Yeqa uye kokuphakathi

Yeqa uye kokumunyethweyo

Amabala Asekucineni

Amabala Asekucineni

1 UJEHOVA

Ibizo likaNkulunkulu nguJehova njalo litsho ukuthi “Wenza Ukuthi Kube Khona.” UJehova unguSomandla njalo nguye owadala izinto zonke. Ulamandla okwenza loba yini.

NgesiHebheru ibizo likaNkulunkulu lalibhalwa ngongwaqa abane. Ongwaqa labo bangantshintshelwa esiNgisini baba ngu-YHWH kumbe u-JHVH. Ibizo likaNkulunkulu litholakala emibhalweni yesiHebheru yakudala izikhathi ezingaba ngu-7 000. Abantu emhlabeni jikelele basebenzisa ibizo elithi Jehova njalo balibiza ngezindlela ezitshiyeneyo belandela imithetho yendimi zabo.

Isahl. 1, indima 15

2 IBHAYIBHILI ‘LAPHEFUMULELWA NGUNKULUNKULU’

UNkulunkulu nguye owaloba iBhayibhili esebenzisa abantu. Lokhu kufanana lokwenziwa ngugogo nxa ecela umzukulu uthi ambhalele incwadi. UNkulunkulu wasebenzisa umoya ongcwele ukuthi ukhokhele abalobi beBhayibhili. Umoya ongcwele wasebenza kibo ngezindlela ezitshiyeneyo, ngokwesibonelo abanye babebona imibono ikanti abanye babephupha lokho okumele bakubhale.

Isahl. 2, indima 5

3 IZIPHROFETHO

La ngamazwi avela kuNkulunkulu. Kungaba yikuchasiswa kwentando kaNkulunkulu, imfundiso yokuziphatha, umthetho kumbe isahlulelo. Kanti njalo kungaba ngumlayezo ophathelane lokuzakwenzakala esikhathini esizayo. Zinengi iziphrofetho eziseBhayibhilini esezigcwalisekile.

Isahl. 2, indima 13

  4 IZIPHROFETHO EZIPHATHELANE LOMESIYA

Iziphrofetho ezinengi eziphathelane loMesiya zagcwaliswa nguJesu. Khangela ibhokisi elithi “ Iziphrofetho Eziphathelane LoMesiya.”

Isahl. 2, indima 17, amabala angaphansi

5 INJONGO KAJEHOVA NGOMHLABA

UJehova wayefuna umhlaba ube liPharadayisi elizahlalwa ngabantu abamthandayo. Injongo yakhe ayikantshintshi. Sekuseduze ukuthi uJehova aqede bonke ububi njalo anike abantu abalungileyo ukuphila okungapheliyo.

Isahl. 3, indima 1

6 USATHANE UDEVELI

USathane yingilosi eyahlamukela uNkulunkulu njalo yabangela labanye ukuthi bayilandele. Ibizo elithi Sathane litsho “uMphikisi” ngoba ulwisana loJehova. Kanti elithi Develi lona litsho “uMnyundeli” ngenxa yokuthi uhutshuza amanga ngoNkulunkulu njalo uvala abantu amehlo.

Isahl. 3, indima 4

7 IZINGILOSI

UJehova waqala ngokudala izingilosi engakadali umhlaba. Kulezingilosi ezedlula amakhulu ezigidi njalo zihlala ezulwini. (UDanyeli 7:10) Zilamabizo futhi zilobuntu obutshiyeneyo. Kazivumi ukuthi abantu bazikhonze. Zenza imisebenzi etshiyeneyo egoqela ukukhonza uJehova, ukuba yizithunywa, ukuvikela lokukhokhela izikhonzi zikaJehova ezisemhlabeni, ukwahlulela lokusiza abenza umsebenzi wokutshumayela. (IHubo 34:7; ISambulo 14:6; 22:8, 9) Esikhathini esizayo zizancedisa uJesu empini ye-Amagedoni.—ISambulo 16:14, 16; 19:14, 15.

Isahl. 3, indima 5; Isahl. 10, indima 1

  8 ISONO

Isono yiloba yini engahambelani lentando kaJehova, kungaba yimizwa, imicabango loba izenzo. UJehova usiphe imithetho lezimiso ezisisiza ukuthi singenzi isono ngabomo. UJehova wadala u-Adamu lo-Eva bephelele kodwa bona benza isono ngokungamlaleli. Lokho kwenza ukuthi baguge futhi bafe. Lanamuhla abantu bayaguga futhi bayafa ngenxa yesono abasithola ku-Adamu.

Isahl. 3, indima 7; Isahl. 5, indima 3

9 I-AMAGEDONI

Le yimpi kaNkulunkulu azayisebenzisa ukukhipha ububi obubangelwa nguSathane.

Isahl. 3, indima 13; Isahl. 8, indima 18

10 UMBUSO KANKULUNKULU

Nguhulumende kaJehova osezulwini njalo uJesu uyiNkosi yawo. Esikhathini esizayo uJehova uzasebenzisa uMbuso wakhe ukuthi aqede ububi. UMbuso lo uzabusa umhlaba wonke.

Isahl. 3, indima 14

11 UJESU KHRISTU

UJesu ulizibulo lendalo yonke njalo uJehova wamthuma emhlabeni ukuthi azofela abantu. UJehova wamvusa uJesu ngemva kokubulawa ngabantu. Khathesi uJesu useyiNkosi yoMbuso kaNkulunkulu ezulwini.

Isahl. 4, indima 2

  12 ISIPHROFETHO SAMAVIKI ANGU-70

IBhayibhili lakhuluma ukuthi uMesiya wayezavela nini. Lathi wayezavela ngo-29 C.E. njalo ukubalwa kwesikhathi leso kwaqalisa ngo-455 B.C.E. Isikhathi lesi sibizwa ngokuthi ngamaviki angu-69.

Sazi njani ukuthi isikhathi leso saphela ngo-29 C.E.? Amaviki angu-69 aqalisa ngo-455 B.C.E. ngesikhathi uNehemiya efika eJerusalema njalo eqalisa ukwakha kutsha idolobho lelo. (UDanyeli 9:25; UNehemiya 2:1, 5-8) Ibala elithi “idazeni” lisenza sicabange u-12, yikho endabeni le ibala elithi “iviki” lisenza sicabange u-7. Amaviki okukhulunywa ngawo lapha ayisiwo awamalanga angu-7 kodwa amela iminyaka engu-7, lokhu kuhambelana lesiphrofetho esithi “usuku olulodwa lumele umnyaka munye ngamunye.” (AmaNani 14:34; UHezekheli 4:6) Iviki ngayinye okukhulunywa ngayo lapha ithatha iminyaka engu-7 okutsho ukuthi amaviki angu-69 yiminyaka engu-483 (69 x 7). Nxa singabala iminyaka engu-483 sisukela ku-455 B.C.E. sifika ku-29 C.E. Lo yiwo kanye umnyaka uJesu abhabhathizwa ngawo njalo waba nguMesiya.—ULukha 3:1, 2, 21, 22.

Isiphrofetho lesi siphinda sikhulume ngeyinye iviki emela iminyaka engu-7. Phakathi kweminyaka leyo uMesiya wayezabulawa ngo-33 C.E. njalo ekuqaliseni komnyaka ka-36 C.E. izindaba zoMbuso kaNkulunkulu zazizatshunyayelwa kwabezizwe.—UDanyeli 9:24-27.

Isahl. 4, indima 7

  13 IMFUNDISO YAMANGA YOBUTHATHU BUKANKULUNKULU

IBhayibhili lifundisa ukuthi uJehova unguMdali njalo wadala uJesu engakadali ezinye izinto. (KwabaseKholose 1:15, 16) UJesu kayisuye Nkulunkulu uSomandla. Laye uyakwazi ukuthi kalingani loNkulunkulu yikho wathi:  “uBaba mkhulu kulami.” (UJohane 14:28; 1 KwabaseKhorinte 15:28) Kodwa amanye amasonto afundisa ukuthi uJehova, uJesu lomoya ongcwele yinto yinye. Imfundiso le kayikho eBhayibhilini njalo ngeyamanga.

Umoya ongcwele ngamandla kaNkulunkulu awasebenzisayo ukuthi afeze intando yakhe. Umoya ongcwele kawusiwo muntu. Ngokwesibonelo amaKhristu akuqala ‘agcwaliswa ngomoya ongcwele’ njalo uJehova wathi: ‘ngizathululela umoya wami kubo bonke abantu.’—ImiSebenzi 2:1-4, 17.

Isahl. 4, indima 12; Isahl. 15, indima 17

14 ISIPHAMBANO

Kungani amaKhristu eqiniso engasisebenzisi isiphambano ekukhonzeni?

  1. Sekuleminyaka eminengi inkolo yamanga isebenzisa isiphambano. Ekuqaliseni sasisetshenziswa ekukhonzeni indalo lasemikhosini yabahedeni yokuziphatha kubi kwezemacansini. Okweminyaka engu-300 ngemva kokufa kukaJesu, amaKhristu ayengasisebenzisi isiphambano ekukhonzeni. Kwaba njalo kwaze kwaba yisikhathi uMbusi weRoma uConstantine eqalisa ukusisebenzisa njengophawu lwesiKhristu. Wayefuna ukwenza isiKhristu samukelwe ngabantu abanengi. Kodwa iqiniso yikuthi isiphambano asilani loJesu. Ibhuku okuthiwa yi-New Catholic Encyclopedia lithi: “Isiphambano sasisetshenziswa uJesu engakabuyi emhlabeni futhi siyasetshenziswa lasemasikweni angasowesiKhristu.”

  2. UJesu kafelanga esiphambanweni. Amabala esiGrikhi ahunyutshwe ngokuthi “isiphambano” atsho “isigodo” kumbe “isihlahla.” I-The Companion Bible ithi:  “Akula ngitsho ubufakazi obutshengisa ukuthi isiGrikhi esisetshenziswe [KuThestamente Elitsha] sikhuluma ngezigodo ezimbili ezenziwe zaba yisiphambano.” UJesu wafela esigodweni.

  3. UJehova kafuni simkhonze sisebenzisa izithombe.—U-Eksodusi 20:4, 5; 1 KwabaseKhorinte 10:14.

Isahl. 5, indima 12

15 ISIKHUMBUZO

UJesu watshela abafundi bakhe ukuthi bananze iSikhumbuzo sokufa kwakhe. Lokhu kwenziwa minyaka yonke ngo-Nisan 14, leli yilo ilanga ama-Israyeli ayenanza ngalo iPhasika. Isinkwa lewayini okumela umzimba legazi likaJesu kuyadluliswa kuwo wonke umuntu oyabe ekhona eSikhumbuzweni. Abadla isinkwa njalo banathe lewayini yilabo abazabusa loJesu ezulwini. Labo abalethemba lokuphila lapha emhlabeni bayasinanza iSikhumbuzo kodwa kabadli isinkwa njalo kabanathi iwayini.

Isahl. 5, indima 21

16 UMPHEFUMULO

I-New World Translation yesiNgisi isebenzisa ibala elithi umphefumulo nxa ikhuluma: (1) ngomuntu, (2) ngenyamazana kumbe (3) ngempilo yomuntu loba eyenyamazana. Nanzi ezinye izibonelo:

  • Umuntu. ‘Ezinsukwini zikaNowa . . . abantu abalutshwana nje kuphela, imiphefumulo eyisificamibili yasiliswa.’ (1 UPhetro 3:20, NW) Evesini le, ibala elithi imiphefumulo litsho abantu: UNowa, umkakhe, amadodana amathathu kaNowa labomkabo.

  • Inyamazana. “UNkulunkulu wathi: ‘Akuthi amanzi anyakazele ngezidalwa eziphilayo [“imiphefumulo”], njalo akuthi izinyoni ziphaphe ngaphezulu komhlaba zidabule  emkhandlwini womkhathi.’ UNkulunkulu waphinda wathi: ‘Akuthi umhlaba uveze izidalwa eziphilayo [“imiphefumulo”] kusiya ngemihlobo yazo: izinanakazana ezihuquzela emhlabathini, kanye lezinyamazana zeganga, yilezo kusiya ngemihlobo yazo.’ Lakanye kwaba njalo.”—UGenesisi 1:20, 24.

  • Ukuphila komuntu kumbe okwenyamazana. UJehova watshela uMosi wathi: ‘Bonke abantu ababefuna ukukubulala [“ababedinga umphefumulo wakho”] sebafa.’ (U-Eksodusi 4:19) Ngesikhathi uJesu elapha emhlabeni wathi: ‘Ngingumalusi olungileyo. Umalusi olungileyo unikela ukuphila [“umphefumulo”] kwakhe.’—UJohane 10:11.

    Nxa iBhayibhili lisithi umuntu wenza ulutho ‘ngomphefumulo wakhe wonke’ liyabe lisitsho ukuthi wenza konke okusemandleni akhe. (UMathewu 22:37; UDutheronomi 6:5) Umuntu ofileyo kuthiwa ngumphefumulo ofileyo.—AmaNani 6:6; IZaga 23:2; U-Isaya 56:11; UHagayi 2:13.

Isahl. 6, indima 5; Isahl. 15, indima 17

17 UMOYA

Amabala esiGrikhi lesiHebheru ahunyutshwe ngokuthi “umoya” ku-New World Translation yesiNgisi angatsho izinto ezitshiyeneyo. Amabala la ayabe esitsho into esingeke siyibone njengomoya ovunguzayo kumbe esiwuphefumulayo. Amabala la angaphinde atsho izingilosi kumbe umoya ongcwele. IBhayibhili alifundisi ukuthi kulokunye okusala kuphila emuntwini nxa angafa.—U-Eksodusi 35:21; IHubo 104:29; UMathewu 12:43; ULukha 11:13

Isahl. 6, indima 5; Isahl. 15, indima 17

 18 IGEHENA

IGehena libizo lendawo eyayiseduze leJerusalema lapho okwakutshiselwa khona izibi. Akula bufakazi obutshengisa ukuthi ngesikhathi sikaJesu kwakutshiswa abantu lezinyamazana endaweni le. Yikho iGehena ayisiyo ndawo lapho okutshiswa khona abantu abafileyo. Ngesikhathi uJesu ekhuluma ngalabo abaphoselwa eGehena wayesitsho ukuthi bazabhujiswa bangaphindi babekhona.—UMathewu 5:22; 10:28.

Isahl. 7, indima 20

19 UMTHANDAZO WENKOSI

Lo ngumthandazo oyisibonelo uJesu awenza ngesikhathi efundisa abalandeli bakhe ukuthandaza. Uphinda ubizwe ngokuthi nguBaba Wethu. Nansi indlela eyisibonelo uJesu athi sikhuleke ngayo:

  • “Malihlonitshwe ibizo lakho”

    Lapha siyabe sikhulekela ukuthi uJehova ahlambulule ibizo lakhe kuwo wonke amanga aqanjelwe wona. Lokhu kuzenza wonke umuntu ezulwini lasemhlabeni adumise ibizo likaNkulunkulu.

  • ‘UMbuso wakho kawuze’

    Siyabe sicela ukuthi uMbuso kaNkulunkulu ubhubhise abantu ababi, wona ubusubusa njalo wenze umhlaba ube liPharadayisi.

  • “Intando yakho yenziwe emhlabeni”

    Lapha siyabe sikhulekela ukuthi lokho uNkulunkulu akuhlosileyo kwenzakale emhlabeni. Lokhu kuzenza ukuthi abantu abalalela uNkulunkulu baphile phakade ePharadayisi ngoba yikho ayevele ekufuna.

Isahl. 8, indima 2

 20 INHLAWULO

Inhlawulo iyasikhulula esonweni lasekufeni. Inhlawulo yimbadalo eyayidingakala ukuze abantu bathole ukuphila okupheleleyo okwalahlwa ngu-Adamu. UNkulunkulu wathumela uJesu emhlabeni ukuze azofela bonke abantu. Ukufa kukaJesu kwavula ithuba lokuthi abantu bathole ukuphila okuphakade.

Isahl. 8, indima 21; Isahl. 9, indima 13

21 KUNGANI UMNYAKA KA-1914 UQAKATHEKILE?

Isiphrofetho esikuDanyeli isahluko 4 sikhuluma ngokuthi uMbuso kaNkulunkulu wawuzaqalisa ukubusa ngo-1914.

Isiphrofetho: UJehova wenza inkosi uNebhukhadinezari yaphupha iphupho elalilengcazelo eyisiphrofetho. Iphupho leli lalingelesihlahla esikhulu esaganyulwayo. Kwathi isidindi sabotshwa ngensimbi langethusi futhi kwadlula ‘izikhathi eziyisikhombisa.’ Ngemva kwezikhathi lezo isihlahla leso saphinda sakhula.—UDanyeli 4:1, 10-16.

Okutshiwo yisiphrofetho leso: Isihlahla simela uMbuso kaNkulunkulu. UJehova wayekhetha amakhosi ukuthi abuse abantu bako-Israyeli. (1 ImiLando 29:23) Kodwa amakhosi lawo acina engasathembekanga njalo ubukhosi babo baphela ngesikhathi iJerusalema libhujiswa ngomnyaka ka-607 B.C.E. ‘Izikhathi eziyisikhombisa’ zaqala ngomnyaka lowo. (2 AmaKhosi 25:1, 8-10; UHezekheli 21:25-27) UJesu wayekhuluma ‘ngezikhathi eziyisikhombisa’ lapho esithi: “IJerusalema izagidagidwa ngabeZizwe kuze kugcwaliseke izikhathi zabeZizwe.” (ULukha 21:24) Yikho izikhathi lezi aziphelanga ngesikhathi uJesu esemhlabeni. UJehova wathembisa ukuthi uzabeka iNkosi ekupheleni ‘kwezikhathi eziyisikhombisa.’ Ukubusa  kweNkosi leyo enguJesu kuzaletha izibusiso ebantwini bakaNkulunkulu emhlabeni wonke.—ULukha 1:30-33.

Zinde okungakanani ‘izikhathi eziyisikhombisa?’: Izikhathi lezi ziyiminyaka engu-2 520. Nxa singabala iminyaka engu-2 520 sisukela ku-607 B.C.E. sifika ku-1914. Ngomnyaka lowo uJehova wenza uJesu waba yiNkosi yoMbuso kaNkulunkulu ezulwini.

Kodwa iminyaka engu-2 520 siyithole njani? IBhayibhili lithi izikhathi ezintathu lengxenye zilingana lamalanga angu-1 260. (ISambulo 12:6, 14) Yikho izikhathi ezintathu lengxenye siyaziphinda kabili ukuze sithole ‘eziyisikhombisa.’ Nxa singenza njalo, izikhathi eziyisikhombisa ziba ngamalanga ayi-2 520. Amalanga la amela iminyaka engu-2 520. Lokhu kuvumelana lesiphrofetho esiseBhayibhilini esithi “usuku olulodwa lumele umnyaka munye ngamunye.”—AmaNani 14:34; UHezekheli 4:6.

Isahl. 8, indima 23

22 UMIKHAYELI INGILOSI ENKULU

Ibala elithi “ingilosi enkulu” litsho ukuthi “induna yezingilosi.” IBhayibhili lisitshela ngengilosi eyodwa enkulu futhi ibizo layo nguMikhayeli.—UDanyeli 12:1; UJuda 9

UMikhayeli nguMkhokheli wamabutho ezingilosi zikaNkulunkulu. ISambulo 12:7 sithi: “UMikhayeli lezingilosi balwa lomgobho . . . lezingilosi zawo.” Ibhuku leSambulo lisitshela ukuthi uMkhokheli webutho likaNkulunkulu nguJesu. Lokhu kutsho ukuthi uMikhayeli ngelinye ibizo likaJesu.

Isahl. 9, indima 4

 23 IZINSUKU ZOKUCINA

Izinsuku zokucina yisikhathi lapho okuzenzakala khona izehlakalo ezinkulu lezimangalisayo emhlabeni ukuphela kungakafiki. Kwezinye izikhathi nxa iBhayibhili likhuluma ngezinsuku zokucina lithi: ‘Ukucina kwesikhathi’ kumbe “ukufika kweNdodana yomuntu.” (UMathewu 24:3, 27, 37) ‘Izinsuku zokucina’ zaqalisa ngesikhathi uMbuso kaNkulunkulu uqalisa ukubusa ezulwini ngo-1914. Zizaphela ngesikhathi uNkulunkulu esebhubhisa abantu abenza okubi ngempi yakhe okuthiwa yi-Amagedoni.

Isahl. 9, indima 5

24 UKUVUSWA KWABAFILEYO

EBhayibhilini sifunda ngabantu abangu-9 abavuswayo. U-Elija, u-Elisha, uJesu, uPhetro loPhawuli bake bavusa abantu abafileyo. UNkulunkulu nguye owabanika amandla okuvusa abantu laba. UJehova usithembisa ukuthi kuzakuba lokuvuka ‘kwabalungileyo lababi.’ (ImiSebenzi 24:15) IBhayibhili liphinda lisitshele ukuthi kulabagcotshiweyo abazavuswa ukuthi bayebusa loJesu ezulwini.—UJohane 5:28, 29; 11:25; KwabaseFiliphi 3:11; ISambulo 20:5, 6.

Isahl. 9, indima 13

25 UKUSEBENZELANA LAMADIMONI KUMBE IMIMOYA

Ukusebenzelana lamadimoni kugoqela ukukhuluma labafileyo. Lokhu ungakwenza uwedwa kumbe ngokuya enyangeni. Abantu benza lokhu ngoba bedukiswe ngamanga okuthi nxa umuntu esifa kulomoya osala uphila futhi ube lidlozi. Amadimoni aqila abantu ukuthi bangamlaleli uNkulunkulu. Ukuzama ukwazi ngekusasa, ukubhula, ukutshaya amathambo, ukudinga okutshiwo yimizila ephakathi kwesandla lokudinga ingcazelo  yamaphupho yikusebenzelana lamadimoni. Izingoma, amabhuku lamafilimu enza kukhanye angani ukusebenzelana lamadimoni yinto enhle. Eminye imikhuba eyenziwa ezimfeni ngeyokusebenzelana lamadimoni, ngokwesibonelo ukuthethela, imibuyiso, ukukhipha inzilo, kanye lokwenza izikhumbuzo zabafileyo.—KwabaseGalathiya 5:20; ISambulo 21:8.

Isahl. 10, indima 10; Isahl. 16, indima 4

26 UBUKHOSI BUKAJEHOVA

UJehova unguSomandla njalo nguye owadala konke okukhona. (ISambulo 15:3) Ungumnikazi wezinto zonke futhi nguye okumele abuse. (IHubo 24:1; U-Isaya 40:21-23; ISambulo 4:11) Yonke into ayidalayo iqondiswa yimithetho. UJehova ulamandla okukhetha abanye ukuthi babe ngababusi. Sitshengisa ukuthi siyabusekela ubukhosi bakhe ngokumthanda langokumlalela.—1 ImiLando 29:11.

Isahl. 11, indima 10

27 UKUKHIPHA ISISU

Nxa umuntu ekhipha isisu uyabe ebulala ngabomo umntwana ongakazalwa. Kusukela umntwana eqalisa ukuba khona esibelethweni uyabe esengumuntu sibili yikho akuqondanga ukuthi umuntu akhiphe isisu.

Isahl. 13, indima 5

28 UKUFAKWA IGAZI

Le yindlela yokwelapha kusetshenziswa igazi loba enye yezingxenye zalo ezine. Izingxenye zakhona yilezi: i-plasma, ama-red blood cells, ama-white blood cells lama-platelets.

Isahl. 13, indima 13

 29 ISIJEZISO

EBhayibhilini ibala elithi ukujezisa alitsho ukutshaya ngaso sonke isikhathi. Kodwa lingatsho ukulaya, ukufundisa kumbe ukukhuza. UJehova kajezisi ngendlela elesihluku kumbe elolunya. (IZaga 4:1, 2) UJehova uyisibonelo esihle kakhulu ebazalini ngoba yena ujezisa ngendlela elothando. (IZaga 12:1) UJehova uyabathanda abantu bakhe futhi uyabaqeqetsha. Ubanika imilayo ukuze balungise imibono engaqondanga abangabe belayo. Lokhu kuyabanceda ukuthi bacabange futhi benze okujabulisa uNkulunkulu. Abazali kumele bancede abantwababo babone ukuthi ukulalela kuqakatheke ngani. Kumele baphinde babancede ukuthi bathande uJehova leLizwi lakhe futhi bazwisise izimiso zalo.

Isahl. 14, indima 13

30 AMADIMONI

Lezi yizingilosi ezilamandla njalo ezenza izinto ezimbi kakhulu. Amadimoni aqalisa ezingilosi ezinhle kodwa acina eseyizitha zikaNkulunkulu. (UGenesisi 6:2; UJuda 6) Amadimoni abambana loSathane ekuhlamukeleni uJehova.—UDutheronomi 32:17; ULukha 8:30; ImiSebenzi 16:16; UJakhobe 2:19.

Isahl. 16, indima 4