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Anatchona Kofunafuna Golide

Anatchona Kofunafuna Golide

 Anatchona Kofunafuna Golide

KUMATCHAINA. M’mizinda yambiri padzikoli, anthu akamva mawu amenewa amaganiza za masitolo akuluakulu a Matchaina, malesitilanti awo, zikondwerero ndiponso magule awo. Komatu dera lililonse lomwe kuli Matchaina lili ndi mbiri yake. Mwachitsanzo, Matchaina amene ali ku Australia masiku ano, ndi ana a anthu amene anachoka ku China n’cholinga chodzafunafuna golide m’migodi yomwe anali atangoitulukira kumene.

Phiri la Golide Latsopano

Poyamba panali anthu ochepa chabe a ku China amene ankapita ku Australia, koma atangopezako golide mu 1851, kunayamba kukhamukira chinamtindi cha Matchaina. Amuna masauzande ambirimbiri anachoka m’chigawo cha Guangdong chimene chili pafupi ndi mtsinje wa Pearl ku China, n’kuyenda ulendo wotopetsa ndiponso woopsa wa panyanja kulowera kum’mwera. Zaka za m’mbuyomo, ku California, m’dziko la United States, kunali kutapezeka golide ndipo anthu ena a ku China olankhula Chikantonizi anatcha migodi ya golideyo kuti Phiri la Golide. Choncho, migodi ya ku Australia inayamba kudziwika kuti Phiri la Golide Latsopano.

Kuwonjezera pa kufunafuna golide, panali zinthu zinanso zomwe zinkachititsa anthuwa kusamuka. Anthu a ku China anali pa mavuto aakulu chifukwa kunachitika nkhondo ya pachiweniweni, masoka achilengedwe, ndiponso kunali umphawi.

Koma n’zachisoni kuti ena mwa anthu oyambirira kupita ku Australia ankafera m’njira. Iwo ankafa ndi matenda amene ankayamba chifukwa chokhala mothithikana m’sitima komanso chifukwa chakuti ulendowo unali wautali. Ngakhale kuti anthu ena anapulumuka n’kukafika ku Australia, iwo ankakhala movutika kwambiri kusiyana ndi mmene ankayembekezera.

Ankagwira Ntchito Yakalavula Gaga

Anthu ambiri ankasungulumwa, chifukwa ambiri anasiya akazi komanso ana awo ku China n’cholinga choti azisamalira malo awo komanso kuti dzina la banja lawo lisaferetu. Mu 1861, ku Australia kunali amuna ochokera ku China okwana 38,000,  pamene akazi analipo 11 okha. Koma anthu amene anali ndi cholinga chokhaliratu kumeneko anali ochepa kwambiri. Ambiri ankafunitsitsa kuti tsiku lina adzabwerere kwawo ali ndi chuma komanso ali anthu olemekezeka.

Zimenezi n’zimene zinkawachititsa kuti azigwira ntchito mwakhama pofunafuna golide. Anthuwa ankakhala m’matenti ndiponso ankagwira ntchito nthawi yaitali padzuwa. Poyambirira penipeni, ena ankaopa kukumba golide m’migodi ya pansi pa nthaka chifukwa cha zikhulupiriro zawo. Choncho, ankangokumba dothi lapamwamba n’kumalisungunula ndi madzi kuti achotsemo golide. Khama lawo linawapindulira. Akuti kuyambira m’chaka cha 1854 kufika m’chaka cha 1862, golide wolemera pafupifupi makilogalamu 18,662 amene anapezeka m’chigawo cha Victoria, anatumizidwa ku China.

Koma n’zomvetsa chisoni kuti china mwa chuma chimenechi chinkangosakazidwa, chifukwa anthuwa ankakonda juga komanso mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Iwo ankachita zinthu zimenezi chifukwa cha kusungulumwa. Nthawi zambiri, zotsatira zake zinali zakuti ankawononga thanzi lawo, ndalama, komanso ankalephera kubwerera kwawo. Ena mwa anthuwa ankalandira chithandizo kuchokera ku mabungwe a Matchaina komanso kwa anthu akufuna kwabwino. Koma ena anafa asanakalambe, ali okhaokha komanso ali osauka.

 Matchainawa ankakumananso ndi mavuto ena. Iwo ankadedwa komanso kukayikiridwa ndi nzika za dzikolo zogwira ntchito m’migodi, zomwe zinkaona kuti alendowa zinthu zikuwayendera chifukwa anali anthu akhama komanso ankathandizana kwambiri. Nsanje imeneyi inachititsa kuti anthuwo azichitira Matchainawo zinthu zachiwawa ndiponso aziwamenya. Ankawabera golide wawo ndiponso ankawawotchera matenti ndi zinthu zawo zina. Koma patapita nthawi, nkhanza zimenezi zinachepa. Komabe mu 1901, patatha zaka 50 kuchokera pamene golide anapezeka m’dzikoli, boma linakhazikitsa lamulo loletsa anthu a ku Asia kupita ku Australia. Lamuloli linalipobe mpaka mu 1973.

Golide Atatha, Ena Sanabwerere Kwawo

Golide atatha m’migodi, anthu ena a ku China anasankha kungokhalabe ku Australia komweko. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, Matchaina anatsegula malo ochapira zovala, malesitilanti, komanso minda yolima mbewu zosiyanasiyana m’madera omwe ankakhala. Matchaina anayamba kudziwikanso ndi luso lopanga zinthu zamatabwa komanso kulima zipatso ndi ndiwo zamasamba. Choncho, pofika kumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1800, m’mizinda yambiri ya ku Australia monga Atherton, Brisbane, Broome, Cairns, Darwin, Melbourne, Sydney, ndi Townsville, munali madera okhala Matchaina.

Chifukwa chakuti ndi akazi ochepa okha amene anapita ku Australia kuchokera ku China, amuna ambiri ankangokhala osakwatira. Komabe ena ankakwatira akazi a ku Australia, ngakhale kuti mabanja otere ankasalidwa. Koma patapita nthawi, ana obadwira m’mabanja amenewa anakhala mtundu waukulu ku Australia.

Masiku ano ku Australia kumapezeka Matchaina ambiri kuposa kale. Ambiri amabwera chifukwa cha sukulu kapena kudzachita bizinezi. Komanso masiku ano akazi ambiri a ku China amabwera ku Australia. Ndiponso panopa chifukwa cha kusintha kwa zachuma, amuna ambiri a ku China amasiya mabanja awo ku Australia n’kubwerera ku Asia kuti akagwire ntchito ku China, Hong Kong, Singapore, kapena ku Taiwan.

Koma ngakhale kuti zinthu zasintha kwambiri masiku ano, cholinga cha anthu amene amapita kukakhazikika m’mayiko ena sichinasinthe. Ambiri cholinga chawo chimakhala chokafunafuna ndalama komanso moyo wapamwamba.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 20]

ANKATSIKIRA PANJIRA

Poopa kupereka msonkho wolowera m’dzikolo, anthu ambiri ochokera ku China akamapita kukagwira ntchito ya m’migodi ku Australia ankatsikira panjira. Iwo ankatsikira kutali kwambiri ndi madoko akuluakulu komanso kutali ndi migodi ya golide. Ena ankatsikira pamalo otchedwa Robe, kum’mwera kwa dziko la Australia. Ku Robe kunkakhala anthu pakati pa 100 ndi 200, koma mu 1857, m’miyezi isanu yokha, m’derali munadutsa anthu a ku China oposa 12,000.

Kuti anthu akwanitse kuyenda ulendo umenewu, ankafunika kupirira komanso kukhala ogwirizana kwambiri. Popita kumigodiyi, amuna ambirimbiri ankanyamukira limodzi ndipo nthawi zambiri ankadutsa m’chipululu. Ulendowu unali wautali kwambiri kuposa mmene anthuwo ankaganizira, ndipo unkawatengera milungu isanu. M’njira, iwo ankadya zomera zinazake zam’nyanja ndiponso nyama zinazake zakutchire. Ankakumbanso zitsime ndipo ankaika zizindikiro m’njira n’cholinga choti anzawo asavutike akafuna kuwatsatira.

Anthuwa ankamanga zingongo ziwiri zitalizitali kumutu kwawo ndipo ankavala zipewa zosongoka n’kumathamanga m’mizeremizere uku akuimba nyimbo. Ndalama zachitsulo zakhala zikupezeka m’njira zomwe ankadutsa. Iwo ankataya ndalamazo akamva kuti zinalibe ntchito ku Australia.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Image H17071, State Library of Victoria.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Anapeza Chinthu Chamtengo Wapatali Kuposa Golide

Wayne Qu ankagwira ntchito ngati katswiri wa sayansi yoteteza zachilengedwe ku bungwe linalake ku China. M’ma 1990, iye anapita ku Ulaya kukapitiriza maphunziro okhudzana ndi ntchito yakeyi. Anapita limodzi ndi mkazi wake, Sue. Ali kumeneko, Wayne ndi mkazi wake anakumana ndi Mboni za Yehova ndipo anakambirana nkhani zosiyanasiyana za m’Baibulo. Mu 2000, Wayne ndi Sue anasamukira ku Australia, kukapitiriza maphunziro awo. Sue ankachita maphunziro okhudza maselo a zinthu zamoyo. Ali kumeneko, iwo anayambiranso kuphunzira Baibulo ndi Mboni za Yehova.

Wayne anafotokoza kuti: “Tinatha zaka zambirimbiri tikuchita maphunziro apamwamba a ku yunivesite. Komabe, nthawi zina ndinkanena mumtima mwanga kuti: ‘Ngakhale tikulimbana ndi zinthu zimenezi, pamapeto pake tidzakalamba, kudwala, kenako n’kufa. Kodi cholinga cha moyo n’chimenechi basi?’ Ndinkaona kuti maphunziro omwe tikuchita alibe phindu kwenikweni. Koma Baibulo linatithandiza kumvetsa zinthu zofunika kwambiri zimene sitinkazimvetsa.

“Kuphunzira Baibulo kunatithandizanso kuti tiganizire mofatsa mfundo yakuti kunja kuno kuli Mlengi, yomwe tinali tisanaiganizirepo. Ndinawerenga buku la Mboni za Yehova lakuti Life—How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation? komanso buku la Charles Darwin limene limanena kuti zamoyo zinachita kusintha kuchokera ku zinthu zina. Zimene ndinawerenga komanso zinthu za sayansi zimene ndinafufuza pandekha, zinandithandiza kutsimikizira kuti kunja kuno kuli Mlengi. Mkazi wanganso anafika pokhulupirira zoti kuli Mlengi.

“Chinthu chinanso chimene chinatipangitsa kukhulupirira zakuti kunja kuno kuli Mulungu ndi mphamvu ya Baibulo yotha kusintha anthu oipa n’kukhala abwino. Kunena zoona, kuwonjezera pa kutipatsa chiyembekezo, Baibulo latithandiza kukhala ndi mabwenzi enieni ndiponso kukhala ndi banja lolimba. Ine ndi mkazi wanga tinabatizidwa mu 2005 ndipo ndife osangalala kuti tinapeza chinthu chamtengo wapatali kuposa maphunziro apamwamba kapena ‘golide amene amawonongeka.’”—1 Petulo 1:7.

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Munthu wa ku China wogwira ntchito mumgodi, m’ma 1860

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Sydney Chinatown: © ARCO/G Müller/age fotostock; gold miner: John Oxley Library, Image 60526, State Library of Queensland