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Mmene Kumwa Mowa Mopitirira Muyeso Kumakhudzira Thanzi la Munthu

Mmene Kumwa Mowa Mopitirira Muyeso Kumakhudzira Thanzi la Munthu

 Mmene Kumwa Mowa Mopitirira Muyeso Kumakhudzira Thanzi la Munthu

“Santé!” “Salute!” “Za vashe zdorovye!” “Chuc suc khoe!” Kaya kukhale ku France, Italy, Russia, kapena ku Vietnam, mabwenzi asanayambe kumwera limodzi mowa, amanena mawu ofanana ndi amenewa, omwe amatanthauza kuti: “Thanzi labwino!” Komabe, anthu ambirimbiri padziko lonse amadzikumbira okha manda chifukwa cha chakumwa.

KUMWA mowa mopitirira muyeso kuli m’zigawozigawo. Poyamba, pali kumwa kumene malinga ndi mmene bungwe la World Health Organization linafotokozera, “ndi kumwa komwe kungathe kuyambitsa mavuto ambiri,” monga matenda, kuvutika maganizo, kapenanso kubwezera chitukuko m’mbuyo. Kumeneku  ndiko kumwa mowa mopitirira mlingo wovomerezedwa ndi a zaumoyo kapena wokhazikitsidwa ndi boma. Ndiyeno pali kumwa kumene kumawononga thupi kapena kusokoneza maganizo ngakhale kuti munthu sanafike pokhala chidakwa. Kuchoka pamenepa, munthu amafika pokhala chidakwa. Uchidakwa akuti ndi pamene munthu wafika poti “sangathenso kudziletsa kuti asamwe.” Munthu akakhala chidakwa, amangokhalira kulakalaka mowa, amapitirizabe kumwa ngakhale kuti mowawo ukum’bweretsera mavuto osiyanasiyana, ndipo amavutika kwambiri ngati sanamwe.

Kaya ndinu wamsinkhu wotani, kaya ndinu mwamuna kapena mkazi, ndiponso kaya ndinu a fuko lotani, simungapewe mavuto amene amabwera chifukwa cha kumwa mowa mopitirira muyeso. Koma kodi mowa umachita zotani m’thupi la munthu? Kodi kumwa kopitirira muyeso kumabweretsa mavuto otani ku thanzi la munthu? Nanga kodi mlingo wabwino wa kamwedwe ka mowa ndi uti?

Umawononga Maganizo

M’mowa wambiri mumapezeka zinazake zimene zingasokoneze kapena kuwononga ubongo. Munthu amene waledzera, amakhala ngati wamwako poizoni. Akamwa mowa wambiri amatha kukomoka ngakhale kufa kumene. Mwachitsanzo, ku Japan, ana a sukulu ena amachita mpikisano wopapira mowa wambiri mosalekeza umene amautcha kuti ikkinomi umene umapha ana ambiri chaka chilichonse. N’zoona kuti thupi lathu limatha kusintha mowa kuti ukhale wosavulaza, koma sikuti zimenezi zimachitika mofulumira. Ngati munthu wamwa mowa wambiri kuposa umene thupi lingathe kusintha, umadzaza m’thupi ndipo ubongo wake umayamba kusokonekera. Kodi umasokonekera motani?

Kulankhula, kuona, kuyenda, kuganiza, ndiponso khalidwe la munthu, zimadalira zimene zimachitika mu ubongo. Mowa ukachuluka, umasokoneza zochitika zimenezi ndipo ubongo umachedwa kapena kufulumira kutumiza mauthenga. Zimenezi zimalepheretsa ubongo kugwira bwino ntchito. N’chifukwa chake munthu akamwa mowa wambiri amayamba kulankhula zosamveka, amalephera kuona bwinobwino, amadzandira ndiponso satha kudziletsa. Zonsezi ndi zizindikiro zosonyeza kuti munthu waledzera.

 Munthu akapitiriza kumwa mowa kwa nthawi yaitali, ubongo umayamba kuzolowera poizoni amene amapezeka mu mowawo ndipo umayamba kugwira ntchito mogwirizana ndi poizoniyo. Ubongo ukazolowera kwambiri mowa, zimachititsa kuti mlingo wa mowa umene munthu ankaledzera nawo kale usamamuledzeretsenso. Munthu amakhala chidakwa ubongo ukazolowera kwambiri kudalira mowa moti sungathenso kugwira ntchito bwinobwino popanda mowawo. Zikatero, thupi limayamba kudalira mowa kuti lithe kugwira bwino ntchito yake. Ndiyeno munthu akapanda kumwa, ubongo wake umasokonekera ndipo zizindikiro monga ngati kukhala ndi nkhawa, kunjenjemera, kapenanso ngakhale kukomoka kumene zimayamba kuonekera.

Kupatula pa kusintha kagwiridwe ntchito ka ubongo, kumwa mowa mopitirira muyeso kungathe kupha maselo ndiponso kusinthiratu kapangidwe ka ubongo. Ngakhale kuti pang’ono n’zotheka kuti ubongo ungabwerere mwakale ngati munthu atasiya kumwa, zinthu zina zimene zinawonongeka sizitheka kubwereranso mwakale. Maselo amene anafa sathekanso kubwezeretsedwa, ndipo zimene zimapangitsa munthu kukhala ndi vuto la kukumbukira zinthu ndiponso mavuto ena okhudzana ndi kuganiza. Kuti ubongo uwonongeke sikuti zimadalira kuti munthu ukhale ukumwa mowa kwa nthawi yaitali. Kafukufuku amasonyeza kuti kumwa mowa mopitirira muyeso ngakhale kwa nthawi yochepa chabe kungakhale kowononga kwambiri.

Matenda a Chiwindi Ndiponso Khansa

Chiwindi chimagwira ntchito zofunika kwambiri m’thupi, monga kugaya chakudya, kulimbana ndi matenda, kuwongolera kayendedwe ka magazi, ndiponso kuchotsa zinthu zapoizoni m’thupi zimene zikuphatikizapo mowa. Kumwa mowa kwa nthawi yaitali kumawononga chiwindi m’mbali zitatu. Mbali yoyamba ndi yakuti, panthawi imene chiwindi chikulimbana ndi kusintha mowa kuti usakhale wovulaza, ntchito yake yogaya mafuta imachedwa, ndipo zimenezi zimapangitsa kuti mafuta aunjikane m’chiwindi. M’kupita kwa nthawi, chiwindicho chimayamba kutupa kwambiri. Ngakhale kuti mowa paokha umayambitsa matenda otupa chiwindi, zikuoneka kuti umachepetsanso mphamvu ya thupi yolimbana ndi mavairasi amene amayambitsa matenda otupa chiwindi a mitundu ina. * Ngati munthuyo sachitapo kanthu, kutupa chiwindi kumeneku kumapangitsa maselo kuyamba  kuphulika ndi kufa. Kuwonjezera pa vuto limeneli, zikuoneka kuti mowawo umachititsa kuti maselo azifa mofulumira kwambiri.

Mbali yomalizira ndi yakuti chiwindi chimauma. Chiwindi chikapitirizabe kutupa ndiponso maselo akapitirizabe kufa, zimapangitsa kuti chiyambe kukhala ndi zipsera. M’kupita kwa nthawi, chiwindi chimauma m’malo moti chikhalebe chofewa ngati siponji. Kenako, zipserazo zimapangitsa kuti magazi azilephera kudutsa bwinobwino, ndipo zimenezi zimachititsa kuti chiwindi chisagwire bwino ntchito yake, zikatero munthu amafa.

Mowa umayambitsanso mavuto ena m’chiwindi amene amayambika pang’onopang’ono. Chiwindi chimalephera kugwira bwino ntchito yake yoteteza thupi ku zinthu zimene zimayambitsa matenda a khansa. Kuwonjezera pa mfundo yoti mowa umapangitsa kuti chiwindi chigwidwe matenda a khansa mosavuta, mowawu umawonjezeranso kwambiri ngozi yoti munthu akhoza kudwala mosavuta khansa ya m’kamwa, ya m’phuno, ndiponso ya kum’mero. Kuwonjezeranso pamenepa, mowa umaotcha m’kamwa ndipo zimenezi zimapangitsa kuti zinthu zimene zimayambitsa khansa zomwe zimapezeka mu fodya zithe kulowa mosavuta. Zimenezi zimawonjezera ngozi yogwidwa ndi matendawa kwa anthu osuta fodya. Azimayi amene amamwa mowa tsiku lililonse ali pangozi yaikulu yogwidwa ndi khansa ya m’mawere. Malingana ndi kafukufuku amene anachitika, anasonyeza kuti azimayi amene amamwa mabotolo a mowa atatu patsiku kapena kuposa pamenepa, amakhala pangozi yaikulu kwambiri yogwidwa ndi khansa ya m’mawere poyerekezera ndi azimayi amene samwa mowa.

Mmene Mowa Umapwetekera Ana Osabadwa

Vuto linanso lalikulu la kumwa mowa mopitirira muyeso ndilo mmene mowa umapwetekera ana osabadwa. Nyuzipepala ya International Herald Tribune inati: “Mowa n’ngoipa kwambiri kwa khanda lomwe likukula m’chiberekero kuposa mankhwala ena alionse amene angagwiritsidwe ntchito molakwika.” Mayi woyembekezera akamamwa mowa, khanda losabadwalo limamwa nawonso mowawo, ndipo mowawo umalivulaza kwambiri. Mowa umawononga ubongo wa khandalo, ndipo ukawonongeka chonchi, sungadzakhalenso bwino. Maselo sapangika bwinobwino, amafa, ndipo ena amakakhala pamalo olakwika.

Zimenezi n’zimene zimapangitsa kuti ana ambiri azibadwa oganiza moperewera. Mavuto amene amakumana nawo ana oterewa ndi akuti amakhala opanda nzeru, amavutika kudziwa chinenero, amachedwa kukhwima maganizo, amakhala a khalidwe losokonekera, amakula mokwinimbira, amakhala ofuntha, ndiponso amavutika kuona ndi kumva bwino. Ana ambiri otere amabadwanso ndi zilema kumaso.

Komanso, ana amene mayi awo ankamwa ngakhale pang’ono chabe panthawi imene anali oyembekezera, akhoza kukhala ndi mavuto ena monga ngati kukhala osokonezeka maganizo  ndiponso kukhala ndi vuto la kusagwira zinthu msanga. Pulofesa Ann Streissguth wa m’kabungwe koona za mmene mowa ndi mankhwala zimakhudzira ana osabadwa ka pa University of Washington anati: “Sikuti mumachita kufunika kukhala chidakwa kuti muvulaze mwana wanu ayi, koma ngakhale kumangomwa pang’ono panthawi imene muli woyembekezera kumavulaza mwana wanu.” Lipoti la bungwe la zaumoyo la National Institute of Health and Medical Research Alcool—Effets sur la santé [Mmene Mowa Umakhudzira Thanzi] linati: “Kumwa mowa panthawi imene muli woyembekezera n’koipa kwambiri ndipo palibe kumwa pang’ono kumene kuli kosavulaza.” Choncho, chinthu chanzeru chimene azimayi oyembekezera kapena amene akukonzekera kukhala ndi pakati angachite ndicho kusamwa mowa. *

Kumwa Kosavulaza

Panopa sitinatchulepo mavuto onse amene mowa umabweretsa pa thanzi la munthu. M’magazini ya Nature ya mu 2004, nkhani ina inafotokoza kuti: “Ngakhale kumwa mowa pang’ono, kumachititsa kuti zikhale zosavuta kuti munthu uvulale ndiponso kuti udwale matenda ena okwanira pafupifupi 60.” Poganizira zimenezi, kodi kumwa kosavulaza n’kotani? Masiku ano, anthu ambiri padziko lonse amasangalala ndi kumwa mowa mwa apo ndi apo. Chinsinsi chokhalira ndi thanzi labwino chagona pa kumwa mwachikatikati. Koma kodi tikati kumwa mwachikatikati tikutanthauza chiyani kwenikweni? Anthu ambiri angamadzione kuti amamwa mwachikatikati, ndipo mwina angamaganize kuti popeza saledzera kapena samwa mwauchidakwa, ndiye kuti alibe vuto lililonse. Komabe, ku Ulaya, pa amuna anayi alionse, mwamuna mmodzi amamwa mowa pa mlingo umene umaonedwa kuti ndi wovulaza.

Akatswiri ambiri amati kwa amuna, kumwa mwachikatikati kumatanthauza kumwa mabotolo awiri patsiku, pamene kwa akazi, botolo limodzi patsiku. Mabungwe a zaumoyo a ku France ndi Britain amati “mlingo wotheka kutsatirika” ndi mabotolo atatu patsiku kwa amuna ndipo awiri kwa akazi. Bungwe la U.S. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism linawonjezera kuti, “anthu amene ali ndi zaka 65 kapena kuposa pamenepa angachite bwino kulekezera pa botolo limodzi pa tsiku.” * Komabe, aliyense amasiyana ndi mnzake pa zimene thupi lake limachita akamwa mowa. Kwa anthu ena, ngakhale mlingo wochepa ngati umenewu ungathe kukhala wovulaza. Mwachitsanzo, lipoti la 10th Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health linati, “ngakhale mowa wochepa ungathe kukhala wovulaza kwa anthu amene akudwala matenda a maganizo.” Pamafunikanso kuganizira zinthu zina monga zaka zanu, matenda amene munadwalapo m’mbuyomo, ndiponso kukula kwa thupi lanu.—Onani bokosi lakuti, “Kuchepetsa Mavuto Ake.”

Kodi pali thandizo lotani kwa anthu amene amamwa mowa mopitirira muyeso? Nkhani yotsatirayi iyankha funso limeneli.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 11 Malingana ndi kafukufuku amene anachitika ku France, akuti anthu amene amadwala matenda a mtundu winawake wotupa chiwindi ndipo ndi zidakwa, amakhala pangozi yaikulu kwambiri yoti chiwindi chawo chikhoza kuuma poyerekezera ndi amene amadwala matendawa koma samwa kwambiri. Ndi bwino kuti amene ali ndi matendawa azimwa mowa wochepa kwambiri kapena asamamwe n’komwe.

^ ndime 17 Azimayi amene akuyamwitsa ayenera kudziwa kuti akamwa mowa, mowawo umakaunjikana mu mkaka m’mawere awo. Ndiponso, mowa umene umakhala mu mkakamo umakhala wambiri kuposa umene umakhala m’magazi, chifukwa mu mkakawo mumakhala madzi ambiri amene angasungunule mowawo kuposa amene ali m’magazi.

^ ndime 20 Popeza kuchuluka kwa chakumwa chimene mungapatsidwe kumasiyanasiyana malinga ndi dera limene muli, muyenera kuganiza kaye bwino musanayambe kumwa.

 [Bokosi/Zithunzi patsamba 5]

KODI NDI BWINO KUMWA MUSANAYAMBE KUYENDETSA GALIMOTO?

Malamulo oletsa kuyendetsa galimoto utamwa mowa akhalapo pafupifupi kuchokera pamene galimoto zinayamba kukhalapo. Dziko loyambirira kukhazikitsa lamulo limeneli linali la Denmark mu 1903.

Mukamwa mowa muli ndi njala, pamatenga mphindi pafupifupi 30 kuchokera pamene mwamwa, kuti mowawo ulowerere bwinobwino m’magazi. Mosiyana ndi zimene anthu ambiri amaganiza, kumwa khofi, kukhala pamalo opita mphepo, ndiponso kuchita masewera olimbitsa thupi sizingachepetse kuledzera. Kuti mowa uchepe mphamvu m’thupi mwanu, m’pofunika kuti papite nthawi basi. Komanso musaiwale kuti “mowa ndi mowa basi.” Kaya mwamwa mowa wamtundu wanji, ndiponso wochuluka bwanji, koma ngati mowa mwamwawo mphamvu yake yoledzeretsa ili yofanana, muledzera chimodzimodzi. *

Dziwani kuti ngakhale kumwa mowa wochepa kwambiri kukhoza kusokoneza luso lanu loyendetsa galimoto. Mowa umakhudza kapenyedwe ka maso anu. Zikwangwani za mu msewu zimaoneka zing’onozing’ono. Mumalephera kuona bwinobwino zochitika za mphepete mwa msewu, komanso mumalephera kudziwa kutalikirana kwa zinthu ndi kuona zinthu zapatali. Mumalephera kuganiza msanga, ndipo mumachita zinthu mochedwa.

Ngati muchita ngozi mutamwa mowa, mungayembekezere kuvulala kwambiri kusiyana ndi mmene mukanavulalira mukanakhala kuti simunamwe. Ndiponso ngati patafunika kuti akuchiteni opaleshoni yamwadzidzi, kumakhala kovuta kuti muchire chifukwa cha mmene mowawo umakhudzira kagwiridwe ntchito ka mtima wanu ndi kayendedwe ka magazi m’thupi lanu. Lipoti la French National Institute of Health and Medical Research linati: “Mosiyana ndi zimene anthu ambiri amakhulupirira, anthu ochuluka amene amafa pangozi zochitika chifukwa chomwa mowa, amakhala madalaivala oledzera enieniwo.” Chifukwa cha zoopsa zimenezi, lipotilo linapereka malangizo otsatirawa:

▪ Musayendetse galimoto mutamwa mowa.

▪ Musakwere galimoto imene woyendetsa wake wamwa mowa.

▪ Musalole anzanu kapena makolo anu kuyendetsa galimoto atamwa mowa.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 29 Nthawi zambiri, mowa wokwana magalamu seveni umachoka m’thupi pa ola lililonse. Kukula kwa botolo kapena tambula ya mowa kumasiyanasiyana malinga ndi dziko limene muli. A bungwe la World Health Organization amati m’mayiko ambiri, botolo limodzi kapena tambula imodzi ya mowa imakhala ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa yokwana magalamu 10. Mlingo umenewu umapezeka mu mowa wamba wochuluka mamililita 250, vinyo wochuluka mamililita 100, kapena mowa wa m’gulu la kachasu wochuluka mamililita 30.

[Zithunzi]

Mowa uwu uli ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa pafupifupi yofanana

Botolo la mowa wamba (wochuluka mamililita 330 wokhala ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa yokwana 5 peresenti)

Tambula ya whiskey, gin, vodka (wochuluka mamililita 40 wokhala ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa yokwana 40 peresenti)

Tambula ya vinyo (wochuluka mamililita 140 wokhala ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa yokwana 12 peresenti)

Tambula yaing’ono ya mowa wotsekemera (wochuluka mamililita 70 wokhala ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa yokwana 25 peresenti)

[Bokosi patsamba 6]

UCHIDAKWA—KODI N’CHIBADWA?

Asayansi pofuna kupeza njira zothetsera uchidakwa, ayesa kufufuza mmene chibadwa chimachititsira anthu kuyamba kumwa mowa n’kukhala zidakwa. Asayansiwa apeza zinthu zingapo m’maselo zimene zikuoneka kuti zimachititsa munthu kukhala chidakwa kapena ayi. Komabe, si chibadwa chokha chimene chimapangitsa munthu kukhala chidakwa. Ngakhale anthu ena amene ali ndi chibadwa chimene chingawapangitse kukhala zidakwa, sakhala zidakwa. Kuti munthu akhale chidakwa zimadaliranso zochitika za kumene munthuyo amakhala. Zinthu monga kusaleredwa bwino, uchidakwa wa anthu amene amakhala panyumbapo kapena anthu ocheza nawo, mikangano, kuvutika maganizo, kupulupudza, kukonda kuchita zinthu zonyamula mtima, kusaledzera msanga, ndiponso kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo, ndi zinthu zina, n’zimene zikhoza kum’pangitsa munthu kukhala chidakwa.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 6]

FRANCE:

Kafukufuku amasonyeza kuti anthu amene amamwa mowa mopitirira muyeso alipo pafupifupi mamiliyoni asanu, ndipo mwa anthu amenewa, anthu mamiliyoni awiri kapena atatu ndi zidakwa

NIGERIA:

Malingana ndi nyuzipepala ya ku Lagos ya Daily Champion, “anthu opitirira 15 miliyoni a ku Nigeria ndi zidakwa,” zimene zikutanthauza kuti pafupifupi anthu 12 mwa anthu 100 alionse m’dziko limenelo ndi zidakwa

PORTUGAL:

Dziko limeneli ndi limodzi mwa mayiko amene anthu ake amamwa mowa kwambiri padziko lonse. Nyuzipepala ya ku Lisbon yotchedwa Público inati anthu 10 mwa anthu 100 alionse a m’dziko limeneli “ali ndi mavuto akuluakulu obwera chifukwa cha mowa”

UNITED STATES:

Malingana ndi lipoti la 10th Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health, “pafupifupi anthu 14 miliyoni a m’dzikoli, omwe ndi anthu pafupifupi 7 pa anthu 100 alionse a m’dzikoli, ali ndi vuto lomwa mowa mopitirira muyeso kapena ndi zidakwa”

[Bokosi patsamba 8]

KUCHEPETSA MAVUTO AKE

Mndandanda wa malangizo ali m’munsiwa ukusonyeza kamwedwe kochepetsa mavuto obwera chifukwa cha mowa, ndipo unafalitsidwa ndi bungwe la Mental Health and Substance Dependence la World Health Organization. Tikati kumwa kochepetsa mavuto, sitikutanthauza kuti kumwa kumeneku kulibiretu mavuto ayi. Zimene anthu amachita akamwa mowa zimasiyanasiyana.

▪ Musamwe mabotolo opitirira awiri patsiku *

▪ Ndi bwino kukhala osamwa masiku osachepera awiri pa mlungu

Panthawi zotsatirazi, kumwa botolo limodzi kapena awiri kungakhale kumwa kwambiri:

▪ Ngati mukuyendetsa galimoto kapena kugwiritsa ntchito makina

▪ Ngati muli woyembekezera kapena mukuyamwitsa

▪ Ngati mukumwa mankhwala

▪ Ngati muli ndi matenda ena ake

▪ Ngati simungathe kudziletsa pa kamwedwe kanu

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 58 Botolo limodzi n’lokhala ndi mphamvu yoledzeretsa yokwanira magalamu 10

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Source: Brief Intervention for Hazardous and Harmful Drinking

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 9]

KODI MOWA UMATHANDIZA MTIMA?

Asayansi amakhulupirira kuti mankhwala amene amapezeka mu vinyo wofiira amaletsa tinthu tinatake timene timachititsa mitsempha kutsekeka.

Kuwonjezeranso pamenepa, akuti mowa umathandiza kuchepetsa mafuta m’mitsempha. Umathandizanso kuchepetsa zinthu zina zimene zimachititsa magazi kuundana.

Pokhapokha ngati munthu akumamwa pang’ono mwa apo ndi apo pa mlungu, m’pamene angaone phindu la mowawo, osati kumwa mowa wonsewo tsiku limodzi. Kumwa mabotolo opitirira awiri pa tsiku kumawonjezera vuto la kuthamanga kwa magazi, ndipo kumwa kwambiri kumawonjezera vuto loti mukhoza kugwidwa matenda a sitiroko, komanso kungapangitse mtima kutupa ndiponso kuyamba kusagunda bwino. Kumwa mowa kwambiri kungayambitse mavuto tatchulawa ndiponso mavuto ena m’thupi. Ndipo zimenezi zingapangitse kuti ubwino uliwonse umene mowa umakhala nawo pa mtima ndi m’mitsempha usaonekere. Choncho, ngakhale kuti mowa uli ndi ubwino wake, mukaumwetsa ungakuvulazeni.

[Chithunzi patsamba 7]

MMENE MOWA UNGAWONONGERE THANZI LANU

Ubongo

Kuperewera maselo, kuiwala, kuvutika maganizo, kupulupudza

Kusaona bwino, kusalankhula bwino, ndi manjenje

Khansa ya kum’mero, m’kamwa, m’mawere, m’chiwindi

Mtima

Minofu kuchepa mphamvu, mtima kukanika kugwira ntchito

Chiwindi

Chimachita mafuta, kenako chimatupa, n’kuuma

Mavuto ena

Kusagwira bwino ntchito kwa mphamvu ya thupi yoteteza ku matenda, zilonda za m’mimba, kutupa kapamba

Azimayi oyembekezera

Kubereka ana opunduka kapena opanda nzeru

[Chithunzi patsamba 8]

“Mowa n’ngoipa kwambiri kwa khanda lomwe likukula m’chiberekero kuposa mankhwala ena alionse amene angagwiritsidwe ntchito molakwika”