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IsiThala  |  No. 2 2016

Amavesi Nezahluko—Ngubani Owakufaka Ebhayibhelini?

Amavesi Nezahluko—Ngubani Owakufaka Ebhayibhelini?

ZICABANGE umKrestu esikhathini sabapostoli. Ibandla okilo lisanda kuthola incwadi evela kumpostoli uPowula. Ulalele njengombana ifundwa ebandleni, bese uyalemuka bona uPowula udzubhula kanengi ‘emitlolweni ecwengileko,’ yesiHebheru. (2 Thimothi 3:15) Bese uthi ehliziywenakho, ‘Nami ngifuna ukubona umtlolo uPowula adzubhule kiwo.’ Kodwana lokho bekungasibulula ngesikhatheso. Kubayini kunjalo?

AKUNAMAVESI NEZAHLUKO

Cabanga ngeencwadi nemisongo ‘yemitlolo ecwengileko’ ebeyikhona ngeenkhathi zakaPowula. Omunye wawo ngilo otjengiswe ekhasineli. Ingcenye yencwadi ka-Isaya evela kuma-Dead Sea Scroll. Ubonani kiyo? Sekuziingaba zamagama! Akunamatshwayo anjengabongci, namakhoma. Akunamavesi nezahluko ezinomboriweko njenganamhlanjesi.

Abatloli beBhayibheli khenge bahlukanise ngokwezahluko namavesi. Bese batlola umlayezo uZimu abanikele wona khona umfundi angafundi iingatjana zawo kwaphela, kodwana awuzwisise woke umqondo. Angithi vele ngilokho okufunako nawufunda incwadi oyitlolelwe mumuntu omthandako. Awuyifundi ngeenquntwana, kodwana uyifunda yoke.

Nanyana kunjalo, ukungabi namavesi nezahluko bekumraro. Ukutjengisa ukuthi uPowula kukhona lapha adzubhule khona bekafese athi “njengombana kutloliwe” namkha “njengombana u-Isaya atjhwile.” (Roma 3:10; 9:29) Alo bewuzowathola njani amezwi awadzubhulileko ungakayijayeli “imitlolo ecwengileko.”

Ngaphezu kwalokho, “imitlolo ecwengileko” leyo beyingasimlayezo munye kwaphela ovela kuZimu. Ngemva komnyaka ka-100 eenkhathini zamaKrestu wokuthoma, imitlolo besele ihlanganisiwe ineencwadi ezihlukahlukeneko eziyi-66! Ngikho namhlanjesi abafundi beBhayibheli bathabe khulu ngokuba namavesi nezahluko ezibasiza bona bathole amezwi anqophileko, njengalawo uPowula ebekawadzubhula kanengi eencwadini zakhe.

Naku umbuzo ongazibuza wona, ‘alo ngubani onombore amavesi nezahluko zeBhayibheli?’

NGUBANI OFAKE IZAHLUKO?

Umfundisi womNgisi uStephen Langton, owaba nguBhitjhobhi omKhulu weCanterbury, kuthiwa nguye ohlukanise iBhayibheli ngokwezahluko. Lokho wakwenza ngabo-1200, ngesikhathi angutitjhere eYunivesithi yeParis eFrance.

Ngaphambi kwemihla kaLangton, kunezazi zeBhayibheli ebezihlolisisa bona zingalihlukanisa njani iBhayibheli ngokwezahluko namkha iingatjana, khona zizokutholakala bulula iindima zeBhayibheli. Ungacabanga bona bekuzokuba bulula kangangani ukuthola indima ethileko nabayifuna esahlukweni, njengencwadi ka-Isaya enezahluko eziyi-66.

Kodwana koke lokho kwabanga umraro. Izazi zeBhayibheli besele zize neendlela ezinengi ezihlukahlukeneko zokuhlukanisa izahluko. Omunye wabo wahlukanisa incwadi yeVangeli lakaMarkosi yaba nezahluko pheze eziyi-50, ingasi eziyi-16 zanamhlanjesi. Emihleni kaLangton eParis, bekunabafundi abavela eenarheni ezinengi, ebeza namaBhayibheli avela eenarheni zemakhabo. Nanyana kunjalo, abafundisi  nabafundi bebangakghoni ukutjho ukuthi badzubhula kuphi. Kubayini kunjalo? Ngombana indlela okunomborwe ngayo izahluko emaBhayibhelinabo beyingafani.

Yeke, uLangton weza nendlela etja yokuhlukanisa izahluko. Indlela le “yakara abafundi nabakopululi,” kutjho incwadi i-The Book—A History of the Bible, begodu indlela le “yarhatjheka msinya eYurobhu.” ULangton nguye-ke oze nendlela yokunombora izahluko etholakala emaBhayibhelini amanengi namhlanjesi.

ALO, NGUBANI OWEZA NAMAVESI?

Kwathi ngemva kweminyaka eyi-300, phakathi kwabo-1500, isazi sezokugadangisa esaziwako uRobert Estienne wenza izinto zaba bulula khulu. Ihloswakhe bekukobana abantu bajayele ukufunda iBhayibheli. Walemuka ukuthi nange kungaba nendlela yinye yokunombora izahluko namavesi izinto zingaba bulula khulu.

U-Estienne akusuye owathoma weza nendlela yokuhlukanisa iBhayibheli ngamavesi. Bese kunabanye ebesele bayithomile indlela le. Ngokwesibonelo, eminyakeni emakhulu ngaphambi kwalokho, abakopululi abamaJuda besele bayihlukanisile imiTlolo yesiHebheru namkha iTestamende eliDala ngamavesi, ingasi ngezahluko. Kwayona indlela yezahluko leyo beyingafani.

U-Estienne weza nendlela etja yokunombora iTestamende eliTjha namkha imiTlolo yesiGirigi, walihlanganisa neTestamendeni eliDala ebesele linamavesi. Kwathi ngo-1553, wagadangisa iBhayibheli elipheleleko (ngesiFrentjhi) ebelithoma ukuba nezahluko namavesi pheze afana nalawo asemaBhayibhelini wanamhlanjesi. Abanye abantu bebayisola indlela le, bathi amavesi aliqunta khulu iBhayibheli libe ziincucwana, alenze libonakale ngasuthi ivesi elinye nelinye linomqondo walo ohlukileko. Kodwana nabanye abagadangisi bagcina sebayijayela msinya indlelakhe le.

KWABA BULULA UKUFUNDA IBHAYIBHELI

Cabanga iqhinga elibulula kangaka—iBhayibheli elinezahluko namavesi. Okutjho ukuthi elinye nelinye ivesi ‘seline-adresi’—njengenomboro yeposo. Kuliqiniso ukuthi indlela yokuhlukanisa ngezahluko namavesi ayikaphefumulelwa nguZimu, begodu umtlolo oseBhayibhelini uhlukaniseke ngendlela engakafaneli kwezinye iindawo. Kodwana amavesi nezahluko enza kube bulula ukudzubhula, ukuwathalela nangokuveza ukuthi thina asisiza njani. Angithi nalapho sifunda amagama namkha amezwi esiwathandako encwadini ethileko siyawathalela, khona sizokwazi ukuwakhumbula.

Nanyana kubulula ukufunda izahluko namavesi eBhayibhelini, ungalibali ukuthi kufuze uzwisise woke umlayezo ovela kuZimu. Zifundise ukufunda umongo namkha indaba yoke kunokufunda ivesi linye kwaphela. Ukwenza njalo kuzokusiza bona ujayelane nayo yoke “imitlolo ecwengileko enamandla yokukupha ukuhlakanipha kube kusindiswa.”—2 Thimothi 3:15.