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IsiThala  |  No. 6 2016

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Bekafuna Abantu Abavamileko Balazi IliZwi LakaZimu

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Bekafuna Abantu Abavamileko Balazi IliZwi LakaZimu

BEKUNGOSONDO ekuseni eminyakeni yabo-1520 mhla izakhamuzi zeMeaux, idorojana leParis, zizwa into ezingakayilindeli esondweni. Zezwa kufundwa amaVangeli ngelimi lazo lesiFrench, esikhundleni sesiLatin.

Umtjhugululi weBhayibheli ebekenza koke lokhu nguJacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (ngesiLatin, nguJacobus Faber Stapulensis), owatlolela umnganakhe wathi: “Angekhe wakholwa nangingakutjela bona uZimu ubasiza kangangani abantu bazi iliZwi lakhe.”

Ngesikhatheso, iSondo lamaKhatholika nabarhubhululi bezesayensi ngoZimu nekolo eParis balwisana nokutjhugululwa kwamaBhayibheli ngamalimi akhulunywa endaweni leyo. Yeke, khuyini okwenza uLefèvre watjhugulula iBhayibheli ngesiFrench? Begodu wakghona njani ukusiza abantu abavamileko bazwisise iliZwi lakaZimu?

BEKAFUNA IZWAKALE KUHLE IMITLOLO

Ngaphambi kokuba mtjhugululi weBhayibheli, uLefèvre bekazimisele ukubuyisela umongo wamambala kwezefilosofi nesayensi ngoZimu nekolo. Njeke walemuka bona imitlolo yamambala yekadeni beyonakaliswe mitjhapho yefundiso edurhisa abantu. Erhubhululweni lakhe lalokho ebekukhulunywa mitlolo yekadeni, wathoma ukulifunda ngelihlo elibukhali iBhayibheli leSondo lamaKhatholika, i-Vulgate yesiLatin.

Ukuzikhandla kwakhe ekuhlolisiseni imiTlolo kwamenza wafinyelela isiphetho sokuthi “nawufunda iqiniso ngoZimu . . . lokho kuzokulethela ithabo lamambala.” Ngikho-ke uLefèvre alisa ukufunda zefilosofi, wazinikela emsebenzini wokutjhugulula iBhayibheli.

Ngo-1509, uLefèvre wenza igadangiso lokumadanisa lamaRhubo ngesiLatin esingamalimi amahlanu, * kuhlanganise ne-Vulgate yakhe eneenlungiso azenzileko. Ngokungafani nabarhubhululi besayensi ngoZimu nekolo bangesikhatheso, yena wazimisela ukuthola “umqondo wamambala” walokho iBhayibheli elikhuluma ngakho. Indlela ebekayikhulumela ngayo imiTlolo yaba namandla nakwezinye izazi nabathuthukisi beBhayibheli.—Qala ibhoksi elithi “ Indlela ULefèvre Akhuthaza Ngayo UMartin Luther.

Irhelo leziqu ezisetjenziselwa uZimu kumaRhubo, njengombana zivezwe ku-Fivefold Psalter, Igadangiso lango-1513

Njengombana bekamKhatholika ngokubelethwa, uLefèvre bekaqiniseka bona isondo lingahlelwa kabutjha kwaphela nange abantu bafundiswa imiTlolo ngendlela efaneleko. Kodwana abantu abavamileko bebazokuzuza njani emiTlolweni ekubeni itholakala ngelimi lesiLatin kwaphela?

IBHAYIBHELI ELATHOLWA NGIBO BOKE ABANTU

IIsethulo samaVangeli saqinisekisa bona uLefèvre bekazimisele ukwenza iBhayibheli litholwe ngibo boke abantu ngelimi labo

ULefèvre ngendlela ebekalithanda ngayo iliZwi lakaZimu, bekazimisele ukulenza litholakale bulula ebantwini abanengi. Nakazakufinyelela umnqopho loyo, ngoJuni 1523, wagadangisa imiqulu emincani ekabili yamaVangeli atjhugululwe ngesiFrench. IBhayibheli elincani lelo ebelitjhiphile kunelijayelekileko, lakwenza kwaba lula nakilabo abanemadlana encani ukuthi bathole iBhayibheli.

Indlela abantu abayisekela ngayo kwabonakala  ukuthi bayithandile. Kwabonakala ngokuthi woke umuntu bekalulukela ukufunda amezwi kaJesu ngelimi lakhe—kokubili bembaji nebengubo, kangangobana amakhophi wokuthoma ayi-1 200 aphela ngeenyanga ezimbalwa.

ISIBINDI SOKUVIKELA IBHAYIBHELI

Esethulweni samaVangeli lawo, uLefèvre wahlathulula bona uwatjhugulule ngesiFrench, khona “namalunga avamileko” wesondo “azokwazi ukuthola umongo wamavangeli lawo njengombana kunjalo nangesiLatin.” Kodwana kubayini uLefèvre bekazimisele kangaka ukusiza abantu abavamileko ukuthi nabo bawuzwe umlayezo weBhayibheli?

ULefèvre bekazi kuhle ukuthi iimfundiso zabantu nefilosofi zilonakalisile iSondo lamaKhatholika. (Markosi 7:7; Kolose 2:8) Njeke bekaqiniseka bona sesifikile isikhathi sokuthi amaVangeli “atjhunyayelwe njengombana anjalo ephasini loke, khona abantu bangasazokudurhiswa ziimfundiso zabanye abantu.”

ULefèvre godu bekazimisele nokuyiveza imitjhapho yalabo ebebalwisana nokutjhugululwa kweBhayibheli ngesiFrench. Wakuveza ukuzenzisa kwabo nakathi: “Bangabafundisa njani [abantu] ukwenza koke uJesu Krestu athi kwenziwe, kukulapho bakhandela abanye bona bafunde iVangeli likaZimu ngelimi labo?”—Roma 10:14.

Ngikho abarhubululi bezesayensi ngoZimu  nekolo beYunivesithi yeParis, iSorbonne, balinga ukumthulisa uLefèvre. Kwathi ngo-Arhostesi 1523, bawajamisa amaBhayibheli welimi lendawo nazo zoke iincwadi ebeziwakhulumela, baziqala “njengeziyingozi eSondweni.” Ngathana azange zingenwe yiKosi yeFrance, uFrancis I, uLefèvre bekazokuqalwa njengomuntu odurhisa abantu.

UMTJHUGULULI “OTHULISIWEKO” UQEDELELA UMSEBENZAKHE

ULefèvre azange avumele iimpikiswanezo ziliye umsebenzakhe wokutjhugulula iBhayibheli. Ngo-1524, nasekaqedile ukutjhugulula imiTlolo yesiGirigi (eyaziwa nangokuthi yiTestamende Elitjha), wethula negadangiso lamaRhubo ngesiFrench, ukwenzela bona amakholwa “azinikele ngokudephileko” emthandazweni.

ESorbonne, abarhubhululi bezesayensi ngoZimu nekolo bawuqalisisa ngelihlo elibukhali umsebenzi kaLefèvre. Ngokurhabako ngemva kwalokho, balayela bona itjhugululo yeTestamende Elitjha leyo ivinjwe, batjho nokuthi eminye imitlolo yakhona “ivumelana nekolelo kaLuther.” Abarhubhululi labo nabazamkatelela bona akhulume, uLefèvre wakhetha “ukuzithulela,” wabalekela eStrasbourg. Nakafika lapho, waragela phambili nomsebenzakhe wokutjhugulula iBhayibheli, begodu nanyana abanye lokho bebakuqala njengokuba litjhatjha, yena bekakholelwa ekutheni leyo kuphela kwendlela ephumelelako yokuphendula labo abanganandaba ‘namatje aligugu’ aliqiniso leBhayibheli.—Matewu 7:6.

Esikhathini esingalingana nomnyaka, aye endaweni leyo, iKosi uFrancis I yabawa uLefèvre bona afundise indodanayo ebeyineminyaka emine, uCharles. Isabelweso sanikela uLefèvre ithuba elaneleko lokuqedelela umsebenzakhe wokutjhugulula. Kwathi ngo-1530, wagadangisa iBhayibheli elipheleleko ngaphandle kweFrance, e-Antwerp, ngemvumo ayinikelwe yiKosi uCharles V. *

ITHEMBA ELIKHULU, UKUZISOLA KAMUVA

Epilwenakhe yoke, uLefèvre bekanethemba lokuthi isondo lizoyitjhiya ikambiso yabantu, libuyele elwazini lamambala lemiTlolo. Bekakholelwa kwamambala ekutheni “kulilungelo nomsebenzi womKrestu ngamunye ukuzifundela iBhayibheli.” Ngikho-ke azikhandla kangaka ekwenzeni iBhayibheli litholakale kibo boke abantu. Nanyana singazange siphumelele isifiso sakhe sokubona isondo libuyela esigeni esifaneleko, umsebenzi kaLefèvre wokusiza abantu abavamileko bazi iliZwi lakaZimu uzokuhlala ukarisa.

^ isig. 8 I-Fivefold Psalter beyinamahlandla amahlanu wamaRhubo emareyini ahlukene, begodu beyinerhelo leziqu ezisetjenziselwa uZimu, kuhlanganise ne-Tetragrammaton, okumaledere amane wesiHebheru atjho ibizo lakaZimu.

^ isig. 21 Eminyakeni emihlanu eyalandela, ngo-1535, u-Olivétan naye otjhugulula ngesiFrench, wethula iBhayibheli esekelwe elimini lamambala lokuthoma. Wanamathela khulu emsebenzini kaLefèvre nakatjhugulula iTestamende Elitjha.