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IsiThala (Esifundwa Ebandleni)  |  Matjhi 2013

NguJosephus OyiTlolileko Na?

NguJosephus OyiTlolileko Na?

ENcwadini XX kwethi Jewish Antiquities, usomlado uFlavius Josephus uqalisela ukufeni kwakaJakobosi, “umnakwabo kaJesu obekabizwa ngokuthi nguKrestu.” Izazi ezinengi ziyavuma ukuthi amezwi la atlolwe nguJosephus mathupha. Nokho, abanye bayakuzaza ukuthembeka kwesinye isitatimende esisencwadini efanako esimalungana noJesu. Indima leyo, eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Testimonium Flavianum, ifundeka bunjesi:

“Nje-ke, ngesikhathesi bekunoJesu, indoda ehlakaniphileko, nengabe kuvumelekile ngokomthetho ukumbiza indoda, ngombana bekamumenzi wemisebenzi emangalisako—umfundisi abantu ebebakuthabela ukufumana iqiniso kuye. Wadosela abanengi kuye kokubili emaJudeni nakwabaTjhili. Gade anguKrestu; begodu uPilatu, ngokunyula kwamadoda amakhulu phakathi kwethu, wamlahla ngomlando esiphambanweni, labo egade bamthanda ekuthomeni azange bamhloboke, ngombana wabonakala kibo aphila godu ngelanga lesithathu, njengombana abaporofidi bakaZimu bakubikezela lokho, namatjhumi weenkulungwana wezinye izinto ezimalungana naye; begodu isitjhaba samaKrestu, esithiyelelwe ngaye, sisesekhona nanamhlanjesi.”—Josephus—The Complete Works, itjhugululwe nguWilliam Whiston.

Kusukela ekupheleni kwekhulu le-16, kube nepikiswano evuthako hlangana kwalabo abakholelwa ukuthi kwamambala nguJosephus otlole indima le nalabo abazazako ukuthi nguye. Usomlando nosiyazi weencwadi zekadeni omFrentji uSerge Bardet, ulinge ukurarulula itlharhararha yepikiswano le ebe lirarano iminyaka emakhulu amane adlulileko. Ugadangise irhubhululo lakhe encwadini enesihloko esithi Testimonium Flavianum—Examen historique considérations historiographiques (I-Testimonium Flavianum—IRhubhululo EngokoMlando NgokuHlaziya OkungokoMlando).

UJosephus bekangasimtloli omKrestu. Bakangusomlando omJuda; ngalokho ipikiswano idzimelele ekubizeni kwakhe uJesu ngokuthi “nguKrestu.” Nekahlaziyako, uBardet wajama kwelokuthi isiqwesi sivumelana “ngazo zoke iindlela nokusebenzisa kwesiGirigi isakhi esiqinisekileko emagameni wabantu.” UBardet wangezelela nokuthi ngokombono odabuka ebuJudeni nebuKrestwini, “ukusebenzisa kwakaJosephus ibizo elithi Christos akusiyinto engenzeka kwaphela” kodwana kumtlhala “abasoli ngokujayelekileko abatjhaphe khulu ngokungawutjheji.”

Kungenzeka na ukuthi amezwi la angezelelwa mkhohlisi olinga ukutlola njengoJosephus? Asekela ebufakazini obungokomlando nobungokomtlolo, uBardet waphetha ngokuthi ukufojara okunjalo bekungapheze kube yikarisomraro. Kungatlhoga umkhohlisi “onekghono lokulingisa ebekungaba budisi khulu ukulifumana kiso soke isikhathi sekadeni,” ngamanye amezwi, loyo “obekangenza uJosephan abe njengoJosephus.”

Alo-ke kubayini indaba le imraro? Aveza umsuka womraro, uBardet waveza ukuthi “kunokuzaza nge-Testimonium—ngokungafani nenengi lemitlolo yekadeni—kwaphela ngombana kuphakame imibuzo nge-Testimonium.” Uragela phambili athi imibono eyamukelwe emakhulu weminyaka isekelwe khulu “esisuseni esingabonakaliko” kunekuhlaziyeni umtlolo lo ngokutjheja, okukusekela khulu ukuba kwawo ngewamambala.

Ukuthi ukuhlaziya kwakaBardet kuzokutjhentjha umbono wezazi malungana ne-Testimonium Flavianum kusazokubonakala. Kusikholisile esinye isazi esiveleleko sobuJuda beGrisi nobuKrestu bekadeni, uPierre Geoltrain. Besele anesikhathi eside akholelwa bona i-Testimonium isijobelelo, begodu anyefula labo abakholelwa ukuthi ingeyamambala. Kodwana uwutjhentjhile umbono wakhe. Uphethe ngokuthi umsebenzi kaBardet ngiwo omenze watjhentjha. Nje uGeoltrain umemezele ukuthi “akunamuntu okufuze alinge ukukhuluma ‘ngobufakazi obungasiliqiniso’ bakaJosephus.”

Liqiniso, aboFakazi bakaJehova banamabanga angeziweko akholisako wokwamukela uJesu njengoKrestu—lawo afumaneka eBhayibhilini ngokwalo.—2 Thi. 3:16.