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Ukuphila Kwabunjwa Na?

Iplanethi Ephilako

Iplanethi Ephilako

Ukuphila ephasini bengeze kwaba khona ngaphandle kwerhelo nofana izehlakalo “ezizenzakaleleko” okungenzeka ezinye zazo gade zingaziwa nofana zingazwisiswa kuhle bekube likhulu lama-20. Izehlakalwezo zihlanganisa okulandelako:

  • Indawo iphasi lethu elikiyo emthaleni i-Milky Way nerherho lakanozungezilanga, kuhlanganise nokuzombeleza kwalo, ukutjhigama, ibelo lokuzombeleza, nenyezi engakajayeleki

  • Amandla kazibuthe azombe isibhakabhaka aberega njengesivikelo esikabili

  • IImzombelezo engokwemvelo evuselela begodu ihlanze umoya wephasi nofana iplanethi nomthamo wamanzi

Njengombana ucabangela esinye nesinye isihloko, zibuze, ‘Izinto ezisephasini zizivelele ngengozi namtjhana zenziwe ngomnqopho?’

 Indawo Ehle Iphasi “Elikiyo”

Ikhona indawo ebhedere iphasi elingabekwa kiyo engabulunga ukuphila?

Newutlola phasi isiphande sakho, khuyini okufakako? Ungafaka inarha yangekhenu, idorobho, nesitarada. Ngokwendlela engokomfanekiso, akhe sithi umthala i-Milky Way “yinarha” yephasi, irherho lakanozungezilanga—okutjho bona ilanga namaplanethi—“lidorobho” lephasi, begodu ukuzombeleza kwephasi hlangana nerherho lakanozungezilanga “sitarada” sephasi. Siyayithokoza ituthuko yelwazi leenkwekwezi nesayensi yemvelo [physics], abososayensi bafumane ilwazi malungana neenzuzo ngendawo yethu ekhethekileko esikiyo endaweni yoke zombelele.

Kokuthoma, “idorobho” lethu, nofana irherho lakanozungezilanga, lisendaweni ehle kwamambala emthaleni i-Milky Way—ayikho eduze khulu phakathi nawo nofana kude khulu nawo. “Indawo ehlalekako” le, njengombana abososayensi bayibiza njalo, imumethe isilinganiso esifaneleko samakhemikhali atlhogekako ukusekela ukuphila. Ngaphandle kwendawo le, amakhemikhali la ayatlhogeka; ngaphakathi komthala lo, kuyingozi ngebanga lokobana kanengi kunemisebe yelanga eyingozi nezinye izinto. Umagazini i-Scientific American uthi, “Sihlala endaweni ehle khulu.”1

“Isitarada” esihle: Enye indawethu ehle khulu iphasi lethu elikiyo “sitarada,” nofana umuda wokuzombeleza kanozungezilanga “okulidorobho” lethu. Kusukela elangeni kungaba makhilomitha aziingidi ezili-150, isitaradesi sisendaweni ehlalekako le ngombana ukuphila la akutjhisi khulu begodu akusimakhaza khulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isitarada sephasesi pheze siyisiyingi, esibulunga pheze ubude obulinganako ukusuka elangeni unyaka woke.

Ilanga lona “limthombo wamandla.” Linzinzile, likhulu ngokulingeneko, likhipha isilinganiso samandla afaneleko. Libizwa ngokufaneleko bona “yikwekwezi ekhetheke kwamambala.”2

“Umakhelwana” omuhle: Nengabe bekufuze ukhethele iphasi “umakhelwana,” bewungekhe ukhethe omunye ngaphandle kwenyezi. Ubukhulu bayo bungaphezu kwengcenye  neyimadaniswa nephasi. Ngalokho, neyimadaniswa nezinye iinyezi erherhweni lethu lakanozungezilanga, inyezethu yikulu kwamambala kumakhelwanayo iphasi. Kwenzeka ngengozi lokhu? Kubonakala kungasi njalo.

Elinye ibanga, kukobana inyezi ingunobangela oyihloko wokuzala kwamalwandle, okunendima eqakathekileko kweezemvelo ephasini. Inyezi godu yenza nokobana iphasi lizombeleze ngokunzinzileko. Ngaphandle kwenyezi eyenziwe ngokukhethekileko le, iplanethi yethu le beyizokuphenduphenduka njengetopo edrayako, mhlamunye ibe iwe ngemva kwalokho! Umphumela walokho gade uzokuba kutjhuguluka kobujamo bezulu, ukuzala kwamalwandle namanye amatjhuguluko ayihlekelele.

Ukutjhigama nokuzombeleza kwephasi okukarisako: Ukutjhigama kwephasi okupheze kube lizinga eliyi-23.4 kubangela ukutjhentjha kweenkhathi zomnyaka qobe mnyaka, amazinga wokutjhisa asesilinganisweni esifaneleko, begodu kubangela nobujamo bezulu obungafaniko eendaweni ezihlukahlukeneko. Incwadi ethi Rare Earth—Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe ithi, “Ukutjhigama komuda weplanethi yethu kubonakala kufaneleka ngokuzeleko.”3

Ukuzombeleza kwephasi, kubangela ubude bemini nobusuku “obufanelekako.” Nengabe ibelo lokuzombeleza kwephasi gade lilincani khulu, amalanga bekazokuba made nengcenye yephasi eqale elangeni beyizokutjha enye ingcenye ibe makhaza khulu. Ngokuphambene nalokho, nengabe iphasi belizombeleza ngebelo elikhulu, amalanga gade azokuba mafitjhani, mhlamunye abe ma-awara ambalwa ubude, begodu ukuzombeleza kwephasi msinyana bekuzokubangela amawuruwuru amakhulu anamandla nezinye iingozi.

Iimviko Ezivikela Iphasi

Umkayi yindawo eyingozi enemisebe ebulalako begodu qobe kunamatje amakhulu ayingozi. Namtjhana kunjalo, iplanethi yethu ehlaza ibonakala iphapha ngokuphephileko hlangana nomthala “onezinto eziyingozi.” Kubayini kunjalo? Kungombana iphasi livikelwe siviko esikarako—irherho lakazibuthe nesibhakabhaka esenziwe ngokukhethekileko.

Isivikelo sephasi esingabonakaliko

Irherho lakazibuthe lephasi: Ikaba yephasi izomba njengesimbi encibilisiweko eyibholo, okubangela iplanethi yethu ibe nerherho lakazibuthe elikhulu nelinamandla elikhamba belifike emkayini. Isivikwesi sisivikela emsebeni evela emkayini neengozini ezibulalako ezibuya elangeni. Iingozezo zihlanganisa nomoya welanga osemkayini, okhamba qobe weencezwana ezinamandla; ukuthuthumba kwelangabi elangeni, okukhupha amabhiliyoni wamabhomu wehayidrojini anamandla ngeemzuzwana; nokuthuthumba engcenyeni engaphandle yelanga, okukhuphela amabhiliyoni wamathani wezinto emkayini. Ungazibona  iinkhumbuzo ezibonakalako zesivikelo esizifumana erherhweni lakazibuthe lephasi. Ukuthuthumba kwamalangabi elangeni nengcenyeni engaphandle kwalo kubangela imisebe ebukhali, kuveza neembalabala yomkhanyo engcenyeni engehla yesibhakabhaka eendaweni ezisetlhagwini nesewula yephasi.

I-Aurora borealis

Isibhakabhaka sephasi: Ingubo enamagezi le ayisirhelebhi bona siphefumule kwaphela kodwana isinikela nesivikelo esingeziweko. Ingcenye engaphandle yesibhakabhaka, i-stratosphere, inomhlobo we-oksijini obizwa bona yi-ozoni, emunya amaphesenthi ama-99 wemisebe ye-altra vayolethi (UV) abuya elangeni. Ngalokho, ilarha [layer] le-ozoni lirhelebha ukuvikela iimhlobo yezinto ezinengi eziphilako—kuhlanganisa abantu, iintjalo neenlwana ezithaya ngaphezu kwamanzi [plankton] esithembele kizo bona zikhiqize i-oksijini enengi esiyiberegisako—ebuya emisebeni eyingozi. I-ozoni i-stratosphere ayinasilinganiso esinqophileko. Kunalokho, iyatjhuguluka ikhule njengombana imisebe ye-altra vayolethi UV iba namandla. Ngalokho ilarha le-ozoni isiviko esinamandla esinekghono.

Isibhakabhaka sisivikela ematjeni amakhulu

Isibhakabhaka sisivikela eengozini zangamalanga ezivela emkayini—iingidi zamatje ezinobukhulu obungalinganiko kusukela ematjeni amancancani kuya kwamakhulu. Amanengi wamatje la atjhela esibhakabhakeni abe misebe yomkhanyo enamandla ebizwa bona yikwekwezi yomsila. Namtjhana kunjalo, iimviko zephasi azivimbi iimsebe eqakathekileko ekuphileni, njengomtjhiso nokukhanya okubonakalako. Isibhakabhaka sirhelebha nokwaba umtjhiso ephasini zombelele, begodu ebusuku isibhakabhaka siberega njengengubo, sehlise izinga lokubaleka komtjhiso ephasini.

Kwamambala, isibhakabhaka sephasi nerherho lakazibuthe ziimtlamo okarisako ongakaziwa ngokuzeleko. Kungatjhiwo okufanako nangeemzombelezo ebulunga ukuphila eplanethini le.

Kuzenzakalele bona iplanethi yethu ivikelwe ziimviko eembili ezikulu

 Iimzombelezo Yokuphila Yemvelo

Nakungaphela amanzi nomoya ohlanzekileko edorobheni nesoritjhi ingasaberegi, msinyana ngemva kwalokho kuzokulandela amalwelwe nokufa. Kodwana cabanga ngalokhu: Iplanethi yethu ayifani nendawo yokudlela, lapho ukudla okutjha kungeniswa ngaphakathi kuvela kwenye indawo iinzibi ziyathathwa zisiwe kwenye indawo. Umoya ohlanzekileko namanzi asizifumani ngaphandle emkayini, ngitjho neenzibi azikhutjhelwa ngaphandle kwephasi. Ngalokho kwenzeka njani bona iphasi libe nepilo ehle sikwazi nokuhlala kilo? Nasi ipendulo: kungebanga leemzombelezo yemvelo, njengamanzi, ikhabhoni, i-oksijini, neemzombelezo yenayithrojini, ehlathululwe la begodu yenziwa bulula.

Umzombelezo wamanzi: Amanzi aqakathekile ekuphileni. Akekho kithi ongakwazi ukuphila amalangana ngaphandle kwawo. Umzombelezo wamanzi usinikela umoya ohlanzekileko namanzi ahlanzekileko ephasini loke. Uhlanganisa iingaba eentathu. (1) Umtjhiso welanga uthatha amanzi ngomrhwamuko uwase esibhakabhakeni. (2) Umrhwamuko wamanzi atsengileko la akha amafu. (3) Ngemva kwalokho amafu aletha izulu, isinanja, igabhogo, eziwela phasi, ngemva kwalokho umrhwamuko ulungele ukurhwamuka godu, lokhu kuphelelisa umzombelezo lo. Amanzi azombeleza kangangani qobe mnyaka? Ngokuya ngesilinganiso, mamanzi aneleko bona agubuzese iphasi loke ngokungatjhugulukiko amasentimitha ayi-97 ukutjhinga.4

Iimzombelezo yekhabhoni ne-oksijini: Njengombana wazi, bona uphile kufuze uphefumule, ungenise i-oksijini ukhuphe ikhabhoni-dayoksayidi. Kodwana ngebanga lamabhiliyoni wabantu neenlwana eziphefumulako, kubayini isibhakabhaka sethu singaphelelwa yi-oksijini sibe nekhabhoni-dayoksadi enengi? Ipendulo iyame emzombelezweni we-oksijini. (1) Kunekambiso ekarisako ebizwa bona yifothosinthesisi, iintjalo zithatha ikhabhoni-dayoksadi esiyikhuphako ziyiberegise begodu amandla abuya elangeni akhiqiza ikhabohayidredi ne-oksijini. (2) Nasiphefumula i-oksijini, siphelelisa umzombelezo. Yoke iimkhiqizo yeemilezi, nomoya ophefumulekako kwenzeka ngokuhlanzekileko, ngokuphumelelako nangokuthula.

 Umzombelezo wenayithrojini: Ukuphila ephasini godu kuyame eemkhiqizweni wezakhi zamamolekhuli njengamaphrotheyni. (A) Kutlhogeka inayithrojini, ukukhiqiza amamolekhuli layo. Kuyathabisa bona igezi yenza pheze amaphesenthi ama-78 wesibhakabhaka sethu. Umbani utjhugulula inayithrojini ibe zizakhi, iintjalo ezikghona ukuzimunya. (B) Bese iintjalo ziberegisa izakhi lezo kube mamolekhuli aphilako. Iinlwana ezidla iintjalwezo zifumana inayithrojini. (C) Kamva iintjalo neenlwana nezifako, izakhi zenayithrojini ezikizo zihlukaniswa phakathi yibhaktheriya. Ikambiso le iyabolisa ibuyisele inayithrojini ehlabathini nesibhakabhakeni, iphelelisa umzombelezo.

Irherho Elikarisako Lokuvuselela!

Namtjhana abantu banetheknoloji ethuthukileko, babangela iinzibi ezinengi eziyingozi ezingekhe zavuseleleka godu qobe mnyaka. Nanyana kunjalo, iphasi livuselela zoke iinzibi zalo kuhle khulu, liberegisa iindlela ezihlakaniphileko zamakhemikhali bona livuselele iinzibi zalo.

Ucabanga bona amarherho wephasi wokuvuselela abakhona njani? Otlola ngekolo nangesayensi u-M. A. Corey uthi, “Nengabe irherho elingokwemvelo lephasi lazivelela ngengozi, belingekhe likwazi ukufika ezingeni lokuvumelana elikarisa kangaka.”5 Uyavumelana nesiphethwesi?