Inda koshikalimo

Inda koshikongitho oshitiyali

Inda koshikalimo

Oonzapo dhaJehova

Oshindonga

Oshungolangelo  |  No. 4 2017

Elias Hutter nOombiimbeli dhe dhOshihebeli dha tolokekeka

Elias Hutter nOombiimbeli dhe dhOshihebeli dha tolokekeka

MBELA owu shi okulesha Ombiimbeli mOshihebeli? Otashi vulika hasho. Otashi vulika nokuli inoo yi mona nando onale. Nonando ongawo, oto vulu okukokeka olupandu, sho wu na Ombiimbeli yoye mwene. Ngiini mbela? Omokwiilonga kombinga yomulongwantu gwedhina Elias Hutter, ngoka a li ko momumvo 1501-1600 lwaampono nokombinga yomatoloko gaali gOmbiimbeli yOshihebeli ngoka a nyanyangidha.

Elias Hutter okwa valwa mo 1553, mokandoolopa okashona kedhina Görlitz, hoka ke li popepi noongamba dhaNdowishi naPolanda nosho wo naCzech Republic. Okwi ilongo omalaka gamwe gokuuzilo kOuniveesiti yaLuteri moshilando Jena. Okwa ningwa omuprofesoli gwOshihebeli moLeipzig, sho a li e na owala omimvo 24. Okwa li a hala okulundulula omukalo moka aantu haya longwa, nomolwaashono konima yethimbo a toto po osikola moNuremberg moka aalongwa ya li yi ilongo Oshihebeli, Oshigreka, Oshilatina nOshindowishi muule womimvo ne. Shika kasha li hashi ningwa koosikola dhilwe nenge koouniveesiti dhilwe.

“ETOLOKO NDIKA EWANAWA”

Epandja mpoka pu na edhina lyOmbiimbeli yOshihebeli yaHutter yomo 1587

Mo 1587, Hutter okwa nyanyangidha oshitopolwa shOmbiimbeli mOshihebeli shoka oyendji hayi ithana Etestamendi Ekulu. Etoloko ndika olya li lyi ithanwa Derekh ha-Kodesh. Edhina ndika olya kuthwa muJesaja 35:8 notali ti: “Ondjila ondjapuki.” Omukalo moka ya tolokwa ogwa ningitha gumwe a popye ta ti kutya “kehe shimwe shi li mo otashi ulike kutya etoloko ndika ewanawa.” Ihe shoka sha ningitha Ombiimbeli ndjika yi kale ombwanawa kaaku na we, osho kutya oya li hayi kwathele nawa aalongwa yi ilonge Oshihebeli.

Natu taleni komashongo gaali ngoka aalongwa ya tsakaneke, sho ya li taya kambadhala okulesha Ombiimbeli mOshihebeli. Shika otashi tu kwathele tu uve ko kutya omolwashike Ombiimbeli ndjoka Hutter a toloka, ya li ye ya kwathele noonkondo. Eshongo lyotango, oya li ya nyolwa nooalfabeta dhi ili, nokadha li dha tseyika nawa. Etiyali, iitetekeli niihugunini yiitya yOshihebeli ohayi shi ningi oshidhigu okumona ekota lyoshitya. Pashiholelwa, oshitya נפשׁ (shoka sha tolokwa nephesh), otashi ti “omwenyo.” MuHesekiel 18:4, osha tetekelwa koshitetekelitya ה (ha). Kungawo, osha tungu po oshitya הנפשׁ (hannephesh). Ngele omuntu ke shi okulesha Oshihebeli, oshitya הנפשׁ (hannephesh) otashi vulika a kale e wete sha yooloka ko thiluthilu koshitya נפשׁ (nephesh), ihe oya faathana.

Hutter okwa li e yi pilinta momukalo gwa dhenga mbanda, yi na oondanda dhOshihebeli dha luudhikwa naandhoka inaadhi luudhikwa. Okwe shi ningi, opo a kwathele aalongwa ye. Ekota lyoshitya kehe  shOshihebeli oli li moondanda dha luudhikwa. Iitetekeli niihuguninitya oyi li moondanda inaadhi luudhikwa. Omukalo ngoka ogwa kwathele aalongwa ya mone kutya ekota lyoshitya kehe shOshihebeli olini noyi ilonge nawa elaka. Ombiimbeli yo-New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures —  With References oya longitha omukalo gwa faathana momanyolo gopevi. * Iitya yo yene mbyoka ya tolokwa ngaashi yi li, oyi li moondanda dha luudhikwa, omanga iitetekeli niihugunini inaayi luudhikwa. Iiholelwa mbyoka yi li pomathano otayi ulike nkene Hesekiel 18:4 a nyolwa mOmbiimbeli yOshihebeli ndjoka ya tolokwa kuHutter nankene ya nyolwa menyolo lyopevi mOmbiimbeli yOshiingilisa.

“ETESTAMENDI EPE” LYA TOLOKWA MOSHIHEBELI

Hutter okwa nyanyangidha wo oshitopolwa shOmbiimbeli momalaka 12, shoka oyendji hayi ithana Etestamendi Epe. Etoloko ndika olya nyanyangidhilwa moNuremberg mo 1599 nolundji ohali ithanwa Nuremberg Polyglot. Momalaka moka Hutter okwa li a hala okukwatela mo Omanyolo gopaKriste gOshigreka ga tolokwa mOshihebeli. Ihe okwa ti kutya nokuli nando “okwa li e na ehalo okufuta oshimaliwa oshindji,” opo a lande Ombiimbeli ya tolokwa mOshihebeli, ando ine yi mona nando oku yi konge. * Onkee ano, okwa tokola a toloke ye mwene Etestamendi Epe mOshihebeli okuza mOshigreka. Hutter okwe etha po okulonga iinima yilwe, nokwa mana okutoloka omanyolo ngoka muule womumvo gumwe.

Omolwashike Omanyolo gopaKriste gOshigreka ngoka Hutter a toloka mOshihebeli ga li omawanawa? Mo 1891 omulongwantu a tseyika nawa Franz Delitzsch okwa nyola a ti: “Ombiimbeli ndjoka a toloka mOshihebeli oyi li melaka inaali tseyika nawa kAakriste, ihe oyu uvitiwe ko nawa noya pumbwa okukala tayi leshwa natango, oshoka iikando niikando okwa longitha uutumbulilo wu li mondjila.”

ETOLOKO LYE OTALI LONGITHWA NATANGO

Iilonga yaHutter yokutoloka inayi mu ninga omuyamba. MOombiimbeli ndhoka a toloka ina mona mo oshimaliwa oshindji. Nonando ongawo, shoka a toloka osha simana netoloko lye otali longithwa natango. Pashiholelwa, Ombiimbeli ye yOshihebeli oya tolokululwa e tayi nyanyangidhululwa mo 1661 kuWilliam Robertson nomo 1798 okuRichard Caddick. Sho Hutter a toloka okuza kOshigreka shopetameko, mpoka pu na omadhinasimaneko Kyrios (tashi ti Omuwa) naTheos (tashi ti Kalunga) okwa tula po “Jehova” (יהוה, JHVH). Uuna ta totha oohapu tadhi popi kombinga yedhina ndyoka okuza mOmanyolo gOshihebeli oha tula po Jehova nenge mpoka e wete kutya Jehova oye ta popiwa. Shika oshihokithi, oshoka nonando omatoloko ogendji gEtestamendi Epe inaga longitha edhina lyaKalunga lyo lyene, Hutter okwe li longitha. Kungawo, edhina lyaKalunga okwe li shuna mo mOmanyolo gopaKriste gOshigreka.

Ngele to mono edhina lyaKalunga, Jehova, mOmanyolo gopaKriste gOshigreka nenge to tala enyolo lyopevi mo-Reference Bible, dhimbulukwa iilonga yaElias Hutter nOombiimbeli dhe dhOshihebeli dha tolokekeka.

^ okat. 7 Tala enyolo lyopevi etiyali lyaHesekiel 18:4 no-Appendix 3B mo-Reference Bible.

^ okat. 9 Opu na uumbangi wa yela tawu ulike kutya aalongwantu mboka ya tetekele oya li ya toloka Etestamendi Epe mOshihebeli. Gumwe gwomuyo omwiikaleli gwokoByzantine, Simon Atoumanos, ngoka e li toloka mo 1360 lwaampono. Gulwe okwa li Omundowishi, Oswald Schreckenfuchs, ngoka e li toloka mo 1565 lwaampono. Shoka ya toloka kasha li sha nyanyangidhwa nokashi po we nokuli ngashingeyi.