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Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira—Gawo 5

Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira—Gawo 5

 Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira​—Gawo 5

Zimene Baibulo Limanena Zokhudza Ufumu wa Girisi

Ino ndi nkhani yachisanu pa nkhani 7 zotsatizana zimene zilembedwe m’magazini a “Galamukani!” Nkhanizi zikufotokoza za maufumu 7 otchulidwa m’Baibulo amene analamulirapo dziko lonse. Cholinga cha nkhanizi n’kusonyeza kuti Baibulo ndi lodalirika komanso kuti linauziridwa ndi Mulungu. Cholinga chinanso ndi kusonyeza kuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo umatipatsa chiyembekezo chakuti mavuto onse amene ulamuliro wa anthu wabweretsa, adzatha.

M’ZAKA za m’ma 300 B.C.E., mnyamata wina wa ku Makedoniya, dzina lake Alekizanda, anatchukitsa dziko la Girisi * padziko lonse. Iye anachititsanso kuti dziko la Girisi likhale ufumu wachisanu pa maufumu otchulidwa m’Baibulo amene analamulirapo dziko lonse. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, mnyamatayu anayamba kudziwika ndi dzina lakuti Alekizanda Wamkulu. Maufumu ena amene analamulirapo dziko lonse ufumu wa Girisi usanayambe kulamulira anali Iguputo, Asuri, Babulo, ndiponso Mediya ndi Perisiya.

Alekizanda atamwalira, ufumu wake unagawanika ndipo unayamba kuchepa mphamvu. Komabe ngakhale patapita zaka zambiri ufumuwu utatha, anthu anali kutsatirabe chikhalidwe, chilankhulo, chipembedzo ndiponso nzeru za Agiriki.

Mbiri Yodalirika

Baibulo silitchula kuti panali mneneri aliyense wa Mulungu amene anakhalapo pa nthawi ya ufumu wa Girisi, komanso pa nthawi imeneyi sikunalembedwe mabuku alionse a m’Baibulo ouziridwa ndi Mulungu. Ngakhale zili choncho, ufumu wa Girisi umatchulidwa m’maulosi a m’Baibulo. Ndiponso, Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu, amene anthu ambiri amawatchula kuti Chipangano Chatsopano, nthawi zambiri amafokoza zinthu zimene Agiriki ankachita, zomwe anthu ena anatengera. Ndipotu, ku Isiraeli kunali dera lokhala ndi mizinda 10 ya Agiriki lomwe linkatchedwa Dekapole, mawu  achigiriki otanthauza “mizinda 10.” (Mateyu 4:25; Maliko 5:20; 7:31) Baibulo limatchula dera limeneli maulendo angapo, ndipo zolemba za akatswiri a mbiri yakale komanso mabwinja a malo ochitira zisudzo, malo oonerera masewero osiyanasiyana, akachisi, ndi malo osambira, amasonyeza kuti mizindayi inalipodi.

M’Baibulo muli mavesi ambiri amene amatchula zinthu zokhudza chikhalidwe ndi chipembedzo cha Agiriki, makamaka m’buku la Machitidwe. Bukuli linalembedwa ndi Luka, yemwe anali dokotala. Taonani zitsanzo zotsatirazi:

Pofotokoza zimene zinachitika pa nthawi imene Paulo anapita ku Atene mu 50 C.E., Baibulo limanena kuti mzindawo ‘unali wodzaza ndi mafano.’ (Machitidwe 17:16) Zimene akatswiri a mbiri yakale apeza zimatsimikizira kuti mumzinda wa Atene ndi m’madera ozungulira mzindawu munalidi modzaza ndi mafano ndiponso akachisi.

Lemba la Machitidwe 17:21 limati “nzika zonse za mu Atene ndi alendo ogonera kumeneko, anali kuthera nthawi yawo yonse yopuma akufotokoza kapena kumvetsera nkhani yatsopano.” Zolemba za Thucydides ndi Demosthenes zimasonyeza kuti anthu a ku Atene ankakondadi kwambiri kumangocheza ndi kuchita mtsutso.

Baibulo limanena kuti “ena anzeru za dziko, Aepikureya ndi Asitoiki anayamba kutsutsana” ndi Paulo, ndipo anamutengera ku Areopagi kuti akawauze zambiri. (Machitidwe 17:18, 19) Mzinda wa Atene unkadziwika kwambiri chifukwa cha anthu amene ankaonedwa kuti ndi anzeru, monga Aepikureya ndi Asitoiki.

Paulo anatchula za guwa lina lansembe la ku Atene lolembedwa kuti “Kwa Mulungu Wosadziwika.” (Machitidwe 17:23) Zikuoneka kuti maguwa ansembe olemekeza mulungu wosadziwika anamangidwa ndi Epimenides wa ku Kerete.

Polankhula ndi anthu a ku Atene, Paulo anagwira mawu a m’ndakatulo ina akuti, “pakuti ndife mbadwa zake” ndipo anasonyeza kuti mawuwa sanalankhulidwe ndi wandakatulo mmodzi, koma ndi andakatulo ambiri, ponena kuti analembedwa ndi “andakatulo ena pakati panu.” (Machitidwe 17:28) Zikuoneka kuti andakatulo achigiriki amenewa anali Aratus ndi Cleanthes.

N’chifukwa chake katswiri wina wa Baibulo analemba kuti: “Ineyo ndimaona kuti nkhani yofotokoza za ulendo wa Paulo ku Atene inalembedwa ndi munthu amene anapitadi kumeneko n’kuona ndi maso ake zinthu zimene analembazo.” Zimenezi n’zofanananso ndi mmene Baibulo limafotokozera  za ulendo wa Paulo wa ku Efeso, ku Asia Minor. M’nthawi ya atumwi, mumzinda umenewu munkachitikabe zinthu zambiri zotengedwa ku chipembedzo chachikunja cha Agiriki, makamaka zokhudzana ndi kulambira Atemi, mulungu wamkazi.

Kachisi wa Atemi, yemwe ali m’gulu la zinthu 7 zakale zodabwitsa kwambiri padziko lonse, amatchulidwa maulendo angapo m’buku la Machitidwe. Mwachitsanzo, bukuli limafotokoza kuti utumiki wa Paulo ku Efeso unakwiyitsa munthu wina dzina lake Demetiriyo, yemwe anali ndi bizinezi yotentha yopanga tiakachisi tasiliva ta Atemi. Demetiriyo ananena mokwiya kuti Paulo “wakopa anthu ambirimbiri ndi kuwapatutsira ku chikhulupiriro china. . . . Iye akumanena kuti milungu yopangidwa ndi manja si milungu ayi.” (Machitidwe 19:23-28) Kenako Demetiriyo anachititsa kuti chikhamu cha anthu amene anali pamenepo nachonso chikwiye n’kuyamba kukuwa kuti: “Wamkulu ndi Atemi mulungu wa Aefeso!”

Masiku ano anthu amatha kupita pamalo pamene panali mzinda wa Efeso ndiponso pamene panali kachisi wa Atemi kukaona mabwinja ake. Komanso zinthu zakale zolembedwa ku Efeso zimatsimikizira kuti anthu ankapangadi mafano a mulungu wamkaziyu ndiponso kuti mumzindamu munali gulu la anthu opanga zinthu zosiyanasiyana zasiliva.

Ulosi Wodalirika

Patatsala zaka pafupifupi 200 kuti Alekizanda Wamkulu ayambe kulamulira, mneneri wa Yehova Mulungu, dzina lake Danieli, analemba zokhudza maulamuliro a padziko lapansi. Iye anati: “Ndinangoona mbuzi yamphongo ikuchokera kolowera dzuwa kudutsa padziko lonse lapansi koma sinali kukhudza pansi. Pakati pa maso a mbuziyo panali nyanga yoonekera patali. Mbuziyo inali kubwera kumene kunali nkhosa yamphongo yokhala ndi nyanga ziwiri ija, . . . ndipo inali kubwera mwamphamvu kwa nkhosayo, ili ndi mkwiyo waukulu. . . . Kenako inagunda nkhosa yamphongoyo ndi kuthyola nyanga zake ziwiri, ndipo nkhosa yamphongoyo inalibe mphamvu zotha kulimbana ndi mbuzi yamphongoyo. Choncho mbuziyo inagwetsera pansi nkhosa yamphongoyo ndi kuipondaponda . . . Mbuzi yamphongoyo inali kudzitama mopitirira muyezo, koma itangokhala yamphamvu, nyanga yake yaikulu inathyoledwa. Pamalo pake panamera nyanga zinayi zoonekera patali zoloza kumphepo zinayi zakumwamba.”—Danieli 8:5-8.

Kodi ulosiwu unkanena za ndani? Danieli anafotokoza kuti: “Nkhosa yamphongo ya nyanga ziwiri imene unaona, ikuimira mfumu ya Mediya ndi mfumu ya Perisiya. Mbuzi yamphongo yaubweya wambiri ikuimira mfumu ya Girisi, ndipo nyanga yaikulu imene inali pakati pa maso ake ikuimira mfumu yoyamba.”—Danieli 8:20-22.

Zimenezi n’zochititsa chidwi kwambiri. Pa nthawi imene ufumu wa Babulo unkalamulira padziko lonse, Baibulo linaneneratu kuti maufumu otsatira adzakhala Mediya ndi Perisiya ndiponso Girisi. Komanso, monga mmene tanenera kale, Baibulo linachita kuneneratu kuti ‘mbuzi yamphongoyo ikadzangokhala yamphamvu, nyanga yake yaikulu,’ kutanthauza Alekizanda, ‘idzathyoledwa’ ndipo idzalowedwa m’malo ndi anthu ena anayi. Ulosiwu unafotokozanso kuti anthu amenewa sadzakhala ana a Alekizanda.—Danieli 11:4.

Ulosiwu unakwaniritsidwa ndendende. Alekizanda anakhala mfumu m’chaka cha 336 B.C.E. ndipo m’zaka 7 zokha anagonjetsa mfumu yamphamvu ya Perisiya, Dariyo Wachitatu. Kenako Alekizanda anapitiriza kugonjetsa madera ena mpaka pamene anamwalira mu 323 B.C.E., ali ndi zaka 32 zokha. Alekizanda sanalowedwe m’malo ndi munthu mmodzi yekha, kapena ndi mwana wake aliyense. Koma analowedwa m’malo ndi akuluakulu anayi a gulu lake la asilikali, Lasamekasi, Kasanda, Selukasi ndi Tolemi. Buku lina linati akuluakuluwa “anadziika okha kukhala mafumu,” ndipo analanda ufumuwo.—The Hellenistic Age.

 Pa nthawi imene Alekizanda ankagonjetsa madera ena, anakwaniritsa maulosi enanso a m’Baibulo. Mwachitsanzo, mneneri Ezekieli ndi Zekariya, omwe anakhala ndi moyo m’zaka za m’ma 600 ndi 500 B.C.E., ananeneratu za kuwonongedwa kwa mzinda wa Turo. (Ezekieli 26:3-5, 12; 27:32-36; Zekariya 9:3, 4) Ezekieli anachita kulemba kuti miyala ndi dothi zochokera mumzindawu ‘zidzaponyedwa m’madzi.’ Kodi ulosi umenewu unakwaniritsidwa?

Taganizirani zimene asilikali a Alekizanda anachita pamene ankafuna kugonjetsa mzinda wa Turo mu 332 B.C.E. Iwo anakokolola dothi la mabwinja a mzinda wakale wa Turo wapafupi ndi nyanja n’kukalithira m’nyanja kuti apange njira yokafikira pa mzinda wapanyanja wa Turo, womwe unali pachilumba. Kenako iwo anagonjetsa mzindawo. Katswiri wina amene anafufuza mabwinja a mzinda wapachilumba wa Turo m’zaka za m’ma 1800 anati: “Maulosi onena za Turo anakwaniritsidwa onse ndendende, ngakhale pa zinthu zing’onozing’ono kwambiri.” *

Chiyembekezo Chodalirika

Ufumu wa Alekizanda sunabweretse mtendere ndi chitetezo padziko. Katswiri wina atafufuza bwinobwino za ufumu wakale wa Girisi, anati: “Moyo wa anthu wamba, . . . sunasinthe kwenikweni.” Zimenezi zakhala zikuchitika pa nthawi yonse imene anthu akhala akulamulira anthu anzawo, ndipo zikungotsimikizira mawu opezeka m’Baibulo akuti, “munthu wapweteka munthu mnzake pomulamulira.”—Mlaliki 8:9.

Koma ulamuliro wankhanza wa anthu sudzapitirira mpaka kalekale, chifukwa Mulungu wakhazikitsa boma labwino kwambiri kuposa boma lililonse la anthu. Boma limeneli limatchedwa kuti Ufumu wa Mulungu ndipo lidzalowa m’malo mwa maboma onse a anthu. Anthu amene lizidzawalamulira adzakhala pamtendere weniweni komanso adzakhala ndi chitetezo chokwanira kwamuyaya.—Yesaya 25:6; 65:21, 22; Danieli 2:35, 44; Chivumbulutso 11:15.

Mfumu ya Ufumu wa Mulungu si winanso ayi, koma Yesu Khristu. Iye ndi wosiyana kwambiri ndi olamulira a masiku ano amene amangofuna udindo ndipo saganizira anthu awo. Yesu adzakhala wolamulira wabwino chifukwa amakonda kwambiri Mulungu komanso anthu. Ponena za Yesu, wamasalimo wina analosera kuti: “Adzalanditsa wosauka wofuulira thandizo, komanso wosautsika ndi aliyense wopanda womuthandiza. Adzamvera chisoni munthu wonyozeka ndi wosauka, ndipo adzapulumutsa miyoyo ya anthu osauka. Adzawombola miyoyo yawo ku chipsinjo ndi chiwawa.”—Salimo 72:12-14.

Kodi ameneyu ndi Wolamulira amene mumalakalaka? Ngati ndi choncho, mungachite bwino kuona zimene unachita ufumu wa Roma. Umenewu ndi ufumu wa 6 pa maufumu otchulidwa m’Baibulo omwe analamulirapo padziko lonse. Mpulumutsi amene ananenedweratu anabadwa pa nthawi ya ulamuliro wa ufumu wa Roma, ndipo anasintha kwambiri moyo wa anthu padzikoli. Kuti mumve zambiri za ufumu umenewu, mudzawerenge nkhani ya nambala 6 pa nkhani zimenezi, yomwe idzatuluke m’magazini yotsatira ya Galamukani!

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Dziko la Girisi limene likutchulidwa m’nkhani ino ndi lakale, osati la masiku ano.

^ ndime 23 Monga momwe Ezekieli analoserera, mzinda wa Turo unagonjetsedwa koyamba ndi Nebukadirezara, mfumu ya Babulo. (Ezekieli 26:7) Kenako mzindawo unamangidwanso. Mzinda umene unamangidwansowu ndi umene unawonongedwa ndi Alekizanda, ndipo zimenezi zinakwaniritsa mawu onse a aneneri.

[Mapu/Chithunzi patsamba 18]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Baibulo linalosera molondola zoti Alekizanda Wamkulu adzagonjetsa madera ambiri ndiponso zoti ufumu wake udzagawanika

[Mapu]

UFUMU WA GIRISI

GIRISI

IGUPUTO

MEDIYA

PERISIYA

INDIA

[Mapu patsamba 20]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Alekizanda anakwaniritsa ulosi wa m’Baibulo pamene anakokolola dothi pamabwinja a mzinda wakale wa Turo n’kumangira njira yopita kumzinda wapachilumba wa Turo

KUMTUNDA

Njira imene Alekizanda anamanga

TURO

MZINDA WA TURO WAMASIKU ANO

Pamene anthu akhala akutayirapo dothi kwa zaka zambiri

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Kutatsala zaka 200, Baibulo linaneneratu za Alekizanda Wamkulu

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Chifaniziro cha Atemi, mulungu wamkazi wa ku Efeso

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Guwa lansembe lolemekeza mulungu wosadziwika

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Top, time line: Egyptian wall relief and bust of Nero: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum; Persian wall relief: Musée du Louvre, Paris; bottom, bust of Alexander the Great: Musée du Louvre, Paris