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Kodi N’chiyani Chimachititsa Vuto la Kusowa kwa Nyumba?

Kodi N’chiyani Chimachititsa Vuto la Kusowa kwa Nyumba?

 Kodi N’chiyani Chimachititsa Vuto la Kusowa kwa Nyumba?

JOSEPHINE wazaka 36 limodzi ndi ana ake amuna atatu a zaka zapakati pa 6 ndi 11 amakhala kunja kwa mzinda winawake waukulu wa mu Africa. Kuti apeze zosowa zake, Josephine amatola makontena a pulasitiki opanda kanthu n’kukagulitsa kukampani yapafupi yomwe imakawapanganso kukhala atsopano. Akagwira ntchito yowawa imeneyi amapeza ndalama zosakwana madola awiri patsiku. Malingana ndi mzinda umene akukhalawo, ndalama imeneyi n’njosakwana m’pang’ono pomwe kugulira chakudya chokwanira banja lake kapenanso kulipirira sukulu ana akewo.

Tsiku likatha, amabwerera kupita kumene amati n’kunyumba kwake. Imene amati ndi nyumba yakeyi, makoma ake ndi oti anangozika timitengo kenako n’kuphoma ndi matope. Denga lakenso n’losalimba chifukwa anaikapo malata akutha adzimbiri. Malata ena ndi oti anangong’amba zitini zakutha n’kuziwongola bwinobwino ndipo anaikaponso mapepala apulasitiki. Pamwamba pa zimenezi anasanjikapo miyala, zimitengo, ndiponso zitsulo ndi cholinga chakuti ngati mphepo yamphamvu itawomba dengali lisasasuke. “Pakhomo” ndi “pawindo” pa nyumbayi anangoikapo masaka akutha ong’ambikang’ambika omwe sangapereke chitetezo chokwanira ikafika nyengo yovuta ndiponso kwa anthu akuba.

Ngakhale nyumbayi ili yoipa chonchi, sikuti ndi nyumba yake yeniyeni. Josephine limodzi ndi ana akewa, amakhala mwamantha kuti nthawi ina iliyonse akhoza kuwathamangitsa. Nyumba yawo yomvetsa chisoniyi ili pafupi ndi msewu umene akamadzaukulitsa udzadutsa panyumbayi. N’zomvetsa chisoni kwambiri kuti moyo wofanana ndi umenewu uli m’mayiko ambiri kuzungulira padziko lonse.

Nyumba Zopanda Chitetezo

Robin Shell yemwe ndi mkulu woyang’anira ntchito zothandiza kumanga nyumba m’mayiko osiyanasiyana anati: “M’nyumba za anthu osauka, ana amachita manyazi ndi nyumba zawo, . . . anthu m’banja amangodwaladwala, ndiponso . . . sadziwa kuti kodi aboma kapena eni malo adzabwera liti kudzagwetsa [nyumbayo].”

Kukhala moyo wotere kumapangitsa makolo  kudera nkhawa kwambiri za thanzi ndi chitetezo cha ana awo. M’malo moti makolowa azigwira ntchito kuti akonze zinthu kuti ziwongokerepo, iwo nthawi zonse amapezeka kuti akutha nthawi yawo yambiri ndiponso nyonga zawo kulimbana ndi kupeza zinthu zofunika kwambiri pamoyo wa ana awo, monga chakudya, kupumula ndi pogona.

Kwa munthu amene akungouonera patali moyo woterewu, kungakhale kosavuta kunena kuti anthu osauka akhoza kuyamba kupeza bwino ngati atayesetsa kuikirapo mtima kwambiri. Koma kungowauza anthu kuti agwire ntchito molimbika kuti atukule miyoyo yawo n’zosathandiza. Pali zinthu zikuluzikulu zimene zimachititsa vuto la kusowa kwa nyumba zimene anthu sangathe kuzithetsa. Ochita kafukufuku apeza kuti zinthu monga kukwera kwa chiwerengero cha anthu, kuwonjezeka kwa matauni, masoka achilengedwe, mavuto a zandale, ndiponso umphawi wosatha ndizo zinthu zikuluzikulu zimene zikuchititsa anthu ambiri kusowa nyumba. Chifukwa cha zinthu zimenezi, anthu osauka akuvutika kwambiri m’dzikoli.

Vuto la Kuchuluka kwa Anthu

Zikuoneka kuti chaka chilichonse dzikoli limafunika kupeza malo okhala a anthu ena owonjezereka okwanira 68 mpaka 80 miliyoni. Malingana ndi lipoti la bungwe la United Nations Population Fund, chiwerengero cha anthu padziko lonse mu 2001 chinapitirira pa 6.1 biliyoni ndipo podzafika m’chaka cha 2050, chiwerengerochi chikuyembekezeka kudzafika pakati pa 7.9 ndi 10.9 biliyoni. Chodetsanso nkhawa kwambiri n’chakuti, 98 peresenti ya kuwonjezeka kwa chiwerengero chimenechi, ikuyembekezeka kuchitika m’mayiko osauka m’zaka makumi awiri zikubwerazi. Ziwerengero zongoyerekezera zimenezi mwa izo zokha zikusonyezeratu kuti vuto la nyumba n’lalikulu kwambiri. Ndiyeno vutoli likuoneka kukhala lovutitsitsa kwambiri chifukwa madera amene chiwerengerochi chikukwera kwambiri, ndi m’mayiko oti mizinda yake ndi yodzaza kale ndi anthu.

Vuto Losatha la Anthu Osamukira M’matawuni

Mizinda ikuluikulu ngati New York, London, ndi Tokyo, amaiona monga zizindikiro za dziko zofunika kwambiri zosonyezera kuti chuma cha dziko chikupita patsogolo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, zotsatirapo zake n’zakuti chaka chilichonse anthu ambiri amachoka ku madera a kumidzi kupita ku mizinda imeneyi kumene angapeze ‘msipu wobiriwira’ makamaka kuti akaphunzire sukulu ndiponso kukafuna ntchito.

Mwachitsanzo, ku China chuma chikukwera mofulumira. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, wolemba nkhani wina anayerekezera kuti, m’zaka zochepa chabe zikubwerazi, padzafunika nyumba zina zatsopano zoposa 200 miliyoni m’matawuni akuluakulu okha. Chiwerengero chimenechi ndi pafupifupi kuwirikiza kawiri chiwerengero cha nyumba zimene panopa zili mu United States yense. Ndiyeno, kodi ndi pulogalamu yomanga nyumba iti imene ingakwanitse kumanga nyumba zonsezi?

Malingana ndi zimene bungwe la World Bank linanena kuti: “Pafupifupi mabanja atsopano 12 mpaka 15 miliyoni, omwe akufunikiranso nyumba zofanana ndi chiwerengero chomwechi akuwonjezeka m’mizinda ya m’mayiko osauka chaka chilichonse.” Ndiye popeza kuti palibe nyumba zokwanira, anthu amene ali m’mizindayi koma ndi osauka amaumirizika kupita kwina kukafuna malo okhala ndipo kawirikawiri amakakhala malo oti palibe munthu amene angakonde kukhalapo.

 Masoka a Chilengedwe ndi Mavuto a Zandale

Anthu ambiri chifukwa cha umphawi aumirizika kukakhala kumalo amene madzi amakonda kusefukira, kumene kumapita matope, ndiponso malo amene zivomezi zimachitika kawirikawiri. Mwachitsanzo, ku Caracas, Venezuela, akuti pafupifupi anthu opitirira 500,000 “amakhala m’malo opanda chilolezo omwe ngotsetsereka kwambiri ndiponso nthawi zambiri amakonda kugumuka.” Mwinanso mukukumbukira ngozi imene inachitika m’fakitale mu 1984 ku Bhopal, India, komwe kunafa masauzande a anthu ndiponso ena ambiri anavulala. N’chifukwa chiyani anthu ambiri chonchi anafa ndiponso kuvulala? Chifukwa chachikulu chinali chakuti mudzi wa zisakasa umene unali pafupi ndi fakitaleyi, unalowa m’kati pang’ono kupitirira malire a fakitaleyo ndi mamita asanu okha basi chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa anthu.

Mavuto a zandale monga amene amayambitsa nkhondo zapachiweniweni ndi amene akuwonjezeranso vuto la kusowa kwa nyumbali. Lipoti lina limene linafalitsidwa mu 2002 ndi gulu loona za ufulu wa chibadwidwe linati, anthu okwanira ngati 1.5 miliyoni ayenera kuti anaumirizika kuchoka m’madera a kwawo kum’mwera cha kum’mawa kwa Turkey chifukwa cha nkhondo ya pachiweniweni imene inachitika m’zaka zapakati pa 1984 ndi 1999. Anthu akumidzi amenewa, anaumirizika kukakhala kulikonse kumene angapeze malo okhala. Nthawi zambiri anali kukhala mowunjikizana m’nyumba zongoyembekezera ndi achibale awo ndiponso oyandikana nawo nyumba, ena m’nyumba za lendi, m’nyumba za m’mafamu kapena pamalo amene pankachitika ntchito yomanga. Akuti gulu lina la mabanja linali kukhala limodzi m’nyumba imene anaimanga kuti aziweteramo nyama. M’chipinda chimodzi munali kukhala anthu 13 kapena kupitirira koma anthu onsewa amagwiritsa ntchito chimbudzi chimodzi ndiponso mpope wamadzi umodzi womwe unali pabwalo. Mmodzi wa anthu othawa kwawo amene akukhala m’malowa anati: “Tikufuna titasiyana nawo moyo umenewu. Tikukhala m’nyumba zimene anamanga kuti azisungiramo ziweto.”

Kusayenda Bwino kwa Zachuma

Pomaliza, sitingalephere kukambapo za mgwirizano wa pakati pa kusowa nyumba ndi umphawi. Malingana ndi lipoti la bungwe la World Bank limene lili mu nkhani yoyamba ija, m’chaka cha 1988 chokha anthu 330 miliyoni amene amakhala m’matawuni m’mayiko osauka, akuti anali anthu osauka kwambiri ndipo zinali zovuta kuyembekezera kuti vuto limeneli lingathe m’zaka zochepa chabe. Kodi ngati anthu ali osauka kwambiri moti akulephera kupeza zinthu  zofunika pamoyo monga chakudya ndi zovala, angathe bwanji kulipira nyumba ya lendi kapena kumanga nyumba yabwino?

Kukwera kwa chiwongola dzanja chimene munthu amafunikira kupereka pobweza ngongole ndiponso kukwera kwa mitengo ya zinthu kumapangitsa mabanja ambiri kulephera kutenga nawo ngongole ku banki. Anthu amalepheranso kukhala moyo wotukuka chifukwa cha kukwera kwa zinthu zofunika pamoyo. Kukwera kwa chiwerengero cha anthu amene sali pantchito chimene m’mayiko ena chimafika mpaka 20 peresenti, zimalepheretsa anthu kupeza zinthu zofunika pa moyo wawo wa tsiku ndi tsiku.

Zinthu ngati zimenezi pamodzi ndi zina, zapangitsa anthu mamiliyoni ambirimbiri padziko lonse kulolera kukhala m’nyumba zimene si zabwino kwenikweni. Anthu amakhala m’mabasi akutha akalekale, m’zimakontena zikuluzikulu zonyamulira katundu, m’nyumba zomanga ndi makatoni. Amakhala m’munsi mwa masitepe, m’nyumba zomanga ndi mapepala a pulasitiki, m’nyumba zomanga ndi zipapati, ndiponso ena ngakhale m’malo amene poyamba anali mafakitale.

Kodi Akuchitapo Chiyani?

Anthu ena, mabungwe, ndiponso maboma, ayamba kale kuchitapo kanthu mwamphamvu n’cholinga chakuti athane ndi vuto limeneli. Ku Japan, akhazikitsa kale mabugwe osiyanasiyana kuti athandize kumanga nyumba zoti aliyense angathe kuzikwanitsa. Pulogalamu yomanga nyumba imene anaikhazikitsa mu 1994 ku South Africa, yamanga nyumba za zipinda zinayi zopitirira miliyoni imodzi. Ku Kenya ali ndi cholinga choyamba ntchito yomwe ndi yovuta kwambiri yoti chaka chilichonse azimanga nyumba 150,000 m’madera a kutawuni ndiponso kuti nyumba zina zoposa kuwirikiza kawiri chiwerengero chimenechi azizimanga m’madera akumidzi. Mayiko ena monga Madagascar, akuyesetsa kufufuzafufuza njira zomangira nyumba zotsika mtengo zimene aliyense akhoza kuzikwanitsa.

Mabungwe ena akunja, monga bungwe la UN-HABITAT, anawakhazikitsa n’cholinga chofuna kukwanitsa zimene mayiko anagwirizana padziko lonse zofuna “kupewa kapena kuchepetsa mavuto obwera chifukwa cha kukula kwa matawuni.” Mabungwe enanso omwe cholinga chawo si kupeza phindu komanso mabungwe omwe si aboma, akuyesetsanso kuthandiza nawo pavutoli. Bungwe lina lomwe cholinga chake si kupeza phindu, lathandiza mabanja oposa 150,000 m’mayiko osiyanasiyana kukhala ndi nyumba zabwino. Bungweli linalinganiza zoti pofika m’chaka cha 2005, likhale litathandiza anthu wani  miliyoni kupeza nyumba zosavuta kumanga, zooneka bwino, ndiponso zoti aliyense akhoza kupeza.

Mabungwe ambiri ngati amenewa apeza mfundo zotsatirika ndi zosavuta kuti zithandize anthu amene akukhala m’nyumba zomwe si zabwino kuti athe kuyesetsa kuthana ndi mavuto awo ndiponso mwina kuyamba kukhala moyo wabwino kumene. Choncho, ngati mukuona kuti mukufuna thandizo, mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito mwayi umenewu. Komanso pali zinthu zambiri zothandiza zomwe mungachite kuti zikuthandizeni.—Onani bokosi lakuti “Nyumba Yanu Imathandizira Thanzi Lanu,” patsamba 23.

Ngakhale kuti mwina inuyo mukhoza kuyamba kukhala moyo wabwino, koma pali chiyembekezo chochepa kwambiri chakuti munthu mmodzi kapena mabungwe a anthu angathe kuthetsa zinthu zonse zimene zimayambitsa vutoli padziko lonse. Anthu akupitiriza kulephera chifukwa pafunika zitukuko zambirimbiri ndiponso anthu ofunika thandizo akuwonjezerekabe. Chaka chilichonse ana mamiliyoni ambirimbiri akubadwira m’moyo waumphawi womwewu. Kodi pali chiyembekezo chilichonse chodalirika choti padzapezeka njira yothetseratu mavuto amenewa?

[Bokosi patsamba 23]

NYUMBA YANU IMATHANDIZIRA THANZI LANU

Malinga ndi zimene bungwe la World Health Organization limanena, kuti tikhale ndi moyo wabwino nyumba iyenera kukhala ndi zinthu zotsatirazi:

▪ Denga labwino kuti isamadonthe mvula ikamagwa

▪ Makoma ndiponso zitseko zabwino zokhoza kuteteza anthu ku nyengo yoipa ndiponso zotha kuteteza kuti zinyama zisamalowemo

▪ Mawindo ndi zitseko zokhala ndi sefa kuti musamalowe tizilombo towuluka, makamaka udzudzu

▪ Yokhala pa mthunzi kuteteza kuti dzuwa lisamawombe makoma m’nyengo yotentha

[Bokosi/Zithunzi patsamba 24]

NYUMBA ZA KUMIDZI ZA MU AFRICA

Kwa zaka zambiri nyumba za mu Africa zinkapezeka mwa apo ndi apo. Zimakhala zazikulu ndi zooneka mosiyanasiyana. Anthu amitundu ina, mwachitsanzo Akikuyu ndi Aluo a ku Kenya, ankakonda nyumba zozungulira zokhalanso ndi denga lozungulira. Ndipo mitundu ina kuphatikizapo Amasai a ku Kenya ndi ku Tanzania, ankakonda nyumba za mtundu wa ngomi. Ku madera ena a m’mphepete mwa nyanja kum’mawa kwa Africa, nyumba zina zinkakhala ndi denga lokhudza pansi lofolera bwino limene limaoneka ngati m’ng’oma wa njuchi.

Popeza kuti zipangizo zomangira zimene anali kugwiritsa ntchito nthawi imeneyo amazipeza mosavuta, vuto la kusowa kwa nyumba linali lochepa. Pomanga nyumbazi ankangokanda dothi basi. Popeza kuti nkhalango zinali pafupi, amatha kupeza mosavuta zinthu ngati mitengo, udzu, mabango, ndiponso masamba a nsungwi. Ndiye mosasamala kanthu kuti kaya banjalo ndi losauka kapena lolemera, kukhala ndi nyumba yawoyawo silinali vuto ayi.

Koma nyumba zimenezi zinalinso ndi mavuto ake. Popeza kuti nyumba zambiri zinali ndi madenga ofolera ndi zinthu zosachedwa kuyaka ndi moto, kunali kosavuta kuti zigwire moto. Komanso kunali kosavuta kwa anthu akuba kuti alowe m’nyumbazi chifukwa amatha kungoboola khoma popeza linali lochita kuphoma ndi matope. Choncho, n’zosadabwitsa kuti masiku ano m’madera ambiri, nyumba zakale zachifirika zikutha pang’onopang’ono ndipo anthu akukonda kumanga mitundu ina ya nyumba zomwe n’zolimba.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

—Source: African Traditional Architecture

Huts: Courtesy Bomas of Kenya Ltd - A Cultural, Conference, and Entertainment Center

[Chithunzi patsamba 21]

ULAYA

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Tim Dirven/Panos Pictures

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AFRICA

[Chithunzi patsamba 22]

SOUTH AMERICA

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SOUTH AMERICA

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ASIA

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© Teun Voeten/Panos Pictures; J.R. Ripper/BrazilPhotos

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 23]

JORGE UZON/AFP/Getty Images; © Frits Meyst/Panos Pictures