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IsiThala  |  No. 4 2017

U-Elias Hutter Namabhayibhelakhe Wesihebheru Aqopha Umlando

U-Elias Hutter Namabhayibhelakhe Wesihebheru Aqopha Umlando

UYAKWAZI na ukufunda iBhayibheli lesiHebheru? Kungenzeka awukwazi, nokuthi mhlamunye azange khewulibone nokulibona. Nanyana kunjalo, kungatholakala ukuthi uyakuthanda ukufunda incwadi yemiTlolo eCwengileko. Yeke, khewuzwe ngomlando wesazi sangeminyaka yabo-1600, u-Elias Hutter namaBhayibhelakhe amabili wesiHebheru awagadangisako.

U-Elias Hutter wabelethwa ngo-1553 eGörlitz idorojana elincani elisemaqintelweni weGermany, ahlukanisa iPoland neCzech Republic. UHutter wafunda amalimi wabantu be-Asia, eYunivesithi yeLutheran, esenarheni yeJena. Nakaseminyakeni engaba ma-24 ubudala, waba nguProfesa welimi lesiHebheru eYunivesithi yeLeipzig. Njengomuntu oweza namatjhuguluko netuthuko ethileko kezefundo, wazivulela isikolo eNueemberg, okukulapho afundisa khona amalimi anjengesiHebheru, isiGirigi, isiLathini nesiJarimani ngeminyaka imine kwaphela. Into enjalo beyingeze yenzeka kinanyana ngisiphi isikolo nofana iyunivesithi.

“UBUHLE BENCWADI LE”

Isihloko seBhayibheli lakaHutter lesiHebheru lango-1587

Ngomnyaka ka-1587, uHutter wenza iBhayibheli lesiHebheru elibizwa ngeTestamende eliDala. IBhayibheli lelo belinesihloko esithi, Derekh ha-Kodesh, esisuselwa encwadini ka-Isaya 35:8 esitjho ukuthi “Indlela yokuCwenga.” Indlela ebelitlolwe kuhle ngayo kwabe kwatjhiwo namezwi athi, “koke lokhu kuveza ubuhle bencwadi le.” Yeke yini eyenza iBhayibheli leli laba ngelikhetheke kangaka? Abafundi bebakwazi ukulisebenzisa lula nabafunda ilimi lesiHebheru.

Into engakusiza uzwisise bona kubayini iBhayibheli lakaHutter beliyisizo kangaka, cabanga ngananzi iintjhijilo umfundi aqalana nazo nakalinga ukufunda iBhayibheli lesiHebheru. Kokuthoma litloleke ngendlela ehlukile nengakajayeleki. Kwesibili ibizo-senzo nesijobelelo sebizo zenza kube budisi ukubona umrabho webizwelo. Ngokwesibonelo, akhesicoce ngebizo lesiHebheru leli elithi “umphefumulo, נפשׁ (ne’phesh).” Encwadini kaHezekiyeli 18:4, litlolwe nebizo-senzo “u-um,” ה (ha), okwenza ibizweli naselihlangane lithi “umphefumulo,” הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh). Yeke nange amehlwakho angakabandulwa, ibizo elithi, הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) lingabonakala lihluke khulu kwelithi נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Ekusizeni abafundaba, uHutter bekasebenzisa ihlelo lezobuqhwephetjhe elihlakaniphe khulu. Nakatlola amaledere wesiHebheru bekasebenzisa iphetheni yokutlola amabizo ngokuwahlukanisa akhambe aba neenkhala ezivulavulekileko, abuye awatlole nangendlela ejayelekieko. Bekatlola ibizo elimrabho ngalinye ngokulenza litjhigame nofana ngomsizi odege. Bese kuthi endabeni yamabizo-senzo neenjobelelo zakhona, asebenzise indlela le yokuwatlola ngokuvuleka kweenkhala phakathi kwamabizo lawo. Umtjhini  ebekawusebenzisa lo bewenza abafundi bawubone lula umrabho webizo lesiHebheru, wakwenza kwaba lula nokufunda ilimi. IBhayibheli elibizwa nge-New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, kunye ne-Reference nazo zisebenzise indlela efanako ekuhlathululeni imitlolo eba senzasi kwencwadi. * Umrabho webizo uzowubona ngokutlolwa dege, bese ibizo-senzo nesijobelelo kutlolwe ngendlela ejayelekileko. Ingcenye zemifanekiso le ziveza indlela leya yokutlola amabizo aneenkhala ezithe ukuvuleka eyasetjenziswa nguHutter eBhayibhelini lesiHebheru emtlolweni kaHezekiyeli 18:4, naleya eyasetjenzeswa nakutlolwa imitlolo esenzasi evesini elifanako eliseBhayibhelini ye-Reference.

ITESTAMENDE “ELITJHA” LESIHEBHERU

UHutter wabuye wagadangisa iBhayibheli elaziwa ngeTestamende eliTjha ngamalimi ali-12. IBhayibheli lelo lagadangiswa ngeminyaka yabo-1599 enarheni yeNuremberg, ngikho kanengi libizwa ngeNuremberg Polyglot, (okutjho ukusetjenziswa kwamalimi amanengi.) UHutter bekafuna ukufaka nelimi lesiHebheru elisuselwa emiTlolweni yamaKrestu yesiGirigi. Kodwana wathi, nanyana “bekangazimisela ukubhadela iimali ezitjhisiweko” ngebanga lokutjhugulula isiHebheru, irhubhululwelo belizokufana nelize. * Yeke wakhetha ukutjhugulula iTestamende eliTjha ngesiHebheru alisusela esiGirigini yena mathupha. Lokho kwamenza wathatha imisebenzi eminye le yoke wayibekela eqadi, ITestamende elitjhelo naseliphelele, waliqeda ngonyaka munye tere!

Alo belilihle kangangani iBhayibheli lemiTlolo yamaKrestu yesiGirigi elenziwa nguHutter? Eminyakeni yabo-1900, umfundi ongu-Franz Delitzsch watlola wathi: “IBhayibheli lakaHutter liveza ukuvumelana kwamalimi okuyimvela kancani emaKrestwini, begodu kusazuzisa ukwenza irhubhululo kilo, kangangokuthi umlando wokulandelana kwalo ubetha poro endabeni, ngebanga lokuthi wakhetha imitjho efaneleko.”

ISIKHUTHAZO ENGEZE SAPHELELWA SIKHATHI

UHutter akhenge abe yinjinga ngomsebenzakhe wokutjhugulula. Kuyaziwa bonyana iBhayibheli lakhe azange lathengisa kuhle. Kodwana nakumsebenzakhe, wadlala indima ekulu nengeze yaphelelwa sikhathi. Ngokwesibonelo, iTestamende lakhe eliTjha lesiHebheru labuyekezwa kabutjha belagadangiswa nguWilliam Robertson ngeminyaka yabo-1661. Kwaba ngiso leso nangeminyaka yabo-1798, ngoRichard Caddick. Nakatjhugulula asusela esiGirigini sendabuko, uHutter walisebenzisa kuhle khulu ibizo elithi, Kyʹri·os (Kosi) nelithi The·osʹ (Zimu) njengombana yena bekafaka elithi “Jehova” (יהוה, JHVH) koke la ebekudzujulwa khona imiTlolo yesiHebheru namkha la ebekacabanga bona kuqaliselwe kuJehova. Kuyathokozisa ukuzwa lokhu, nganingoba nanyana amaBhayibheli amanengi weTestamende eliTjha bewangalisebenzisi ibizo lakaZimu, kodwana iBhayibheli lakaHutter libufakazi bokubuyiselwa kwebizo lakaZimu emiTlolweni yamaKrestu yesiGirigi.

Ngokuzako nawubona ibizo lakaZimu elithi, Jehova emiTlolweni yamaKrestu yesiGirigi namkha nawuqala emitlolweni esenzasi etholakala eBhayibhelini le-Reference, ukhumbule u-Elias Hutter namaBhayibhelakhe wesiHebheru aqopha umlando.

^ isig. 7 Qala umtlolo ophasi kaHezekiyeli 18:4, ne-Appendix 3B eseBhayibhelini ye-Reference.

^ isig. 9 Bukhona ubufakazi bokuthi izazi besekhe zalenza iBhayibheli lesiHebheru elaziwa ngeTestamende eliTjha. Omunye wezazi lezo nguSimon Atoumanos, ebekalilunga lekolo elithembekileko. Abantwabo bebaziwa ngama-Byzantine monk ngeminyaka yabo-1360. Godu kubuye kube no-Oswald Schreckenfuchs weJarimani, yena owaphila eminyakeni yabo-1565. Kodwana incwadi zabafundaba zalahleka zingakagadangiswa.

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