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ULefèvre d’Étaples—Wayefuna Ukuthi Abantukazana Balizwisise ILizwi LikaNkulunkulu

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Wayefuna Ukuthi Abantukazana Balizwisise ILizwi LikaNkulunkulu

KWAKUNGESONTO ekuseni ngomnyaka ka-1520 lapho izakhamuzi zaseMeaux idolobho elincane eliseduze leParis ezaphuma zingelankani ngezazikuzwe esontweni ngalelolanga. Phela zona zazijayele ukubalelwa amaVangeli ngolimi lwesiLathini kodwa mhlalokho zawezwa ebalwa ngolimi lwazo lomdabu isiFrench.

Ngemva kwalokho umhumutshi weBhayibhili leli uJacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (ngesiLathini nguJacobus Faber Stapulensis), wabhalela umngane wakhe wathi: “Iyamangalisa indlela uNkulunkulu ancedisa ngayo abantukazana ukuthi labo bazwisise iLizwi lakhe.”

Ngalesosikhathi iSonto yamaKatolika kanye lezikhwicamfundo ezibona ngezokholo ezaziseParis zazingafuni lakuzwa ngokusetshenziswa kwamaBhayibhili ayehunyutshwe ngezindimi ezazikhulunywa ngabanengi. Pho kuyini okwafuqa uLefèvre ukuthi ahumutshe iBhayibhili ngesiFrench? Njalo wenzani ukuze ancede abantukazana ukuthi bazwisise iLizwi likaNkulunkulu?

WADINGISISA OKUTSHIWO LIBHAYIBHILI

Engakabi ngumhumutshi weBhayibhili uLefèvre wayezinikele emsebenzini wokuchwayisisa imibhalo yakuqala yefilosofi kanye leyezimfundiso zenkolo. Wananzelela ukuthi imibhalo yakudala yayisitshiliwe njalo isigcwele amaphutha. Ngesikhathi edingisisa okutshiwo yimibhalo yakudala waqalisa ukuhlolisisa iBhayibhili lesiLathini okuthiwa yi-Vulgate elalisetshenziswa esontweni yamaKatolika.

Ukufunda iMibhalo ejula kwenza waphetha ngokuthi “ukufunda iqiniso eliseBhayibhilini yikho kuphela . . . okungenza umuntu athokoze.” Lokhu yikho okwenza uLefèvre wacina esesehlukana lefilosofi wasezinikela ukuthi ahumutshe iBhayibhili.

Ngomnyaka ka-1509, uLefèvre wadinda ibhuku elalilemibhalo yamaHubo yesiLathini eyayihunyutshwe ngezindlela ezinhlanu ezehlukeneyo, * okugoqela le-Vulgate ayeyilungisisile. ULefèvre kenzanga njengezikhwicamfundo zokholo zangesikhathi sakhe, yena wazimisela ukudinga indlela elula njalo ezwisisekayo yokuhumutsha iBhayibhili. Indlela ayechasisa ngayo iMibhalo yanceda kakhulu abanye ababehlolisisa iBhayibhili kanye labakhokheli bezinkolo ezaphuma kumaRoma Katolika.​—Khangela ibhokisi elithi “ Umsebenzi KaLefèvre Waphathisa UMartin Luther.”

Amabizo kaNkulunkulu okuhlonipha akumaHubo, asebhukwini elithi Fivefold Psalter, eka-1513

Lanxa wayezalwe engumKatolika, uLefèvre wayeqiniseka ukuthi isonto yayingalungisiswa kuphela nxa abantu babengafundiswa iqiniso eliseMibhalweni. Kodwa kwakungenzakala njani ukuthi abantu laba bayizwisise iMibhalo njengoba ngalesosikhathi yayitholakala ngesiLathini?

IBHAYIBHILI ELALINGATHOLWA NGUMUNTU WONKE

Isethulo samaVangeli satshengisa ukuthi uLefèvre wayelesifiso esikhulu sokuthi abantu bonke bafunde iBhayibhili ngolimi lwabo lomdabu

Indlela uLefèvre ayelithanda ngalo iLizwi likaNkulunkulu yamenza wazimisela ukuthi abantu abanengi balithole. Ukuze agcwalise isifiso sakhe,  ngoJune 1523 wadinda amaVangeli ayewahumutshe ngolimi lwesiFrench aba zingxenye ezimbili ezincane. Kwabalula ukuthi lababengabayanga balithole iBhayibhili leli ngoba intengo yalo yayiphansi kakhulu kulelalijayelekile.

Lokhu kwabangela ukuthi abantukazana basukumele phezulu njalo balamukele ngentokozo. Njengoba babekomele ukufunda amazwi kaJesu ngolimi lwabo lomdabu, amaBhayibhili aqala ukudindwa angu-1 200 ahle aphela kungakabi lezinyanga ezingangaki.

WAYIVIKELA NGESIBINDI IMIBHALO

ULefèvre wachasisa esethulweni samaVangeli ukuthi okwenza wawahumutsha ngesiFrench yikuthi wayefuna “abantukazana” ababesesontweni “bafunde amaVangeli njengabobonke ababelawo ngesiLathini.” Kodwa kuyini okwamenza waba lesifiso esingaka sokunceda abantukazana ukuthi labo bakwazi okufundiswa liBhayibhili?

ULefèvre wananzelela ukuthi izimfundiso zabantu lefilosofi kwasekungenile eSontweni yamaKatolika. (UMakho 7:7; KwabaseKholose 2:8) Wabona ukuthi isikhathi sasesifikile esokuthi amabhuku amaVangeli “atshunyayelwe emhlabeni wonke ukuze abantu bangaqhubeki bedukiswa zimfundiso zabantu.”

ULefèvre wayezimisele lokuveza egcekeni amaphutha alabo ababengavumelani lokuhunyutshwa kweBhayibhili ngesiFrench. Waveza ubuzenzisi babo esithi: “Bangatshumayela njani ukuthi [abantu] bagcine imilayo kaJesu Khristu, bona  bengafuni ukuthi abantukazana babone njalo bazibalele iVangeli likaNkulunkulu ngolimi lwabo?”​—KwabaseRoma 10:14.

Yikho-ke akumangalisi ukuthi izikhwicamfundo zezokholo ezaziseyunivesithi yeParis okuthiwa yiSorbonne zahle zazama ukumvala umlomo. Ngo-August 1523 zathi akumelanga kusetshenziswe amabhuku akhuluma ngemibhalo kanye lamaBhayibhili ahunyutshwe ngolimi olwaziwa ngabantu bonke ngoba zisithi “ayingozi eSontweni.” Aluba iNkosi yaseFrance, uFrancis I kayizange ingenele kwakuzathiwa uLefèvre ungumhlamuki.

UMHUMUTSHI ONGATHANDI UMSINDO WAQEDISA UMSEBENZI WAKHE

ULefèvre kazange avumele ukuthi ukuphikiswa kumqede uthando lokuhumutsha iBhayibhili. Ngomnyaka ka-1524, ngemva kokuqeda ukuhumutsha iMibhalo yesiGiriki (eyaziwa ngokuthi liThestamente Elitsha), wethula umbhalo wamaHubo ngesiFrench ukuze amakholwa athandaze “imithandazo elohlonzi.”

Izikhwicamfundo zezokholo ezaziseSorbonne azipholisanga maseko zahle zayihlolisisa ngelibukhali imibhalo kaLefèvre. Yikho zathi iMibhalo yesiGiriki ayeyihumutshile kumele itshiswe phambi kwabantu bonke, baphinda bathi okunye ayekubhala “kwakusekela ukuhlamuka kukaLuther.” Izikhwicamfundo lezi zathi zimbiza ukuthi azobachazela ayekubhalile yena wakhetha “ukuvala owakhe,” wabaleka waya eStrasbourg. Ekhonale waqhubeka ehumutsha iBhayibhili. Lanxa abanye babebona angathi ayekwenzile yibugwala, yena wayekholwa ukuthi ayekwenzile yiyo indlela engcono kakhulu yokuphendula labo ababengaqakathekisi iqiniso leBhayibhili eliligugu ‘njengamapharele.’​—UMathewu 7:6, TBS.

Sekudlule phose umnyaka ebalekile, uLefèvre waqhatshwa yinkosi uFrancis I ukuthi afundise umntanayo uCharles owayeleminyaka engu-4. Umsebenzi lo wanika uLefèvre isikhathi esithe xaxa sokuthi aqedise ukuhumutsha iBhayibhili. Ngo-1530 wayesehumutshe lonke iBhayibhili njalo layadindwa ngaphandle kwelizwe leFrance e-Antwerp eseBelgium, imvumo eyiphiwe nguMbusi uCharles V. *

OKUNYE AYEKUFISA AKWENZAKALANGA

Isifiso esikhulu sikaLefèvre sasiyikuthi isonto ifundise iqiniso eliseMibhalweni itshiyane lokufundisa izimfundiso zabantu. Wayekholwa ngeqiniso ukuthi “umKhristu ngamunye ulelungelo lokuthi afunde iBhayibhili.” Khonokho yikho okwamenza wazimisela ukusebenza nzima ukuze iBhayibhili litholwe ngabantu bonke. Lanxa nje isifiso sakhe sokuthi isonto ifundise okuqondileyo singasagcwalisekanga, iqiniso elikhona yikuthi uLefèvre wenza umsebenzi oncomekayo wokuncedisa abantukazana ukuthi balazi iLizwi likaNkulunkulu.

^ ndima 8 Ikhasi ngalinye lebhuku lakhe okuthiwa yi-Fivefold Psalter lalilemibhalo yamaHubo eyayihunyutshwe ngezindlela ezinhlanu ezehlukeneyo njalo yayilendawo elamabizo kaNkulunkulu okuhlonipha okugoqela le-Tetragrammaton, inhlamvu ezine zesiHebheru ezimela ibizo likaNkulunkulu.

^ ndima 21 Sekudlule iminyaka engu-5 sekungo-1535, umhumutshi ongumFrench uOlivétan laye wadinda elakhe iBhayibhili elalisekelwe ezindimini zokuqala. Ngesikhathi ehumutsha iMibhalo yesiGiriki wayethembele kakhulu kulokho okwakubhalwe nguLefèvre.