Yeqa uye kokuphakathi

Yeqa uye ku-secondary menu

Yeqa uye kokumunyethweyo

OFakazi bakaJehova

Ndebele (Zimbabwe)

Vukani!  |  No. 5 2016

 EZENDULO

U-Aristotle

U-Aristotle

SEKUDLULE iminyaka ephezu kuka-2 300 u-Aristotle wabhala ngezinto ezinengi eziphathelene lesayensi lefilosofi. Izinto azibhalayo lazinanzelelayo kanye lemibono yakhe kwaqhubeka kusemukelwa ngabantu okweminyaka eminengi. Isikhwicamfundo sezomlando uJames MacLachlan wabhala wathi: “Imibono ka-Aristotle emayelana lemvelo yayilandelwa kulolonke elase-Europe okweminyaka ephose ibe ngu-2 000.” Imibono yakhe yaze yemukelwa ngamaKatolika lamasonto aphuma kumaKatolika kanye lama-Islam.

Wayethanda Ukufunda Ngezinto Ezitshiyeneyo

U-Aristotle wabhala ngezinto ezimayelana lokudweba, ngezinkanyezi, ngezinto eziphilayo, ngamasiko, ngezindimi, ngemithetho, ngendlela yokusebenza kwengqondo, amandla emaginetha, imvelaphi yezinto lendlela ezihamba ngayo, ezokuzilibazisa, inkondlo, ezombusazwe, ubungcitshi bokukhuluma kanye lendaba yomphefumulo ayekholwa ukuthi awufi. Wayesaziwa kakhulu ngesayensi yemvelo leyokusebenza kwengqondo.

Ukuze zichasise ngemvelo izifundiswa zasendulo ezingamaGiriki zazithembele kakhulu kulokho ezazikubona ngamehlo lezazicabangela ukuthi yikho okuqondileyo. Babekholwa ukuthi bangacabangisisa kuhle ngalokho ababekubona babengafika esiphethweni esiyiso.

Ifilosofi yabo yabanceda kwezinye izinto, ngokwesibonelo bananzelela ukuthi indawo yonke yayihlelekile. Uhlupho olwabakhona ngolokuthi imicabango yabo yayiphelela kulokho ababekubona ngamehlo kuphela, ngokwenza njalo inengi lamadoda akhaliphileyo okugoqela lo-Aristotle lacina selitshaya iganga. Ngokwesibonelo babekholwa ukuthi amaplanethi lezinkanyezi kubhoda umhlaba. Ngaleso sikhathi kwakucatshangwa ukuthi yilo iqiniso. Ibhuku  elithi The Closing of the Western Mind lithi: “Ababekucabanga lababekuzwisisa ngaleso sikhathi kwakuvumelana lombono wamaGiriki wokuthi umhlaba ugonjolozelwe ngamanye amaplanethi lezinkanyezi.”

Kwakungasoze kube lohlupho olukhulu aluba umcabango lo wahlala ukwabezesayensi kuphela. Okudanisayo yikuthi wasabalala.

AmaKatolika Emukela Imibono Ka-Aristotle

Kusukela ngomnyaka ka-500 C.E kusiya ku-1500 C.E amaKhristu e-Europe aqalisa ukwamukela izimfundiso zika-Aristotle. Izikhwicamfundo zamaRoma Katolika ezibona ngezokholo ikakhulu uThomas Aquinas (c. 1224-1274) zafaka imibono ka-Aristotle ezimfundisweni zesonto. Yikho-ke umbono ka-Aristotle wokuthi umhlaba kawubhodi njalo ugonjolozelwe ngamaplanethi lezinkanyezi wacina usuyimfundiso yamaRoma Katolika. Imfundiso le yaphinda yemukelwa ngabakhokheli bamasonto aphuma esontweni yamaKatolika njengoCalvin kanye loLuther, bona ababesithi imfundiso le iseBhayibhilini.—Khangela ibhokisi elithi “ Kabazange Bayizwisise IMibhalo.”

Abanye baqalisa ukwamukela izimfundiso zika-Aristotle

UCharles Freeman wabhala wathi: “Wawungeke uwubone umehluko phakathi [kwezinye izimfundiso zika-Aristotle] lezamaKatolika.” Yikho abanye baze bathi u-Aquinas wamukela phose zonke izimfundiso zika-Aristotle wazifundisa esontweni yamaRoma. UFreeman akazange akhuthe ugatsha lapho ebhala ukuthi, “u-Aquinas nguye owemukela izimfundiso zika-Aristotle.” Lokho kwabangela ukuthi lesonto lizemukele izimfundiso lezi. UGalileo owayedabuka e-Italy njalo eyisazi sezinkanyezi lesayensi wazama ukunika ubufakazi bokuthi umhlaba yiwo obhoda ilanga. Lokho kwabangela ukuthi athonisiswe njalo abanjwe ngamandla ukuthi alahle umbono wakhe. * U-Aristotle wananzelela ukuthi ulwazi lwesayensi luyathuthuka njalo lungantshintsha. Aluba amasonto aba lombono onjengowakhe endabeni le, kwakuzawanceda kakhulu.

^ ndima 11 Ukuze uthole okunengi khangela isihloko esithi “Galileo’s Clash With the Church,” esiku-Awake! ka-April 22, 2003.