Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Kachipangizo Kochititsa Chidwi

Kachipangizo Kochititsa Chidwi

 Kachipangizo Kochititsa Chidwi

M’CHAKA cha 1901, akatswiri ena ofufuza zinthu zapansi pamadzi anapeza zinthu zamtengo wapatali mu sitima imene inamira pafupi ndi chilumba cha ku Greece chotchedwa Antikythera. Sitimayo inali ya anthu amalonda a ku Rome ndipo inanyamula zinthu monga miyala yokongola, mkuwa ndi ndalama za siliva zochokera ku Pergamo. Ndalama zasilivazo zinathandiza anthu ofufuza kudziwa kuti sitimayo, yomwe mwina inkapita ku Rome, inamira pakati pachaka cha 85 ndi 60 B.C.E.

Zinthu zimene anazipeza m’sitimayo akhala akuzisunga kumalo ena osungira zinthu zakale a ku Athens m’dziko la Greece. Mu 2005 anthu ena ofufuza zinthu anapita kumalo amenewa, osati n’cholinga chokaona miyala yamtengo wapatali kapena ndalama zachitsulozo koma kukafufuza kachipangizo kenakake kachitsulo. Poyamba kachipangizoka kanali mu kabokosi kachitsulo kakakulu ngati bokosi loikamo nsapato. Kachipangizoka kathandiza kwambiri anthu kumvetsa luso lakale pankhani ya sayansi. Anthu amati kachipangizoka ndi “kochititsa chidwi kwambiri kuposa zinthu zonse za makedzana.”

Kodi kameneka n’kachipangizo kotani? Ndipo kali ndi phindu lanji?

Kachipangizo Kodabwitsa

Pomwe ankavuula pansi pa nyanja kabokosi komwe munali kachipangizoka, kanali ndi dzimbiri ndiponso mchenga wokhawokha. Kachipangizoka kanapezeka patatha zaka 2,000 ndipo kanali kakuoneka ngati mwala wandere. Poyamba anthu analibe nako chidwi kachipangizoka chifukwa kwenikweni anthuwa ankafuna miyala yamtengo wapatali.

Pamene katswiri wina wofufuza zinthu zakale wa ku Greece ankaunika kachipangizoka mu 1902, kanali katatsala tizidutswa tokhatokha. Kachipangizoka kanali ndi timateyala tamanomano ngati ta wotchi yamivi. Kankaonekanso ngati wotchi ya mivi komabe anthu sakhulupirira kuti imeneyi inalidi wotchi chifukwa nthawi imeneyo kunalibe mawotchi. Anthu anayamba kugwiritsira ntchito mawotchi patapita zaka 700.

Nkhani ina yonena za kachipangizoka imati, “akatswiri a mbiri yakale sakhulupirira kuti Agiriki a zaka 2,000 zapitazo ankadziwa kwambiri za sayansi moti n’kupanga timateyalati. Ankatipanga ndi zitsulo ndipo ankatilumikiza ndi timateyala tina.” Anthu ankaganiza kuti kachipangizoka kanali kofufuzira zinthu zakuthambo.

Koma anthu ambiri ankanena kuti timateyalati tinali topangidwa mwaukatswiri, choncho sitimaoneka ngati tinapangidwa zaka 2,000 zapitazo. N’chifukwa chake amaganiza kuti kachipangizoka sikanachokere mu sitimayo. Ndipo munthu wina wophunzira kwambiri anafotokoza kuti mwina kachipangizoka kanapangidwa ndi wasayansi wina wa Chigiriki dzina lake Archimedes. Kachipangizo ka Archimedes ndi kotchuka kwambiri ndipo m’zaka 100 zoyambirira, Cicero anafotokoza kuti kanali kounikira kayendedwe ka dzuwa, mwezi ndi mapulaneti asanu.  Anthu ankakhulupirira zimenezi chifukwa panalibe umboni wina wotsutsa nkhaniyi.

Anakaunikanso

Mu 1958, Derek de Solla Price, yemwe poyamba anali dokotala koma anasintha n’kukhala katswiri wa mbiri yakale, anakaunikanso kachipangizoka. Iye anaona kuti kachipangizoka ankatha kukagwiritsa ntchito kudziwa mmene zinthu zakuthambo zinkayendera kale ndiponso mmene zizidzayendera m’tsogolo, monga nthawi imene mwezi wathunthu ungaoneke. Iye anaona kuti malemba amene anali pa kachipangizoka ankaimira masiku, miyezi ndi zinthu zam’mlengalenga. Akukhulupiriranso kuti poyamba kachipangizoka kanali ndi timivi timene tinkazungulira n’kumaloza pamene zinthu zakuthambo zili.

Price anaganiza kuti kateyala kakakulu kwambiri pakachipangizoka, kankasonyeza kayendedwe kadzuwa, moti kakamaliza kuzungulira zimasonyeza kuti dziko lapansi nalonso lamaliza kuzungulira dzuwa. Choncho, ngati kateyala kena kolumikizidwa ku kateyala koyamba kaja, kankaimira kayendedwe ka mwezi, ndiye kuti chiwerengero cha timano ta mateyala tiwiri tija tinkaimira njira imene mwezi umayenda. Ndipo zimenezi n’zimene Agiriki ankakhulupirira.

Mu 1971, Price anajambula kachipangizoka. Zimene anapeza zinatsimikizira kuti zimene ananena zokhudza kachitsuloka zakuti kamatha kuwerengetsa nthawi ya kayendedwe ka zinthu zakuthambo, n’zoona. Price anajambula chithunzi chosonyeza mmene kachipangizoka kankagwirira ntchito ndipo anachitulutsa mu 1974. Iye analemba kuti: “Kachipangizo kofanana ndi kameneka, sikapezeka kwina kulikonse. . . . Ndi mmene timadziwira sayansi ya m’nthawi ya Agiriki, sitingaganize kuti Agiriki angapange kachipangizo ngati kameneka.” Komabe, panthawiyi anthu ambiri ananyalanyaza zimene Price anatulukirazi ngakhale kuti panali anthu ena ochepa amene anapitiriza kufufuza za kachipangizoka.

 Umboni Watsopano

Mu 2005, gulu la akatswiri amene tawatchula kumayambiriro kwa nkhani ino, linaunikanso kachipangizoka pogwiritsa ntchito makina apamwamba kwambiri ojambulira zinthu. Zimenezi zathandiza kwambiri kuti adziwe zinthu zina za mmene kachipangizoka kamagwirira ntchito. Munthu wogwiritsa ntchito, amati akadina kabatani, timateyala toposa 30 tolowanalowana timayendetsa timateyala titatu takutsogolo ndi kumbuyo kwa kachipangizoka. Zimenezi zinkathandiza anthu kudziwiratu nyengo, kuphatikizapo nthawi ya kadamsana, mogwirizana ndi nthawi ya masewera a Olympic ndiponso masewera ena. Ankawerengera nthawi kuchokera pa masewera amenewa.

Kodi kachipangizoka kanali ndi phindu lanji? Kankathandiza pazinthu zambiri. Sayansi ya zinthu zakuthambo inali yofunika panthawiyo chifukwa dzuwa ndi mwezi zinkathandiza alimi kudziwa nthawi yobzala mbewu. Ndiponso nyenyezi zinkathandiza anthu oyenda panyanja kuti azidziwa kumene akupita. Anthu a ku Greece ankachita zinthu zambiri poyendera sayansi yakuthambo. Kachipangizoka kanalinso kofunika pazinthu zina.

Katswiri wina wa m’bungwe lofufuza kachipangizoka, dzina lake Martin Allen, anati: “Kudziwa nthawi ya kadamsana kunali kofunika kwambiri kwa anthu a ku Babulo, chifukwa nthawi ya kadamsana amaitenga kuti ndi nthawi ya malodza. Ndiponso anthu andale ankakagwiritsa ntchito kachipangizoka, pofuna kuti anthu amene ankawalamulira aziwamvera. Enanso akuti sitidziwa zambiri za kachipangizoka chifukwa chakuti kankasungidwa mwachinsinsi ndi anthu andale ndiponso asilikali.”

Mulimonse mmene zinalili, kachipangizoka ndi umboni wakuti masamu komanso sayansi ya zakuthambo ya Agiriki, zomwe anaziphunzira kwa a Babulo, zinali zotsogola kwambiri kuposa mmene tikudziwira. Magazini ena anati: “Kachipangizo ka ku Antikythera kamasonyeza kuti sayansi inayamba kale kwambiri ndipo kamatithandizanso kumvetsa zinthu zina za mbiri yakale.”

[Bokosi patsamba 26]

ANAKAPANGA NDANI?

Zikuoneka kuti ku Antikythera kunali tizipangizo tambiri topangidwa mwaluso. Martin Allen analemba kuti: “Kachipangizoka kanalibe vuto lililonse. Mbali iliyonse ya kachipangizoka inali ndi ntchito yake. Kalibe tizibowo kapena tizitsulo topanda ntchito tosonyeza kuti ankalakwitsa pokapanga. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti anali atapanga kale tizipangizo tina tofanana ndi timeneti.” Koma kodi anapanga kachipangizoka ndi ndani? Ndipo kodi zinthu zina zimene munthu ameneyu anapanga zinapita kuti?

Posachedwapa anthu ofufuza kachipangizoka apeza kuti kali ndi maina a miyezi yolosera kadamsana. Ndipo mainawa anali a ku Korinto. Zimenezi zachititsa ofufuzawo kuganiza kuti kachipangizoka kankapangidwa kuti kagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi anthu a mtundu winawake. Maganizi ina yotchedwa Nature inati: “Madera amene ankalamulidwa ndi Akorinto, kumpoto cha kumadzulo kwa Greece, kapena ku mzinda wa Syracuse ku Sicily, ndi amene ankagwiritsira ntchito kwambiri kachipangizoka. Ndipo ngati kachipangizoka kankagwiritsidwa ntchito ku Syracuse, kayenera kuti kanapangidwa ndi Archimedes.”

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani tizipangizo tofanana ndi kameneka sitipezeka masiku ano? Allen ananena kuti: “Zinthu zopangidwa ndi mkuwa n’zamtengo wapatali ndipo sizivuta kuzisungunula n’kupanganso zinthu zina. N’chifukwa chake zinthu zakale zopangidwa ndi mkuwa n’zosowa masiku ano. Komanso zinthu zambiri zopangidwa ndi mkuwa, zomwe akatswiri apeza, zinapezeka m’nyanja, momwe anthu osula zitsulo sakanatha kuzipeza.” Wofufuza wina anati kachipangizoka kanapulumuka “chifukwa kanali m’nyanja mmene anthu osula zitsulo sanathe kukapeza.”

[Zithunzi patsamba 25]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Kulumikizanso kachipangizo ka ku Antikythera

1. Tayala lakutsogolo linkasonyeza kayendedwe ka mwezi ndi dzuwa zomwe zinkawathandiza kuwerengetsera masiku

2. Tayala lakumbuyo cha m’mwamba linkasonyeza kugwirizana kwa kayendedwe ka dzuwa ndi mwezi ndiponso nthawi imene masewera a ku Greece ankachitika

3. Tayala lakumbuyo cha m’munsi linkasonyeza nthawi ya kadamsana

[Zithunzi]

Kutsogolo

Kumbuyo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Both photos: ©2008 Tony Freeth/​Antikythera Mechanism Research Project (www.antikythera-mechanism.gr)

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Mwina umu ndi mmene kambale kakumbuyo kankaonekera

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

©2008 Tony Freeth/​Antikythera Mechanism Research Project (www.antikythera-mechanism.gr)

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 24]

All photos: ©2005 National Archaeological Museum/Antikythera Mechanism Research Project (www.antikythera-mechanism.gr)