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Aliyense Amafuna Atakhala ndi Nyumba

Aliyense Amafuna Atakhala ndi Nyumba

 Aliyense Amafuna Atakhala ndi Nyumba

Aliyense ali ndi ufulu wokhala ndi moyo wabwino ndiponso thanzi labwino, iyeyo ndi banja lake kuphatikizapo . . . kukhala ndi nyumba.—Chinatero chikalata chotchedwa Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25.

ANTHU odzagwira ntchito m’mafamu tsopano akhazikika m’dera limene panopa akumangoti n’kwawo. Mabanja ambiri akukhala m’madera amenewa otchedwa parqueaderos a anthu osauka pafupi ndi tawuni, ndipo amakhala m’nyumba zokokedwa ndi galimoto. M’madera amenewa, ntchito zofunika monga kasamalidwe ka za m’chimbudzi, kupereka madzi, kuchotsa zinyalala, zimachitika mwa patalipatali ndipo mwinanso kulibiretu. Mtolankhani wina anafotokoza kuti malo amenewa ndi “malo oipa kwambiri oti ngakhale [munthu wogwira ntchito m’mafamu] sangakonde kukhalako.”

Zaka zitatu zapitazo, akuluakulu a boma atayamba ntchito yotseka ena mwa malo oterewa, mabanja ena anagulitsa nyumba zawo zoyendazi n’kupita kukakhala m’nyumba zimene zinali zodzaza kale anthu ndiponso m’magalaja amene ali m’kati mwenimweni mwa tawuni. Ena anangolongedza katundu wawo n’kukafuna malo amene akhoza kumapitako nthawi zonse akamaliza kukolola mbewu zawo, malo oti akhoza kumati akupita kunyumba kwawo.

Kodi mukuganiza kuti malo amenewa akupezeka ku Central kapena South America? Ayi ndithu. Mudzi wa nyumba zoyenda umenewu ukupezeka pafupi ndi tawuni ya Mecca kumadzulo kwa California, U.S.A., pamtunda woti mukhoza kuyenda pagalimoto osakwana ola limodzi kulowera kum’mawa kwa mzinda wa anthu olemera wa Palm Springs. Ngakhale kuti ku United States anthu ambiri ali ndi nyumba ndiponso kuti mu 2002 banja lopezako bwino linapeza ndalama pafupifupi madola 42,000, ndipo akuti mabanja oposa faifi miliyoni a ku America akukhalabe m’nyumba zimene si zabwino kwenikweni.

 Vutoli, n’lalikulu kwambiri m’mayiko osauka. Vuto la padziko lonse la kusowa kwa nyumba likuwonjezerekabe modetsa nkhawa ngakhale kuti andale, oona za chikhalidwe cha anthu, ndiponso azipembedzo akuyesetsa kuchitapo kathu.

Vuto la Padziko Lonse

Chiwerengero cha anthu amene akukhala m’tinyumba tazisakasa chikuyembekezeka kukwera kupitirira pa wani biliyoni padziko lonse. Akatswiri a ku Brazil oona za anthu amene akuchoka m’malo akumidzi kupita m’mizinda, akuopa kuti chiwerengero cha ma favelas, kapena kuti zisakasa chimene chikukwera kwambiri m’dzikolo, posachedwapa “chikhala chachikulu kwambiri kuposa mizinda yomwe zisakasazo zinayambira.” Ndiyeno pali mizinda ya ku Nigeria kumene anthu oposa 80 pa anthu 100 alionse amakhala m’zisakasa ndi m’malo ena popanda chilolezo. Mlembi wamkulu wa bungwe la United Nations, a Kofi Annan m’chaka cha 2003 ananena kuti: “Ngati sachitapo kanthu mwamsanga, chiwerengero cha anthu okhala m’zisakasa chikuyembekezeka kukwera kufika pa 2 biliyoni m’zaka 30 zikubwerazi.”

Komabe, ziwerengero ngati zimenezi sizifotokoza m’pang’ono pomwe mavuto omwe anthu okhala mwaumphawiwo amakumana nawo aliyense payekha. Malingana ndi lipoti la United Nations, anthu opitirira 50 mwa anthu 100 alionse amene amakhala m’mayiko osauka alibe zinthu zofunika kwambiri zowathandiza kukhala aukhondo. Anthu 33 mwa anthu 100 alionse alibe madzi abwino, anthu 25 mwa anthu 100 alionse alibe nyumba zabwino, ndipo anthu 20 mwa anthu 100 alionse satha kupeza thandizo ku zipatala zamakono. Anthu ambiri omwe akukhala m’mayiko olemera sangalole m’pang’ono pomwe kuti galu wawo kapena mphaka wawo azikhala moyo ngati umenewu.

Ufulu wa Aliyense

Pa zinthu zofunika kwa anthu, nyumba yabwino imaoneka kukhala chinthu chofunika kwambiri. Chikalata chonena za ufulu wa anthu chotchedwa Universal Declaration of Human Rights chimene bungwe la United Nations linachivomereza mu 1948, chinafotokoza kuti aliyense ali ndi ufulu wokhala moyo wabwino kuphatikizapo kukhala ndi nyumba yabwino yachikwanekwane. Zoonadi, aliyense amafuna kukhala ndi nyumba yabwino.

Posachedwapa mu 1996, mayiko ambiri anavomereza kuyamba kuyendera mfundo za m’chikalata chotchedwa UN’s Habitat Agenda. M’chikalatachi muli mfundo zofunika kuzikwanitsa n’cholinga chofuna kuonetsetsa kuti aliyense ali ndi malo okhala abwino. Kenako, pa January 1, 2002, bungwe la United Nations linakhwimitsa zimene analonjezazo kuti tsopano zikhala m’manja mwake.

N’zodabwitsa kuti mayiko olemera kwambiri ayambiranso kukonza zokamanga kumwezi ndiponso kukafufuza zinthu zina za ku pulaneti ya Mars, pamene nzika zambirimbiri zosauka za m’dziko mwawo momwemo zikulephera kukhala ndi nyumba yabwino padziko lapansi pompano. Kodi vuto la kusowa kwa nyumbali, limakukhudzani bwanji inuyo? Kodi pali chiyembekezo chilichonse chodalirika choti tsiku lina aliyense adzakhala ndi nyumba yabwino yokhalamo?

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 20]

Pamene mayiko ena akukonza zokamanga kumwezi, nzika zawo zambirimbiri zikulephera kukhala ndi malo abwino okhala padziko pompano

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

BANJA LA KU ASIA LOTHAWA KWAWO

Mu mzinda umodzi muli mabanja 3,500 omwe akukhala m’matenti, momwe akusowa madzi ndi zinthu zowathandiza kukhala aukhondo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Tim Dirven/Panos Pictures

[Chithunzi patsamba 20]

NORTH AMERICA