse,” anayamba kuimba “maseche ndi kuvina.” (Ekisodo 15:20) Palibe maseche alionse amene ankagwiritsidwa ntchito pa nthawiyo ofanana ndi maseche a masiku ano amene apezeka, koma m’madera ena a ku Isiraeli monga ku Akizibu, Megido ndi Beti-seani, mwapezeka zidole zoumba zosonyeza azimayi atanyamula kang’oma kam’manja. Chida chimenechi, chomwe m’Mabaibulo ambiri chimatchedwa kuti maseche, chiyenera kuti chinkapangidwa ndi mkombero wathabwa womwe ankaukunga ndi chikopa.

Kale kwambiri, mtundu wa Isiraeli usanakhalepo, azimayi ankaimba maseche pa zikondwerero, ndipo ankaimbanso nyimbo ndi pakamwa n’kumavina. Baibulo limanena kuti mtsogoleri wa Aisiraeli dzina lake Yefita akubwerera kunyumba pambuyo popambana nkhondo, mwana wake wamkazi anapita kukamuchingamira “akuimba maseche ndi kuvina.” Pa nthawi inanso, azimayi pokondwerera kuti Davide wapambana nkhondo, ‘ankaimba nyimbo ndi kuvina’ kwinaku “akuimba maseche.”—Oweruza 11:34; 1 Samueli 18:6, 7.

Mfumu Davide itabweretsa likasa la pangano ku Yerusalemu, anthu “anali kusangalala pamaso pa Yehova, akuimba mitundu yonse ya zoimbira za mtengo wofanana ndi mtengo wa mkungudza. Anali kuimbanso zeze, zoimbira za zingwe, zinganga ndi maseche osiyanasiyana.” (2 Samueli 6:5) Patapita nthawi, ku kachisi wa ku Yerusalemu kunakhazikitsidwa gulu la oimba. M’gululi munali oimba ochita kuphunzitsidwa mwapadera ndipo ankaimba zinganga, malipenga, azeze ndi zoimbira zina zazingwe.

Maseche analipo amitundumitundu. Ena ankakhala ndi zing’wenyeng’wenye zimene zinkakhala mkati mwa mkombero wa lata, wozungulira ngati dzira ndiponso wokhala ndi chogwirira. Masechewa ankalira mokweza kwambiri akawagwedeza. Maseche oterewa ali m’gulu la maseche osiyanasiyana otchulidwa pa 2 Samueli 6:5. Anagwiritsidwa ntchito pa nthawi imene likasa la pangano linabweretsedwa ku Yerusalemu. Koma mbiri ya Chiyuda imasonyezanso kuti maseche oterewa ankagwiritsidwanso ntchito pa nthawi zachisoni.

 Nanga kodi zinganga zinkaoneka bwanji? Zinali zitsulo zikuluzikulu zozungulira zimene ankaziwombanitsa pamodzi. Koma zinganga zina za ku Isiraeli zinali zing’onozing’ono kwambiri, mwina masentimita 10, ndipo zinkalira ngati timabelu ting’onoting’ono.

Zeze ndi Zoimbira Zazingwe

Zeze anali chida choimbira chofala ku Isiraeli. Davide ankaimba zeze pofuna kukhazika mtima pansi Mfumu Sauli. (1 Samueli 16:16, 23) Akatswiri a Baibulo apeza zithunzi pafupifupi 30 za azeze zojambulidwa pamiyala, pandalama zachitsulo, pazidindo ndi pazinthu zina zosiyanasiyana. Kapangidwe ka azeze kakhala kakusintha kwa zaka zambiri. Poimba, woimbayo ankanyamula zezeyo m’manja n’kumakanyanga nsambo ndi zala kapena ndi kachipangizo kokanyangira nsambo.

Panalinso zeze wa mtundu wina. Sizikudziwika bwinobwino kuti zeze ameneyu ankakhala ndi zingwe zingati, ankakhala wamkulu bwanji komanso kuti ankamuimba bwanji. Komabe akatswiri ambiri amakhulupirira kuti azeze onsewa anali ang’onoang’ono moti oimba ankatha kuyenda nawo.

Malipenga

Mose anauzidwa ndi Mulungu kuti apange malipenga awiri ndipo iye anawapanga posula siliva. (Numeri 10:2) Ansembe ankagwiritsa ntchito malipenga amenewa polengeza zochitika zosiyanasiyana zapakachisi komanso zikondwerero zina. Kaimbidwe ka malipenga kankasiyanasiyana malinga ndi uthenga umene  akufuna kupereka. Nthawi zina ankawaimba kwanthawi yaitali, kapena kwakanthawi kochepa. Sizikudziwika bwino kuti malipenga ankaoneka bwanji, chifukwa palibe lipenga lililonse lotchulidwa m’Baibulo limene lapezeka. Malipenga amene akudziwika ndi omwe akatswiri ena a zosemasema apanga, monga lipenga limene linajambulidwa pa Chipilala cha Tito ku Rome.

Malipenga ena ankapangidwa kuchokera ku nyanga, ndipo amatchulidwa m’Malemba Achiheberi maulendo oposa 70. Kuti apange lipenga lotereli, ankagwiritsa ntchito nyanga ya mbuzi kapena nkhosa. Akatswiri ena a Chiyuda amati malipenga oterewa analipo a mitundu iwiri. Malipenga ena ankakhala ndi nyanga yowongoka yokongoletsedwa ndi golide pakamwa pake, pamene ena ankakhala okhota, okongoletsedwa ndi siliva. Malipenga a nyanga ankagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna kuitana anthu, chifukwa ankamveka kutali kwambiri. Malipengawa anali ndi maliridwe awiri kapena atatu osiyana, ndipo kaliridwe kalikonse kanali ndi tanthauzo lake.

Kale ku Isiraeli, malipenga ankagwiritsidwa ntchito polengeza zochitika zachipembedzo, monga kuyamba ndi kutha kwa Sabata. Malipenga ankagwiritsidwanso ntchito pa zochitika zina, monga pa nkhondo. Pa nthawi imene asilikali a Gidiyoni anakaukira Amidiyani usiku winawake modzidzimutsa, ziyenera kuti zinali zochititsa mantha kwambiri kumva kulira kwa malipenga okwana 300 nthawi imodzi.—Oweruza 7:15-22.

Zida Zosiyanasiyana Zoimbira

Nthawi zambiri zida monga mabelu, zitoliro ndi zoimbira zazingwe zitatu, zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito m’nthawi ya Aisiraeli. Mneneri wa Yehova, dzina lake Danieli, amene anali ku ukapolo ku Babulo, analemba za gulu la oimba a Nebukadinezara, mfumu ya Babulo. Iwo ankagwiritsa ntchito zida monga zeze wamng’ono, chitoliro, ndi chitoliro chathumba.—Danieli 3:5, 7.

Takambirana mwachidule zida zochepa zoimbira zotchulidwa m’Baibulo. Zimene takambiranazi zikutitsimikizira kuti Aisiraeli, ngakhalenso mwina anthu a mitundu ina, ankakonda kwambiri nyimbo. Taona kuti nyimbo zinkaimbidwa kunyumba yachifumu, kumalo olambirira komanso m’midzi ndi m’nyumba za anthu.

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Akafuna kuimba maseche awa ankawagwedeza ndi dzanja limodzi

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Mfumu Davide anali katswiri woimba zeze

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Maseche awa akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kuyambira kale kwambiri

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Ankagwiritsa ntchito lipenga polengeza zinthu zosiyanasiyana

[Chithunzi patsamba 16]

Chithunzi cha mzimayi atanyamula kang’oma kakang’ono, cha m’zaka za m’ma 700 B.C.E.

[Chithunzi patsamba 16]

Ndalama yachitsulo ya m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., atajambulapo zeze

[Chithunzi patsamba 16]

Mwala uwu, umene unafukulidwa pakachisi wa ku Yerusalemu unalembedwa mawu akuti “kumalo olizira lipenga,” m’zaka za pakati pa 100 ndi 1 B.C.E.

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 16]

Pottery figurine: Z. Radovan/BPL/Lebrecht; coin: © 2007 by David Hendin. All rights reserved; temple stone: Photograph © Israel Museum, Jerusalem; courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority