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Buku la Jean Crespin Lonena za Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro

Buku la Jean Crespin Lonena za Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro

 Buku la Jean Crespin Lonena za Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro

MU 1546, amuna 14 a ku Meaux, m’dziko la France, anapezeka ndi mlandu wotsutsana ndi tchalitchi, ndipo anaweruzidwa kuti awotchedwe amoyo. Kodi anthuwa analakwa chiyani? Iwo ankakumana m’nyumba za anthu n’kumapemphera, kuimba masalimo, ndi kuchita Mgonero wa Ambuye. Ndiponso, anagwirizana kuti sadzalola kugwadira “mafano amene apapa ankanena kuti anthu azigwiritsa ntchito polambira.”

Pa tsiku limene anthuwa anaphedwa, mphunzitsi wina wachikatolika dzina lake François Picard anauza anthuwo kuti zimene ankakhulupirira zokhudza Mgonero wa Ambuye zinali zolakwika. Poyankha, iwo anafunsa mphunzitsiyo za chiphunzitso chachikatolika chonena kuti mkate ndi vinyo zimene zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa Mgonero wa Ambuye zimasintha mozizwitsa n’kukhala thupi ndi magazi a Yesu. Amunawo anamufunsa kuti: “Kodi mkatewo umakoma ngati nyama? Nanga vinyoyo amakoma ngati magazi?”

Ngakhale kuti mphunzitsiyo analephera kuwayankha, amunawo anamangiriridwa pamtengo n’kuwotchedwa amoyo. Ena a iwo anadulidwa malilime, koma amene sanadulidwe malilime ankaimba masalimo. Ansembe amene anali pamalopo anayamba kuimba mokuwa kwambiri kuti nyimbo za anthuwo zisamveke. Tsiku lotsatira, Picard analengeza pamalo amene anthu 14 aja anaphedwera kuti anthuwo apita kumoto, komwe akapse kwamuyaya.

M’zaka za m’ma 1500, anthu amene ankatsutsa ziphunzitso za tchalitchi ku Ulaya ankazunzidwa kwambiri ndi atsogoleri achipembedzo. Buku limodzi limene limanena za mmene anthuwa anazunzidwira ndi la Jean Crespin. Bukuli lili ndi mayina a anthu osiyanasiyana amene anafera chikhulupiriro chawo ndipo linasindikizidwira ku Geneva, m’dziko la Switzerland, m’chaka cha 1554. *

Anasiya Ntchito ya Uloya N’kuyamba Kutsutsa Chikatolika

Crespin anabadwa m’chaka cha 1520, mumzinda wa Arras, umene panopa uli kumpoto kwa dziko la France. Iye anaphunzira za malamulo mumzinda wa Louvain, m’dziko la Belgium. Zikuoneka kuti kumeneku n’kumene anamva koyamba za mfundo zotsutsa Chikatolika. Mu 1541, Crespin anapita ku Paris kukagwira ntchito ngati sekilitale wa loya wina wotchuka kwambiri. Chapanthawi yomweyi, Crespin anaona munthu winawake dzina lake Claude Le Painctre akuwotchedwa pamalo otchedwa Place Maubert chifukwa chopezeka ndi mlandu wotsutsa Chikatolika. Munthu amene anaphedwayu anali mnyamata amene ankagwira ntchito yopanga zinthu zosiyanasiyana zagolide. Crespin anachita chidwi kwambiri ndi chikhulupiriro chake ndipo pofotokoza za nkhaniyi, anati mnyamatayo anaphedwa chifukwa “chouza makolo ake ndi anzake choonadi.”

Chapanthawi yomweyi, Crespin anayamba kugwira ntchito yauloya mumzinda wa Arras. Koma pasanapite nthawi yaitali, zimene ankakhulupirira zinachititsa kuti aimbidwe mlandu wotsutsana ndi tchalitchi. Poopa kuzunzidwa, anathawira ku Strasbourg, m’dziko la France, ndipo kenako anakakhazikika ku Geneva, m’dziko la Switzerland. Ali kumeneko, anayamba kucheza ndi anthu enanso amene ankatsutsa Chikatolika. Kenako iye anasiya ntchito yake yauloya n’kuyamba ntchito yosindikiza mabuku.

 Crespin ankafalitsa mabuku a anthu otsutsa Chikatolika monga John Calvin, Martin Luther, John Knox ndi Theodore Beza. Anasindikiza m’Chigiriki mbali ya Baibulo imene ambiri amati Chipangano Chatsopano komanso anasindikiza Baibulo lonse lathunthu kapena mbali zake zina m’Chifalansa, Chilatini, Chingelezi, Chisipanishi ndi Chitaliyana. Koma Crespin anatchuka kwambiri chifukwa cha buku lake lakuti, Book of Martyrs, lonena za anthu amene anafera chikhulupiriro chawo. M’bukuli iye analemba mayina a anthu ambiri otsutsa Chikatolika amene anaphedwa kuyambira m’chaka cha 1415 mpaka mu 1554.

Cholinga cha Mabuku Onena za Anthu Ofera Chikhulupiriro

Mabuku ambiri amene anthu otsutsana ndi tchalitchi ankafalitsa ankafotokoza za nkhanza za atsogoleri achikatolika. Mabukuwa ankauza owerenga kuti anthu achipulotesitanti amene anafera chikhulupiriro chawo ndi oyenera kulemekezedwa kwambiri ndipo masautso awo ndi ofanana ndi amene atumiki a Mulungu, kuphatikizapo Akhristu oyambirira, anakumana nawo. Crespin analemba m’ndandanda wa anthu amene anafera chikhulupiriro chawo kuti Apulotesitanti anzake akhale ndi zitsanzo zoti angamazitsanzire. *

M’buku la Crespin analembamo tsatanetsatane wa milandu ya Apulotesitanti, zimene zinkachitika powazunza, umboni wa anthu amene anaona anthuwo akuzunzidwa, komanso umboni umene anthu ozunzidwawo analemba ali m’ndende. Analembamonso makalata amene anthu ankalembera Apulotesitanti amene anali m’ndende, ndipo ena a makalata amenewa anali ndi mawu ambirimbiri ochokera m’mavesi a m’Baibulo. Crespin ankakhulupirira kuti chikhulupiriro cha anthu amene analemba zinthu zimenezi “sichiyenera kuiwalidwa.”

Zambiri zimene zinalembedwa m’buku la Crespin n’zokhudza mikangano yodziwika bwino imene inalipo pakati pa Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti. Anthu amene ankazunzidwawo ankatsutsana ndi amene ankawazunza pa nkhani ngati izi: Kugwiritsira ntchito mafano polambira, chiphunzitso cha puligatoliyo, kupempherera anthu akufa, zoti mkate ndi vinyo zimene zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa Misa ya Akatolika zimasanduka thupi ndi magazi a Yesu, komanso zoti papa ndi nthumwi ya Mulungu.

Buku la Crespin limeneli ndi umboni wosonyeza kuti pa nthawi imeneyo, anthu sankalolerana komanso kuti panali mikangano yambiri yachipembedzo. Crespin analemba kwambiri za mmene Akatolika ankazunzira Apulotesitanti. Koma tisaiwale kuti Apulotesitanti nawonso anazunzapo kwambiri Akatolika pa nthawi zina.

M’mbiri yonse ya anthu, chipembedzo chonyenga chakhala ndi mlandu wa “magazi a aneneri, a oyera, ndi a onse amene anaphedwa padziko lapansi.” Mwachidziwikire Mulungu adzabwezera chifukwa cha magazi a anthu onse amene iye amawaona kuti anaferadi choonadi. (Chivumbulutso 6:9, 10; 18:24) N’zosakayikitsa kuti ena mwa anthu amene anazunzika ndi kufera chikhulupiriro chawo mu nthawi ya Jean Crespin, ankafunafuna choonadi ndi mtima wonse.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 5 Bukuli limadziwika ndi mayina otsatirawa: Book of Martyrs, That Is, a Collection of Several Martyrs Who Endured Death in the Name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, From Jan Hus Until This Year, 1554; Le Livre des martyrs; ndi Histoire des martyrs. Anthu ena analikonza bukuli mwina ndi mwina n’kulifalitsanso, pamene ena anawonjezeramo nkhani zina komanso zinthu zina ndi zina. Zimenezi zinachitika Crespin ali moyo komanso atamwalira.

^ ndime 11 Mabuku ena awiri okhala ndi mayina a anthu amene anafera chikhulupiriro chawo anafalitsidwanso m’chaka cha 1554. Buku la Crespin lakuti Book of Martyrs linafalitsidwanso m’chaka chimenechi. Limodzi mwa mabukuwa linalembedwa m’Chijeremani ndi Ludwig Rabus ndipo lina linalembedwa m’Chilatini ndi John Foxe.

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Tsamba loyamba la buku la Crespin la mutu wakuti Book of Martyrs (losindikizidwa mu 1564)

[Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Apulotesitanti akuphedwa pamaso pa Mfumu Henry Yachiwiri, ya ku France, kunyumba yake yachifumu

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Images, both pages: © Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, Paris