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Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira—Gawo 4

Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira—Gawo 4

 Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira​—Gawo 4

Zimene Baibulo Limanena Zokhudza Ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya

Ino ndi nkhani yachinayi pa nkhani 7 zotsatizana zimene zilembedwe m’magazini a “Galamukani!” Nkhanizi zikufotokoza za maufumu 7 otchulidwa m’Baibulo amene analamulirapo dziko lonse. Cholinga cha nkhanizi n’kusonyeza kuti Baibulo ndi lodalirika komanso kuti linauziridwa ndi Mulungu. Cholinga chinanso ndi kusonyeza kuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo umatipatsa chiyembekezo chakuti mavuto onse amene ulamuliro wa anthu wabweretsa, adzatha.

MABWINJA a nyumba zachifumu ndiponso manda a mafumu amangosonyeza pang’ono chabe ukulu, mphamvu komanso chuma cha ufumu wakale wa Amedi ndi Aperisiya. Maufumu awiriwa asanakhale ufumu umodzi, ufumu wa Mediya ndi umene unali ndi mphamvu kwambiri. Koma m’chaka cha 550 B.C.E., Amedi anagonjetsedwa ndi mfumu ya Perisiya yotchedwa Koresi Wachiwiri, yomwe kenako inayamba kulamulira maufumu onse awiri, Mediya ndi Perisiya. Ufumuwu unkalamulira dera lalikulu kwambiri, kuyambira kunyanja ya Aegean mpaka ku Iguputo, mpakanso kukafika kumpoto chakumadzulo kwa dziko la India. Ufumuwu unkalamuliranso chigawo cha Yudeya. Likulu la ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya linali ku Persian Gulf, dera lakum’mwera chakumadzulo kwa dziko la Iran.

Ayuda analamuliridwa ndi ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya kwa zaka zoposa 200, kuyambira m’chaka cha 539 B.C.E. pamene ufumuwo unagonjetsa ufumu wa Babulo, mpaka pamene ufumuwo unagonjetsedwa ndi Agiriki mu 331 B.C.E. Mabuku ambiri a m’Baibulo amafotokoza zinthu zikuluzikulu zimene zinachitika pa nthawi imeneyi.

Mbiri Yodalirika

Baibulo limatiuza kuti Mfumu Koresi Yachiwiri inamasula Ayuda amene anali pa ukapolo ku Babulo ndipo inawalola kuti abwerere ku Yerusalemu kukamanganso kachisi wa Mulungu, amene Ababulo anamuwononga mu 607 B.C.E. (Ezara 1:1-7; 6:3-5) Phale linalake limene limadziwika ndi dzina lakuti Phale la Koresi, limatsimikizira nkhani ya m’Baibulo imeneyi. Phaleli analipeza m’mabwinja a Babulo m’chaka cha 1879. Paphalepa anatchulapo dzina la Koresi komanso anafotokozapo mfundo imene iye ankayendera yolola akapolo amene anawapeza poyamba ulamuliro wake kubwerera kwawo komanso kutenga zinthu zilizonse zogwiritsa ntchito polambira. Yesaya analemba m’Baibulo mawu a Yehova olosera za Koresi, akuti: “‘Adzakwaniritsa bwinobwino zonse zimene ndikufuna,’ ngakhale zimene ndanena  zokhudza Yerusalemu zakuti, ‘Adzamangidwanso,’ ndi zokhudza kachisi zakuti, ‘Maziko ako adzamangidwa.’”—Yesaya 44:28.

Ndipotu lemba la Ezara 6:3, 4 limanena kuti Koresi analamula kuti ndalama zomangira kachisiyo “zichokere kunyumba ya mfumu.” Lamulo lochititsa chidwi limeneli likugwirizana ndi zimene olemba mbiri anenapo. Mwachitsanzo, buku lina linati: “Chinali chizolowezi cha olamulira a Perisiya kuthandiza anthu amene anali kuwalamulira mu ufumu wawo kuti amangenso makachisi awo.”—Persia and the Bible.

Baibulo limanena kuti kenako adani a Ayuda analembera kalata Dariyo Wamkulu (yemwe amadziwikanso kuti Dariyo Woyamba) yomuuza kuti akukayikira zimene Ayuda ankanena zoti Koresi anawapatsa chilolezo choti amangenso kachisi. Dariyo analamula kuti anthu afufuze chikalata chimene Koresi anaperekera chilolezo chimenechi. Kodi ofufuzawo anapeza zotani? Iwo anapeza mpukutu umene munalembedwa chilolezo cha Koresi chija. Mpukutuwu anaupeza mumzinda wa Ekibatana, womwe unali likulu la ufumuwo. Kenako Dariyo anawayankha anthu aja kuti: “Ine Dariyo ndaika lamulo limeneli [loti kachisi amangidwenso], ndipo zichitike mwamsanga.” Zitatero, adani aja anasiya kusokoneza ntchito yomanga kachisi ija. *Ezara 6:2, 7, 12, 13.

Zimene olemba mabuku a mbiri yakale anenapo zikugwirizana ndi zimene zili m’Baibulo. Koresi anali ndi nyumba ina ku Ekibatana komwe ankakhalako m’nyengo yotentha, ndipo n’kutheka kuti chilolezo chija anachiperekera kumeneko. Komanso, zimene ofukula zinthu zakale apeza zikusonyeza kuti mafumu a Mediya ndi Perisiya ankazitsata kwambiri nkhani zachipembedzo zokhudza ufumu wawo. Komanso, anthu akamakangana pa nkhani zachipembedzo, iwo ankatha kulemba makalata kuti athetse mikanganoyo.

Ulosi Wodalirika

M’masomphenya amene Mulungu anaonetsa mneneri Danieli, mneneriyu anaona zilombo zinayi zikutuluka m’nyanja, ndipo chilombo chilichonse chinkaimira ufumu wolamulira dziko lonse. Chilombo choyamba chinali mkango wokhala ndi mapiko ndipo chinkaimira ulamuliro wa Babulo. Chachiwiri chinali “chooneka ngati chimbalangondo.” Pofotokoza za chilombo chachiwirichi, Baibulo limati: “Chilombochi chinauzidwa kuti, ‘Nyamuka, idya nyama yambiri.’” (Danieli 7:5) Chimbalangondo choopsacho chinkaimira ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya.

Mogwirizana ndi ulosi wa Danieli, ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya unalidi woopsa chifukwa unagonjetsa mayiko ambiri. Pasanapite nthawi yaitali kuchokera pamene Danieli anaona masomphenya ake, Koresi anagonjetsa Amedi ndipo kenako anamenya nkhondo ndi dziko la Lidiya ndiponso la Babulo. Mwana wake, dzina lake Kambisesi Wachiwiri, anagonjetsa Iguputo. Kenako, olamulira enanso a ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya anagonjetsa madera ena ndipo ufumuwo unakula kwambiri.

Kodi tingatsimikizire bwanji kuti chimbalangondo chija chinkaimiradi ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya? M’masomphenya ena ogwirizana ndi amenewa, Danieli anaona nkhosa yamphongo “ikugunda kumadzulo, kumpoto ndi kum’mwera.” Ulosiwu unakwaniritsidwa pamene ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya ‘unagunda,’ kapena kuti kugonjetsa mitundu ina, kuphatikizapo ufumu wamphamvu wa Babulo. Mngelo wa Mulungu anamasulira masomphenyawa pouza Danieli kuti: “Nkhosa yamphongo ya nyanga ziwiri imene unaona, ikuimira mfumu ya Mediya ndi mfumu ya Perisiya.”Danieli 8:3, 4, 20.

 Ndiponso kutatsala zaka pafupifupi 200 kuti ufumu wa Babulo ugonjetsedwe, mneneri Yesaya anatchula dzina la mfumu ya Perisiya imene idzagonjetse ufumu wa Babulo. Iye analoseranso zimene mfumuyo idzachite pogonjetsa ufumu wa Babulo. Yesaya analemba kuti: “Ine Yehova ndalankhula kwa wodzozedwa wanga. Ndalankhula kwa Koresi amene ndamugwira dzanja lake lamanja kuti ndigonjetse mitundu ya anthu . . . kuti ndimutsegulire zitseko zokhala ziwiriziwiri, moti ngakhale zipata sizidzatsekedwa.” (Yesaya 45:1) Ku Babulo kunali “mitsinje,” kapena kuti ngalande, zimene zinkatenga madzi ake mumtsinje wa Firate. Ngalande zimenezi zinkateteza mzindawo kwa adani. Yesaya ndi Yeremiya analosera kuti ngalande zimenezi zidzauma. (Yesaya 44:27; Yeremiya 50:38) Zimene analemba akatswiri awiri a mbiri yakale achigiriki, Herodotasi ndi Zenofoni, zimatsimikizira kuti zimene Baibulo limanena ndi zoona. Mwachitsanzo, iwo anatsimikizira nkhani yakuti Ababulo anali pachikondwerero usiku umene Koresi anagonjetsa mzindawo. (Yesaya 21:5, 9; Danieli 5:1-4, 30) Asilikali a Koresi anapatutsa madzi a mumtsinje wa Firate n’kufika pa zipata za mzindawo zomwe zinali m’mphepete mwa mtsinjewo. Zipatazo zinasiyidwa zosatseka, choncho iwo analowa mumzindawo mosavuta. Usiku umodzi wokha, ufumu wamphamvu wa Babulo unagonjetsedwa.

Zimenezi zinachititsanso kuti ulosi wina wochititsa chidwi kwambiri ukwaniritsidwe. Ulosi wake ndi wa mneneri Yeremiya womwe unali wakuti anthu a Mulungu adzakhala ku ukapolo ku Babulo kwa zaka zokwana 70. (Yeremiya 25:11, 12; 29:10) Ulosiwu unakwaniritsidwa pa nthawi yake yeniyeni ndipo akapolowo analoledwa kubwerera kwawo pambuyo pa zaka 70.

Chiyembekezo Chodalirika

Patangopita nthawi yochepa kuchokera pamene ufumu wa Mediya ndi Perisiya unagonjetsa ufumu wa Babulo, Danieli analemba ulosi wina wofunika kwambiri. Ulosiwu umanena za chinthu chofunika kwambiri pokwaniritsa cholinga cha Mulungu chokhudza anthu. Mngelo Gabirieli anauza Danieli nthawi yeniyeni imene Mesiya adzaonekere, yemwe ndi “mbewu” imene inalonjezedwa pa Genesis 3:15. Mngelo wa Mulungu anati: “Kuchokera pamene mawu adzamveka onena kuti Yerusalemu akonzedwe ndi kumangidwanso, kufika pamene Mesiya Mtsogoleri adzaonekere, padzadutsa milungu 7, komanso milungu 62,” yonse pamodzi milungu 69. (Danieli 9:25) Kodi nthawi imene ulosiwu unanena inayamba liti?

Ngakhale kuti Koresi analola Ayuda kubwerera kudziko lawo pasanapite nthawi yaitali kuchokera pamene ufumu wa Babulo unatha, panapita zaka zambiri kuti mzinda wa Yerusalemu ndi zipata zake ziyambe kukonzedwa. Mu 455 B.C.E., Mfumu Aritasasita inalola Nehemiya, yemwe anali woperekera chikho wake, kuti abwerere kwawo ku Yerusalemu kukatsogolera pa ntchito yomanga. (Nehemiya 2:1-6) Apa m’pamene panayambira milungu 69 yotchulidwa mu ulosi uja.

Koma milungu 69 imeneyi inali yophiphiritsa. Inali milungu ya zaka osati ya masiku. Mlungu uliwonse unkaimira zaka 7, osati masiku 7. Ndipotu Mabaibulo ena anamasulira mawu akuti “milungu” kuti “milungu ya zaka.” * (Danieli 9:24, 25) Mesiya anayenera kuonekera patatha milungu 69, zomwe ndi zaka 483. Ulosiwu unakwaniritsidwa mu 29 C.E. pamene Yesu anabatizidwa. Apa n’kuti patatha zaka ndendende 483 kuchokera m’chaka cha 455 B.C.E. *

Ulosi wa Danieli umenewu unakwaniritsidwa ndendende ndipo kuwonjezera pa maumboni enanso ambirimbiri amene alipo, ulosiwu umatsimikizira kuti Yesu analidi Mesiya. Ulosiwu umatitsimikiziranso kuti zinthu zabwino zimene tikuyembekezera m’tsogolo, zidzachitikadi. Yesu, monga Mfumu ya Ufumu wa Mulungu, adzathetsa ulamuliro wankhanza wa anthu. Kenako, iye adzakwaniritsa maulosi enanso ambiri a m’Baibulo, kuphatikizapo ulosi wonena kuti anthu akufa adzauka n’kukhala ndi moyo wosatha m’Paradaiso padziko lapansi.—Danieli 12:2; Yohane 5:28, 29; Chivumbulutso 21:3-5.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 9 Mafumu amene anagwiritsapo ntchito dzina lakuti Dariyo analipo atatu kapena kuposa pamenepo.

^ ndime 20 Mabaibulo ena amene anamasulira kuti “milungu ya zaka,” ndi awa: Tanakh—A New Translation of the Holy Scriptures, The Complete Bible—An American Translation, ndi The Bible—Containing the Old and New Testaments, lomasuliridwa ndi James Moffatt.

^ ndime 20 Mukafuna kumva zambiri zokhudza ulosi umenewu, kuphatikizapo tchati chosonyeza milungu 69 yoimira zaka imeneyi, onani masamba 198-199 m’buku lakuti Kodi Baibulo Limaphunzitsa Chiyani Kwenikweni?

[Tchati/Zithunzi patsamba 18]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

455 B.C.E. 29 C.E.

Kuchokera nthawi yomwe lamulo lomanganso mzinda wa Yerusalemu linaperekedwa kudzafika nthawi imene Mesiya anaonekera, panapita zaka ndendende 483

[Chithunzi pamasamba 16, 17]

Phale la Koresi limene analembapo mfundo imene Koresi ankayendera yolola akapolo amene anawapeza poyamba ulamuliro wake, kubwerera kwawo

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Manda a Koresi alipobe m’mabwinja a mzinda wakale wa Pasargadae, komwe panopa ndi ku Iran

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Page 16, top, time line: Egyptian wall relief and bust of Nero: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum; Persian wall relief: Musée du Louvre, Paris; bottom, Cyrus Cylinder: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum; page 17, Cyrus’ tomb: © Richard Ashworth/age fotostock