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OFakazi bakaJehova

Ndebele (Zimbabwe)

INqabayokulinda  |  No. 4 2017

U-Elias Hutter Wahumutsha AmaBhayibhili EsiHebheru

U-Elias Hutter Wahumutsha AmaBhayibhili EsiHebheru

MHLAWUMBE awenelisi ukubala iBhayibhili lesiHebheru. Kungenzakala lokuthi awukaze ulibone. Kodwa ukubala ngo-Elias Hutter lamaBhayibhili amabili esiHebheru awahumutshayo kungakunceda ukuthi uliqakathekise elakho.

U-Elias Hutter wazalwa ngo-1553 edolobheni elincane okuthiwa yiGörlitz eliseduze lomngcele owehlukanisa iGermany lamazwe amabili iPoland leCzech Republic. Wafundela izindimi ezigoqela isiHebheru lesi-Aramu e-University of Jena. Esezafikisa iminyaka engu-24 wabekwa ukuthi abe ngusikhwicamfundo wesiHebheru eLeipzig. Ngemva kwesikhathi esithile wasungula isikolo eNuremberg esasifundisa isiHebheru, isiGiriki, isiLathini lesiJalimane. Izindimi lezi zazifundwa okweminyaka emine. Ngalesosikhathi kwakungelasikolo loba iyunivesithi eyayisenelisa ukwenza lokhu.

UBUHLE BEBHAYIBHILI LELI

Ikhasi elisekuqaliseni kweBhayibhili lesiHebheru likaHutter eladindwa ngo-1587

Ngo-1587 uHutter wadinda iThestamente Elidala ngesiHebheru. Lalithiwa yi-Derekh ha-Kodesh, okutsho ‘iNdlela yobuNgcwele.’ Ibizo leli lathathwa ku-Isaya 35:8. Abantu balincoma iBhayibhili leli ngobuhle balo, kodwa okuqakathekileyo yikuthi lalizanceda ababefundiswa nguHutter ukuthi bafunde isiHebheru.

Akulula emuntwini ofundela isiHebheru ukuthi abale iBhayibhili ngolimi lolu. Indlela isiHebheru esibhalwa ngayo ayifanani ngitsho lesiyijayeleyo ngoba silabongwaqa labonkamisa esingabajayelanga futhi sibalwa kusukela esandleni sokudla kusiya kwesenxele. Okunye yikuthi iziqalo zamabala lezinye izijobelelo ezibakhona ekucineni kwawo kwenza kube nzima kobalayo ukuthi abewazi amabala akhona. Ngokwesibonelo, ibala lesiHebheru elithi נפשׁ (ne’phesh) litsho “umphefumulo.” KuHezekheli 18:4, ibala leli lilandela isiqalo u-ה (ha). Nxa sokuhlangene isiqalo lebala lakhona kuba ngu-הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh). Emuntwini ongalwaziyo kuhle ulimi lolu, ibala leli הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) lingakhanya litshiyene kakhulu laleli נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Kodwa uHutter wenza elakhe laba lula ukuze abantu ayebafundisa bazwisise ababekubala. Amabala wonke wayewabhala abe mnyama kakhulu, kodwa iziqalo zawo lezijobelelo zakhona kazenzanga zabamnyama kakhulu njengamabala.  Khonokho kwenza kwabalula ukuthi abafundi bawazi amabala esiHebheru lokuthi bafunde ulimi. I-New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References layo yenza njalo emabaleni aphansi (footnotes). Izingxenye ezikhanyisiweyo empikitsheni zitshengisa indlela uHutter abhala ngayo iBhayibhili lakhe lesiHebheru kuHezekheli 18:4 lendlela amabala angaphansi evesi le abhalwe ngayo ku-Reference Bible.

ITHESTAMENTE ELITSHA ELIBHALWE NGESIHEBHERU

UHutter waphinda wadinda iThestamente Elitsha elalilamavesi abhalwe ngezindimi ezingu-12. Ladindwa eNuremberg ngo-1599 njalo lijayele ukubizwa ngokuthi yiNuremberg Polyglot. UHutter wayefuna ukugoqela amavesi eMibhalo yamaKhristu yesiGiriki abhalwe ngesiHebheru eBhayibhilini leli. Kodwa wathi lanxa wayengabhadala imali enengi ukuze athole iThestamente Elitsha elibhalwe ngesiHebheru, kwakungasoze kuncede ngoba wayengeke alithole. * Yikho wabona kungcono ukuthi ahumutshe elakhe. Wama ukwenza ezinye izinto wagxila ekuhumutsheni iBhayibhili leli njalo waliqeda ngomnyaka owodwa nje.

Kambe labaluncedo yini iBhayibhili elahunyutshwa nguHutter? Ngo-1891 usikhwicamfundo wolimi lwesiHebheru okuthiwa nguFranz Delitzsch wathi: “IBhayibhili lesiHebheru alihumutshayo litshengisa ukuthi uyalwazi sibili ulimi ukwedlula amanye amaKhristu njalo kumele lisetshenziswe ngoba amabala ayewasebenzisa ekuhumutsheni yiwo sibili aqondileyo.”

IBHAYIBHILI LAKHE LIQAKATHEKILE

Umsebenzi wokuhumutsha owenziwa nguHutter kawuzange umnothise ngoba amaBhayibhili akhe kawathengwanga kangako. Lanxa kunjalo umsebenzi awenzayo uqakathekile njalo uluncedo sibili. Ngokwesibonelo uWilliam Robertson walungisisa iThestamente Elitsha elalihunyutshwe nguHutter waselidinda ngo-1661. URichard Caddick wenza okufananayo ngo-1798. UHutter wayehumutsha esebenzisa imibhalo yokuqala yesiGiriki njalo ebizweni lokuhlonipha elithi Kyʹri·os (iNkosi) lelithi The·osʹ (uNkulunkulu) wasebenzisa elithi Jehova (יהוה, JHVH) nxa ivesi yakhona yayisebenzise umutsho othethwe eMibhalweni YesiHebheru lalapho ayebona angathi kukhulunywa ngoJehova khona. IThestamente Elitsha elahunyutshwa nguHutter litshiyene lamaBhayibhili amanengi ngoba lona lafaka ibizo likaNkulunkulu lapho okwakumele libe khona.

Yikho lapho obona khona ibizo likaNkulunkulu eMibhalweni yamaKhristu yesiGiriki, khumbula umsebenzi omuhle owenziwa ngu-Elias Hutter kanye lamaBhayibhili awahumutsha ngesiHebheru.

^ indima 9 Bakhona abahumutsha iThestamente Elitsha ngesiHebheru abagoqela uSimon Atoumanos owaqeda elakhe ngabo-1360 lo-Oswald Schreckenfuchs weGermany owaqeda elakhe ngabo-1565. AmaBhayibhili abo kawazange adindwe njalo awasekho khathesi.

Funda Okunengi

IBHAYIBHILI LIFUNDISANI SIBILI?

Ibizo likaNkulunkulu—Litshoni Njalo Lisetshenziswa Njani?

Ibizo likaNkulunkulu kalitholakali emaBhayibhilini amanengi. Kungani? Kuqakathekile yini ukusebenzisa ibizo likaNkulunkulu?