Khetha ilimi

# Ngubani Ozenze Kokuthoma?

Ngubani Ozenze Kokuthoma?

Eemnyakeni yamva nje, abososayensi nabonjiniyere, bavumele iintjalo neenlwana zibafundise. (Jobhi 12:7, 8) Bafunda begodu balingisa iimhlobohlobo yezinto ezibunjiweko—baberegisa irhelo elibizwa bona yi-biomimetics—bona bakhe izinto ezitja begodu bathuthukise izinto esele zikhona. Njengombana ucabangela iimbonelo ezilandelako zibuze, ‘Ngubani kwamambala ofanelwe lidumo ngezinto ezenziwekwezi?’

## Ukufunda Emaphikweni Womkhomo

Umkhomo ungabafundisani labo abenza iimphaphamtjhini? Kubonakala ngasuthi bangafunda okukhulu kilokhu. Umkhomo omkhulu unobudisi obupheze bube mathani ama-30—njengetrogo elilayitjhe umthwalo omnengi begodu unomzimba oqinileko namaphiko amakhulu. Isilwanesi simamitha ali-12 sikhambisa ngendlela erarako ngaphasi kwamanzi.

Okwabarara khulu abarhubhululi kukobana isilwana esinomzimba oqinilekwesi sikghona ukuzomba endaweni ebonakala iyincani khulu. Abarhubhululi bafumene bona ifihlo isendleleni amaphiko womkhomo akheke ngayo. Iingcenye zamaphiko wangaphambili azitjheleli, njengephiko lesiphaphamtjhini, kodwana ziimqoqomazinyo, zinamabhampara alandelanako abizwa bona ma-tubercles.

Njengombana umkhomo ukhamba msinyana, ama-tubercles angezelela ibelo lokukhuphuka okwenza bona ungatjhingi phasi. Akwenza njani lokho? Iphephandaba i-Natural History ihlathulula bona ama-tubercles enza amanzi azombeleze msinyana ngendlela ehlelekileko phezu kwamaphiko, ngitjho nalokha umkhomo ukuphuka ngemanzini.10

Ngubani umnikazi wemvelo?

Abarhubhululi bangakuberegisa njani lokhu? Kubonakala ngasuthi amaphiko wesiphaphamtjhini enziwe njengawomkhomo azokutlhoga amaphiko ambalwa namtjhana iinsetjenziswa ezithileko ezizokukghona ukulawula umoya ogelezako. Amaphiko anjalo ayavikeleka begodu kulula ukuwatlogomela. Isazi se-biomechanics uJohn Long ukholelwa bona ngelinye ilanga msinyana “sizokubona isiphaphamtjhini esinye nesinye somhlobo we-jetliner esinamabhampara afana newamaphiko womkhomo omkhulu.”11

## Ukulingisa Amaphiko We-seagull

Kuliqiniso, amaphiko wesiphaphamtjhini afana neweenyoni. Nokho, mva nje abosonjiniyere benze ituthuko ephawulekako endleleni abalingisa ngayo amaphiko weenyoni. Umagazini i-New Scientist uthi: “Abarhubhululi beYunivesithi yeFlorida, benze isiphaphamtjhini esisibonelo esilawulwa sikude esikwazi ukuphapha emoyeni, sitjuze sitjhinge phasi godu sikhuphuke njengenyoni i-seagull.12

Ama-seagull enza iimdlalo ekarisako emoyeni ngokobana avule godu avale amaphikwawo. Kulingiswa indlela yamaphiko we-seagull alawuleka bulula, “isiphaphamtjhini esimasentimitha  ama-60 sisebenzisa umtjhini omncani ukulawula iinsimbi ezenza amaphiko akghone ukusikinyeka,” kutjho umagazini. Amaphiko enziwe ngokuhlakanipha la enza isiphaphamtjhini esincancani siphaphe siye phezulu hlangana nemakhiwo emkhulu. Amajoni wemoyeni azimisele ukwenza isiphaphamtjhini esilawuleka bulula esizokukghona ukuya nanyana kukuphi bona basiberegisele ukurhubhulula amakhemikhali namtjhana iinkhali emadorobheni amakhulu.

## Ukulingisa Iimlenze Ye-seagull

I-seagull ayikghadzi, ngitjho nalokha ijame phezu kwerhwaba. Inyoni le iwubulunga njani umtjhiso emzimbeni? Ingcenye yefihlo iserhelweni lokubunjwa elirarako elifumaneka eenlwaneni ezimbalwa ezihlala eendaweni ezimakhaza. Ibizwa bona yirhelo lokufuthumeza umzimba (countercurrent heat exchanger).

Liyini irhelo lokufuthumeza umzimba? Ukwenzela bona ulizwisise kuhle, cabanga ngamaphayiphu wamanzi amabili abotjhwe ahlanganiswa ndawonye. Amanzi atjhisako akhamba kwelinye iphayiphi namakhaza akhamba kwelinye. Nengabe kokubili amanzi atjhisako namakhaza emaphayiphini atjhinga ehlangothini elifanako, pheze ingcenye yomtjhiso yamanzi atjhisako izokuya kwamakhaza. Kwodwana, nengabe amanzi atjhisako namakhaza ayaphambana, pheze woke umtjhiso wamanzi atjhisako uzokuya emanzini amakhaza.

I-seagull neyijame erhwabeni, amarhelo wokufuthumeza umzimba eenyaweni zayo afuthumeza iingazi njengombana zibuya eenyaweni zenyoni le ezimakhaza. Amarhelo wokufuthumeza umzimba abulunga umtjhiso emzimbeni wenyonil le begodu abulunge nokulahleka komtjhiso eenyaweni zayo. U-Arthur P. Fraas, isazi semphaphamtjhini nokuberega kwama enjini, uhlathulula indlela iinyawo zenyoni le ezibumbeke ngayo “njengekambiso lawulo nendlela yokufuthumeza umzimba neyokuzivuselela ephumelela khulu ephasini.”13 Ikambiso le ihlakaniphe kangangobana abonjiniyera bayikopile.

## Ngubani Ofanelwe Lidumo?

Hlangana nesikhatheso i-National Aeronautics and Space Administration yenza irobodo elinemlenze eemnengi elikhamba njengofezela, begodu abonjiniyere e-Finland sebayakhile igandaganda enemlenze esithandathu ekwazi ukweqa iinthiyo njengombana kwenza ingogwana ekulu. Abanye abarhubhululi benze itjhila elinezinto ezincancani ezivuleka njengesikurwana esivulekako godu sivaleke. Itjhilelo lizivumelanisa nezinga lokutjhisa lomzimba womuntu olimbetheko. Enye ifemu yeenkoloyi yenza ikoloyi efana nomzimba we-boxfish otjhelelako nonzinzileko. Kanti abanye abarhubhululi bahlola ukwakheka kwamaqephe we-abalone, okwenza bona neyibethekako ingalimali, ngomnqopho wokwakha iimvikelo zomzimba ezilula neziqinileko.

Kuneembono eemnengi emihle evela emvelweni kangangobana abarhubhululi benze iziko lebuthelelolwazi [database] ukubulunga imininingwana eziinkulungwana emalungana nezinto ezihlukahlukeneko eziphilako. I-Economist ithi, Abososayensi bangasetjha ezikweni lebuthelelolwazeli ukwenzela bona bafumane “isisombululo esingokwemvelo ukurarulula izinto abazenzileko.” “Izinto eziphilako zibanikazi” bemininingwana emalungana namarhelo wemvelo efumaneka ezikweni lebuthelelolwazi. Ngokujayelekileko, umnikazi wokuthileko yikampani namtjhana mumuntu onikelwa igunya elingokomthetho njengomnikazi womtjhini awenzileko namtjhana umbono eze nawo. Neyihlathulula imininingwana yezinto eziphilako le, i-Economist ithi: “Abarhubhululi nebathi ‘izinto eziphilako zibanikazi’ beembono yezinto ezenziweko ekususelwa kiwo izinto ezenziwako, kwamambala bagandelela bona indalo imnikazi.”14

Iimvelo yeza njani neembono emihle kangaka? Abarhubhululi abanengi bebazokuthi iintwezihle ezenziweko ezibonakala emvelweni zavele zaba khona ngokusombuluka kwemvelo okwathatha iingidi zeemnyaka. Kodwana abanye abarhubhululi, bafinyelela esiphethweni esihlukileko. Ephephandabeni i-New York Times lango Febhebari 7, 2005, isazi sezinto eziphilako ezincancani khulu bona singazibona uMichael J. Behe, satlola: “Ukubonakala okuqinileko kokwenziweko [emvelweni] kusenza siphethe nganasi indlela eqinisekileko: nengabe kuqaleka njengedada, kulila njengedada,  begodu bungekho ubufakazi obuphikisana nalokho, sinesisekelo esiqilileko sokuphetha ngokobana yidada.” Wafika kusiphi isiphetho? “Nengabe ukwenziwa kokuthileko kubonakala ngokukhanyako, akunamuntu ofuze akuphike.”15

Kwamambala, unjiniyere owenze iphiko lesiphaphamtjhini esiphephileko begodu eliberega bhedere kuyafaneleka bona anikelwe idumo ngakwenzileko. Ngokufanako, umenzi wetjhila elithambileko namtjhana ikoloyi eberega kuhle kufuze afumane idumo ngakwenzileko. Eqinisweni, umuntu owenze izinto ezisekelwe kokwenziwe ngomunye umuntu kodwana abhalelwe kunikela loyo owenze iintwezo idumo, angaqalwa njengesela.

Kwanje akhe sicabangele naka amaqiniso: Abarhubhululi ababandulwe kuhle khulu baberegisa amarhelo wezinto ezibunjiweko bona bararulule imiraro ebudisi yobunjiniyere. Namtjhana kunjalo, abanye bangathi ukuhlakanipha okubonakala ekubunjweni kwavela ngokusombuluka kwemvelo okunganakuhlakanipha. Lokhu kuzwakala kukuhle kuwe? Nengabe into eyenziweko ithloga umuntu ohlakaniphleko, kuthiwani-ke ngento ekususelwa kiyo? Kwamambala, ngubani ofanelwe lidumo khulu, siberegi esinekghono namtjhana mfundi olingisa into eyenziwe siberegi esinekghono?

## Isiphetho Esinengqondo

Ngemva kokubuyekeza ubufakazi bokobana ukhona umuntu owenza imvelo, abantu abanengi bavumelana namezwi aseBhayibhilini atlolwe nguPowula, owathi: “Abantu bazi kamhlophe amandla wakhe angapheliko bazi nobuZimu bakhe, kwabonakala ngalokho akwenzileko.” (KwebeRoma 1:19, 20)