Yeqa uye kokuphakathi

Yeqa uye kokumunyethweyo

 EZENDULO

U-Alhazen

U-Alhazen

ENGXENYE awukaze uzwe ngomuntu okuthiwa ngu-Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. EYurophu laseMelika waziwa ngebizo lesiLathini elithi Alhazen elithathelwa ebizweni lakhe lokuqala lesi-Arabic elithi al-Hasan. Lanxa ungamazi, akwenzayo kuyakunceda kakhulu. Uchazwa ngokuthi “ngomunye wabantu abaqakathekileyo njalo owenza okukhulu embalini yesayensi.”

U-Alhazen wazalelwa eBasra, ese-Iraq, eminyakeni yabo-965 C.E. * Wayethanda inombolo, umculo, inkondlo, isayensi lokuhlola izinkanyezi lezemithi. Kodwa kuyini esimbonga ngakho kakhulu?

ICEBO LOKWAKHA IDAMU KUNAYILI

Kulendaba ka-Alhazen osekulesikhathi eside kukhulunywa ngayo. Indaba leyo imayelana lecebo lakhe lokunciphisa ukugeleza koMfula uNayili futhi kwakusasele iminyaka engaba ngu-1 000 ukuthi umsebenzi lo uqalwe e-Aswân ngo-1902.

Indaba ilandisa isithi u-Alhazen waba lesifiso sokuthi anciphise indlala lezikhukhula eGibhithe ngokwakha idamu kuNayili. Umbusi weGibhithe u-al-Hakim wathi esizwa lelocebo wabiza u-Alhazen ukuthi azolakha. Kodwa u-Alhazen wathi ebona umfula lo ngawakhe wahle wazi ukuthi umsebenzi lo wawungaphezu kwamandla akhe. Yikho wazenza umuntu ohlanyayo ngenxa yokwesaba ukujeziswa ngumbusi lo owayengathenjwa. Wakwenza lokhu kwaze kwafa umbusi lo ngo-1021, ngemva kweminyaka engaba ngu-11. U-Alhazen waba lesikhathi esinengi sokuzenzela izinto zakhe ngesikhathi egcinwe endaweni ethile kucatshangwa ukuthi uyahlanya.

IBHUKU LESAYENSI

Ngesikhathi u-Alhazen ekhululwa wayesephose waqeda ukuloba ibhuku lakhe elilezingxenye ezingu-7 elilesihloko esithi Book of Optics. Ibhuku lelo “lingelinye lamabhuku aqakathekileyo embalini yesayensi.” Ebhukwini lelo wachasisa ngokukhanya, ukuthi kwehlukana njani ukuze kwenze imibala etshiyeneyo, kwenzakalani kungahlaba esibukweni lokuthi kwenza njani nxa kusuka  kwenye indawo kusiya kwenye. Waphinda wahlolisisa indlela ilihlo elisebenza ngayo kanye lendlela elibunjwe ngayo.

Ngeminyaka yabo-1200 ukuchwayisisa okwakwenziwe ngu-Alhazen kwasekuhunyutshwe ngesiLathini kususelwa kusi-Arabic njalo eminyakeni eyalandelayo izikhwicamfundo zaseYurophu zasezikusebenzisa. Lokho u-Alhazen akulobayo mayelana lamaglasi (lenses) kwanceda kakhulu abantu baseYurophu ababesenza amaglasi amehlo ukuthi benze i-telescope le-microscope.

I-CAMERA OBSCURA

U-Alhazen wavula indlela yokuthi amapikitsha angathathwa njani ngesikhathi esenza indlu okuthiwa yi-camera obscura. Indlu le yayimnyama phakathi futhi ukukhanya kwakungena ngesikhala esincane, besekutshengisa isithunzi salokho okuyabe kuphandle kwendlu emdulini ophakathi.

U-Alhazen wakha indlu eyayibizwa ngokuthi yi-camera obscura

Eminyakeni yabo-1800 indlu le yafakwa okuthile okusaglasi (photographic plates) okwakusenza kuthathwe amapikitsha ahlala isikhathi eside. Indlela le yokuthatha amapikitsha yanceda ukuthi kubunjwe ikhamera. Ikhamera kanye lelihlo kusebenza ngendlela efanana leye-camera obscura. *

EZESAYENSI

U-Alhazen wayesenza umsebenzi wakhe ngendlela ehlelekileyo futhi echwayisisa okuzwayo izinto zemvelo. Indlela ayesenza ngayo yayingajayelekanga ngalezonsuku. Ungomunye walabo ababeqala ngokuhlola ukuthi lokho abanye ababekutsho endabeni zesayensi kuliqiniso yini njalo wayengesabi ukuphikisana lombono wabo nxa kungelabufakazi obucacayo.

Khathesi abezesayensi bathi kumele ulethe ubufakazi balokho okutshoyo ezindabeni zesayensi. Abanye bathi u-Alhazen “ngubaba wesayensi ekhona lamuhla.” Yikho silokunengi esimbonga ngakho.

^ indima 4 U-C.E., umela ukuthi “Common Era” okutsho isikhathi uJesu esebuyile emhlabeni.

^ indima 13 Ukufanana okukhona phakathi kwe-camera obscura lelihlo kwakungazwisiseki eYurophu laseMelika kwaze kwachasiswa nguJohannes Kepler ngo-1604.