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OFakazi bakaJehova

Ndebele (Zimbabwe)

Sondela kuJehova

 ISAHLUKO 13

“Umthetho kaJehova Uphelele”

“Umthetho kaJehova Uphelele”

1, 2. Kungani abantu abanengi bengawuhloniphi umthetho, kodwa thina singazizwa njani ngemithetho kaNkulunkulu?

“UMTHETHO uligodi elingelamkhawulo, . . . uginya konke.” Umutsho lo wawusebhukwini elalotshwa kudala ngo-1712. Umlobi walo wayesola indlela umthetho owawusenza ngayo nxa kulendaba ethile ehanjiswe emthethwandaba. Kwakuthatha iminyaka leminyaka ukuze indaba leyo ilungiswe, lowo onguye owoniweyo aze aphelelwe yimali. Emazweni amanengi, umthetho uyaphica, ugcwele ukungalungi lobandlululo futhi izahlulelo zawo ziyantshintshantshintsha. Lokhu sekwenze abantu abanengi bangawuhloniphi umthetho.

2 Ngokungafanani lesesikukhulumile, cabanga ngamazwi la abhalwa eminyakeni engu-2 700 eyadlulayo, athi: “O he, ngiwuthanda kangakanani umthetho wakho!” (IHubo 119:97) Kungani umhubi wayewuthanda kangaka umthetho kaNkulunkulu? Wayewuthanda ngoba wawungokaJehova uNkulunkulu, hatshi owabohulumende abasemhlabeni. Nxa uqhubeka ufunda mayelana lemithetho kaJehova, uzacina usuzizwa njengomhubi. Ukufunda okunjalo kuzakwenza ubone indlela uMenzi wemithetho omkhulu ukwedlula bonke acabanga ngayo.

UMenzi Wemithetho Omkhulu

3, 4. UJehova utshengise njani ukuthi unguMenzi wemithetho?

3 IBhayibhili lisitshela ukuthi: “KuloMenzi wemithetho loMahluleli oyedwa kuphela.” (UJakhobe 4:12) UJehova nguye yedwa uMenzi wemithetho. Ukuhambahamba kwezinto ezisemkhathini ezifanana lezinkanyezi kuqondiswa ‘yimithetho yasezulwini.’ (UJobe 38:33) Izingilosi zikaJehova ezingcwele futhi ezinengi kakhulu lazo ziqondiswa yimithetho kaNkulunkulu, ngenxa yokuthi zihlelwe kuhle njalo zikhonza zilandela umlayo kaJehova njengoba ziyizinceku zakhe.​—KumaHebheru 1:7, 14.

4 UJehova uphinde wapha labantu imithetho. Munye ngamunye  wethu ulomzwangedwa, futhi lokhu kutshengisa ukwahlulela kuhle kukaJehova. Umzwangedwa usebenza njengomthetho ongaphakathi kwethu, futhi ungasinceda ukuthi sehlukanise phakathi kokuhle lokubi. (KwabaseRoma 2:14) Abazali bethu bakuqala babephiwe umzwangedwa opheleleyo, ngakho babedinga imithetho emilutshwane kuphela. (UGenesisi 2:15-17) Kodwa umuntu olesono kufanele abe lemithetho eminengi ukuze imqondise ekwenzeni intando kaNkulunkulu. UNowa, u-Abrahama, kanye loJakhobe babezinhloko zezimuli, futhi babephiwa imithetho nguJehova uNkulunkulu besebeyifundisa izimuli zabo. (UGenesisi 6:22; 9:3-6; 18:19; 26:4, 5) UJehova wazenza waba nguMenzi wemithetho omkhulu kakhulu lapho esebenzisa uMosi ukuze aphe isizwe sako-Israyeli uluhlu lweMithetho. Imithetho leyo isenza sizwisise ngcono ukwahlulela kuhle kukaJehova.

Ukufinqwa koMthetho kaMosi

5. UMthetho kaMosi wawunzima futhi uphica yini, futhi kungani uphendula njalo?

5 Kukhanya angani abantu abanengi bacabanga ukuthi uMthetho kaMosi wawululuhlu lwemithetho enzima futhi ephicayo. Lokhu kakusilo qiniso. Kulemithetho edlula engu-600 kuwo. Kungakhanya angani minengi kakhulu, kodwa cabanga ngalokhu: Kusiyaphela ikhulu lesi-20, imithetho yelizwe lase-United States yayisigcwele amakhasi amabhuku omthetho angu-150 000. Kuhlala kusengezelelwa imithetho engu-600 ngemva kweminyaka emibili. Ngakho imithetho yabantu minengi kakhulu ukwedlula uMthetho kaMosi. Kodwa uMthetho kaNkulunkulu wawuqondisa ama-Israyeli ezindabeni zokuphila ezingakhulunywayo ngitsho lakancane emithethweni yalamuhla. Cabanga ngokulutshwane okulandelayo.

6, 7. (a) Kuyini okwenza uMthetho kaMosi ungafanani lemithetho yonke, futhi yiwuphi uMthetho omkhulu ukwedlula yonke? (b) Ama-Israyeli ayetshengisa njani ukuthi ayakwamukela ukubuswa nguJehova?

6 UMthetho wawuqakathekisa ubukhosi bukaJehova. Ngakho uMthetho kaMosi kawungeke ufananiswe laloba yiyiphi imithetho. Umthetho omkhulu ukwedlula yonke yilo othi: “Zwana, we-Israyeli: UJehova uNkulunkulu wethu nguJehova munye. Thanda  uJehova uNkulunkulu wakho ngenhliziyo yakho yonke langomoya wakho wonke kanye langamandla akho wonke.” Abantu bakaNkulunkulu kwakumele batshengise njani ukuthi bayamthanda? Kwakumele bamkhonze, bazithobe ngaphansi kobukhosi bakhe.​—UDutheronomi 6:4, 5; 11:13.

7 UmIsrayeli munye ngamunye wayetshengisa ukuthi uyavuma ukubuswa nguJehova ngokuzithoba kulabo ababebekwe ukuthi babe ngabakhokheli bakhe. Abazali, izinduna, abahluleli, abaphristi kanye lamakhosi babemela ubukhokheli bukaNkulunkulu. Ngokubona kukaJehova, ukuhlamukela labo ababekhokhela kwakufanana lokuhlamukela yena ngokwakhe. Kodwa labo ababekhokhela babengathukuthelelwa nguJehova nxa babengeyisa abantu bakhe futhi babaphathe kubi. (U-Eksodusi 20:12; 22:28; UDutheronomi 1:16, 17; 17:8-20; 19:16, 17) Ababekhokhela kanye lalabo ababekhokhelwa bonke kwakumele bahloniphe ubukhosi bukaNkulunkulu.

8. UMthetho wawuqakathekisa njani isimiso sikaJehova sobungcwele?

8 UMthetho wawuqakathekisa isimiso sikaJehova sobungcwele. Amabala ahunyutshwa ngokuthi “ngcwele” lokuthi “ubungcwele” avela izikhathi ezedlula ezingu-280 eMthethweni kaMosi. UMthetho wawunceda abantu bakaNkulunkulu ukuthi behlukanise phakathi kokuhlanzekileyo lokungahlanzekanga. Wakhuluma ngezinto ezedlula ezingu-70 ezitshiyeneyo ezazingenza umIsrayeli abe ngongahlanzekanga. Imithetho le yayikhuluma ngokuhlanzeka emzimbeni, ukudla okuhlanzekileyo, kanye lokuya ngaphandle. Imithetho enjalo yayinceda ukuthi abantu babe lempilakahle. * Kodwa kwakulenye futhi injongo enkulu kulaleyo. Leyonjongo kwakuyikwenza abantu bahlale bethandwa nguJehova, bengenzi imikhuba emibi eyayisenziwa yizizwe ezazingomakhelwana babo. Cabanga ngesibonelo esilandelayo.

9, 10. UMthetho wesivumelwano wawugoqela yiphi imilayo emayelana lezemacansini kanye lokubeletha, futhi imithetho enjalo yayinceda ngani?

 9 Imilayo yoMthetho wesivumelwano yayisithi ukuya emacansini kanye lokubeletha kwakusenza umuntu abe ngongahlanzekanga okwesikhathi esithile lanxa lowomuntu wayetshadile. (ULevi 12:2-4; 15:16-18) Lokhu kwakungenzi izipho lezi ezihlanzekileyo ezivela kuNkulunkulu zikhanye zingelamsebenzi. (UGenesisi 1:28; 2:18-25) Kulokuthi kube njalo, imithetho leyo yayidumisa ubungcwele bukaJehova, isenza ukuthi izikhonzi zakhe zingangcoliswa. Kuyamangalisa ukuthi izizwe ezazingomakhelwana babo zazihlanganisa ukukhonza lezemacansini kanye lemikhuba yenzalo. Enkolweni yamaKhenani kwakulezifebe zesilisa lezesifazana. Imikhuba enyanyeka ukwedlula loba yini yaqalisa ukumemetheka. Kodwa uMthetho wenza ukukhonza uJehova kwangabambani ngitsho lakancane lezindaba zemacansini. * Kwakulokunye futhi umthetho owawunceda ngakho.

10 Imithetho leyo yayibekwe ukuze ifundise iqiniso eliqakathekileyo. * Kanti vele isono sika-Adamu sithelelwana njani kusukela kwesinye isizukulwane kusiya kwesinye? Sithelelwana ngezemacansini kanye lokubeletha. (KwabaseRoma 5:12) UMthetho kaNkulunkulu wawukhumbuza abantu bakhe ukuthi isono sikhona. Iqiniso yikuthi sonke sizalwa silesono. (IHubo 51:5) Kumele sithethelelwe futhi sihlawulelwe ukuze senelise ukusondela kuNkulunkulu wethu ongcwele.

11, 12. (a) UMthetho wawukhuthaza siphi isimiso esiqakathekileyo sokwahlulela kuhle? (b) UMthetho wawuvimbela njani ukuthi ukwahlulela okuhle kungaphanjaniswa?

11 UMthetho wawuqakathekisa ukwahlulela kuhle kukaJehova okupheleleyo.  UMthetho kaMosi wawukhuthaza isimiso sokuthi wonke umuntu ahlulelwe ngokufananayo. Yikho uMthetho wawusithi: “Ukuphila akwenanwe yikuphila, ilihlo ngelihlo, izinyo ngezinyo, isandla ngesandla, unyawo ngonyawo.” (UDutheronomi 19:21) Isijeziso kwakumele sihambisane lecala elalenziwe. Ukwahlulela kukaNkulunkulu okunjalo kwakuyingxenye eqakathekileyo yoMthetho futhi lalamuhla lokhu kuqakathekile ekuzwisiseni umhlatshelo wenhlawulo kaJesu Khristu, njengoba sizabona eSahlukweni 14.​—1 KuThimothi 2:5, 6.

12 UMthetho wawulezindlela zokuvimbela ukuthi ukwahlulela okuhle kungaphanjaniswa. Ngokwesibonelo, kwakudingakala ofakazi ababili ukuze kubonakale ukuthi icala elithile lenziwe sibili. Isijeziso sokufakaza amanga sasibuhlungu. (UDutheronomi 19:15, 18, 19) Inkohliso lesivalamlomo kwakungavunyelwa. (U-Eksodusi 23:8; UDutheronomi 27:25) Abantu bakaNkulunkulu kwakumele baqakathekise isimiso sikaJehova esiphakemeyo sokwahlulela kuhle lasemabhizimusini. (ULevi 19:35, 36; UDutheronomi 23:19, 20) Lokho kwahlulela okuhle futhi okungelakukhetha kwakuyisibusiso esikhulu kwabako-Israyeli!

Imithetho Etshengisa Isihawu Lokungakhethi Ekwahluleleni

13, 14. UMthetho wawukhuthaza njani ukuthi isela kanye lalowo ontshontshelweyo bahlulelwe ngendlela efaneleyo?

13 UMthetho kaMosi wawungelasihawu futhi ungantshintshi yini? Ngitsho lakancane! INkosi uDavida yaphefumulelwa ukuthi ibhale ithi: “Umthetho kaJehova uphelele.” (IHubo 19:7) Yayisazi ukuthi umthetho wawukhuthaza isihawu lokungakhethi. Umthetho wawukwenza njani lokhu?

14 Kwamanye amazwe, kukhanya angani umthetho uzwela kakhulu izigebenga ukwedlula labo abonelweyo. Ngokwesibonelo, amasela angahlala isikhathi esithile ejele. Kodwa abantshontshelweyo bona bangabe belokhu bengayitholanga impahla yabo, ngapha kumele babhadale imithelo eyiyo enakekela izigangi ngezindawo zokuhlala lokokudla emajele. Ko-Israyeli wasendulo, ayengekho amajele esilawo lamuhla. Kwakulemithetho eqinileyo yokuvikela indlela umuntu ajeziswa ngayo. (UDutheronomi 25:1-3) Isela kwakumele libhadale lokho elalikuntshontshile futhi kwakumele  libhadale lokunye phezulu. Lokho okwakumele likubhadale kwakutshiyana. Abahluleli babephiwe ilungelo lokukhangela izimo ezithile ezifanana lokuzisola kwesoni. Lesi yiso isizatho kungani okwakumele kubhadalwe lisela okukuLevi 6:1-7 kukulutshwana kulalokho okuku-Eksodusi 22:7.

15. UMthetho wawusenza njani ukuze umuntu obulele omunye engajonganga atshengiswe isihawu futhi ahlulelwe kuhle?

15 UMthetho wawuvuma ukuthi akusikho konke ukona okwakusenziwa ngabomo. Ngokwesibonelo, nxa indoda ibulele umuntu othile ingajonganga, yayingasoze ibhadale umphefumulo ngomphefumulo nxa yayingathatha inyathelo elifaneleyo lokubalekela kweminye yemizi yesiphephelo eyayiminengi ko-Israyeli. Ngemva kokuthi abahluleli abakhethiweyo belihlolile icala, kwakumele umuntu lo ahlale edolobheni lokuphephela kuze kufe umphristi omkhulu. Ngemva kwalokho wayengakhululeka ukuhlala loba ngaphi ayefuna ukuhlala khona. Ngaleyo ndlela uNkulunkulu wayemtshengisa isihawu. Ngesikhathi esifananayo, umthetho lo wawugcizelela ukuqakatheka kwempilo yomuntu.​—AmaNani 15:30, 31; 35:12-25.

16. UMthetho wawuvikela njani amalungelo omuntu munye ngamunye?

16 UMthetho wawuvikela amalungelo omuntu munye ngamunye. Cabanga ngendlela owawuvikela ngayo labo ababelezikwelede. UMthetho wawungavumeli ukuthi umuntu angene emzini walowo olesikwelede sakhe ukuze athathe impahla eyisibambiso. Kodwa lowo ozothonisa isikwelede kwakumele ame phandle futhi avumele olesikwelede sakhe ukuthi amqhubele impahla ezaba yisibambiso. Yikho indlu yalowo olesikwelede kwakungamelanga ingenwe kungelamvumo. Nxa lowo ozothonisa isikwelede sakhe ehambe lesambatho salowo olesikwelede kuye, kwakumele asibuyisele ilanga lingakatshoni, ngenxa yokuthi lowo olesikwelede wayesidinga ukuze simgcine ekhudumala ebusuku.​—UDutheronomi 24:10-14.

17, 18. Ezindabeni zezimpi, abako-Israyeli babetshiyene njani lezinye izizwe, futhi ngani?

17 UMthetho wawuqondisa lezindaba eziphathelane lezimpi. Abantu bakaNkulunkulu kwakumele balwe izimpi, hatshi ngoba befuna nje ukutshengisa ukuthi balamandla kumbe befuna ukunqoba, kodwa ngenxa yokuthi babesetshenziswa ‘eZimpini zikaJehova.’  (AmaNani 21:14) Izikhathi ezinengi, abako-Israyeli kwakumele baqale bakhulume labayakulwa labo bedinga ukuthula. Nxa idolobho okwakumele bayekulwa lalo lingafuni ukuthi kwenziwe ukuthula, abako-Israyeli babengalihlasela, kodwa belandela iziqondiso zikaNkulunkulu. Amadoda angama-Israyeli ayengafanani lamanye amasotsha ngoba ayengamelanga abambe abesifazana iganyavu kumbe aphongubulala nje kungelasizathu. Kwakumele ahloniphe lemvelo, engagamuli izihlahla zesitha ezithela izithelo. * Amanye amasotsha ayengelayo imithetho enjalo.​—UDutheronomi 20:10-15, 19, 20; 21:10-13.

18 Akukwethusi yini ukuzwa ukuthi kwamanye amazwe abantwana abancane bayafundiswa ukuthi babe ngamasotsha? Ko-Israyeli wasendulo, indoda eyayileminyaka engaphansi kwengu-20 yayingangeni ebuthweni. (AmaNani 1:2, 3) Indoda esikhulile layo yayivunyelwa ukuthi ingayi empini nxa yayisesaba. Ikanti indoda eyayisanda kutshada layo yayivunyelwa ukungayi empini okomnyaka wonke ukuze iqale ibone indlalifa yendlu yayo ingakayi emsebenzini lo oyingozi. UMthetho wawuchasisa ukuthi lokhu kwakuzakwenza indoda le esanda kutshada yenelise ukuthokozisa umkayo.​—UDutheronomi 20:5, 6, 8; 24:5.

19. UMthetho wawuvikela njani abesifazana, abantwana, izimuli, abafelokazi, kanye lezintandane?

19 UMthetho wawuphinda uvikele futhi unakekele abesifazana, abantwana, kanye lezimuli. Wawulaya abazali ukuthi banakekele abantwababo ngazo zonke izikhathi futhi babafundise ngoNkulunkulu. (UDutheronomi 6:​, 7) Wawungavumeli umkhuba wokuthi abantu abayizihlobo baye ndawonye emacansini, futhi owayengenza njalo wayengajeziswa ngokubulawa. (ULevi isahluko 18) Wawungavumeli lokuphinga, okwandise ukuchitha imizi futhi kwenze kungabi lesivikelo kanye lenhlonipho. UMthetho wawunakekela abafelokazi kanye lezintandane futhi wawungavumeli ngitsho lakancane ukuthi baphathwe kubi.​—U-Eksodusi 20:14; 22:22-24.

20, 21. (a) Kungani uMthetho kaMosi wawuvumela isithembo kwabako-Israyeli? (b) Endabeni yokuchitha umtshado, kungani uMthetho wawehlukene lesimiso esabuyiselwa nguJesu ngesikhathi esemhlabeni?

 20 Kodwa abanye bangazibuza ukuthi, ‘Kungani uMthetho wawuvumela isithembo?’ (UDutheronomi 21:15-17) Kumele sicabange ngesikhathi okwabhalwa ngaso imithetho le. Labo abakhangela uMthetho kaMosi bewuqathanisa lalokho okwenzakala ezinsukwini zalamuhla kanye lamasiko alamuhla, kungenzeka bangawuzwisisi. (IZaga 18:13) Isimiso esafakwa nguJehova e-Edeni sasisenza umtshado ube yisivumelwano esihlala kuze kube nini lanini, phakathi kwendoda eyodwa lowesifazana oyedwa. (UGenesisi 2:18, 20-24) Kodwa ngesikhathi uJehova esipha ama-Israyeli uMthetho, imikhuba efanana lesithembo yayisilesikhathi eside ikhona. UJehova wayekwazi kuhle ukuthi abantu bakhe “abantamo zilukhuni” babezakwehluleka kanengi ukulalela imithetho eyayicacile, njengowokungakhonzi izithombe. (U-Eksodusi 32:9) Ngakho wenza ngokuhlakanipha ukungantshintshi imikhuba ephathelane lokutshada ngesikhathi leso. Khumbula ukuthi uJehova kazange athi kube lesithembo. Kodwa wasebenzisa uMthetho kaMosi ukuthi anqande ukumemetheka isithembo phakathi kwabantu bakhe lokuthi umkhuba lo ungasetshenziswa kubi.

21 Ngendlela efananayo, uMthetho kaMosi wawuvumela ukuthi indoda ichithe umtshado nxa kwakulezizathu ezinengi ezizwakalayo. (UDutheronomi 24:1-4) UJesu wathi kwakuluhlelo uNkulunkulu ayelwenzele abantu abangamaJuda ngenxa yokuthi “izinhliziyo [zabo] zazilukhuni.” Kodwa uhlelo lolu lwalungolwesikhatshana. Esenzela abalandeli bakhe, uJesu wabuyisela isimiso sakuqala sikaJehova esiphathelane lomtshado.​—UMathewu 19:8.

UMthetho Wawuqakathekisa Uthando

22. UMthetho kaMosi wawukhuthaza njani uthando, njalo kwakumele kuthandwe obani?

22 Ukhona yini umthetho owaziyo okhuthaza uthando kulezinsuku? UMthetho kaMosi wawuqakathekisa uthando ukwedlula zonke izinto. Ebhukwini likaDutheronomi, ibala elithi “uthando” litholakala izikhathi ezedlula ezingu-20 ezindabeni ezitshiyeneyo. Umlayo othi: “Thandani umakhelwane wenu njengalokhu lizithanda lina” wawungowesibili owawuqakathekile eMthethweni.  (ULevi 19:18; UMathewu 22:37-40) Abantu bakaNkulunkulu kwakungamelanga bacine ngokuthandana bona bodwa kodwa kwakumele bathande labezizweni ababehlala labo, bekhumbula ukuthi labo bake baba ngabezizweni. Kwakumele futhi bathande labaswelayo, babancedise ngokubapha abangelakho, njalo bangabahlukuluzi ngenxa yokuthi kabalamandla. Babetshelwe lokuthi banakekele futhi baziphathe kuhle izifuyo ezazithwala izinto ezinzima.​—U-Eksodusi 23:6; ULevi 19:14, 33, 34; UDutheronomi 22:4, 10; 24:17, 18.

23. Kuyini okwenziwa ngumlobi weHubo 119, njalo kuyini esingazimisela ukukwenza?

23 Yisiphi esinye isizwe esilesibusiso semithetho enjengale? Akula, yikho umhubi wabhala wathi: “O he, ngiwuthanda kangakanani umthetho wakho!” Lanxa kunjalo, uthando lwakhe lwalungayisiwo muzwa nje owawungaphakathi kwakhe. Lwamenza ukuthi enze okuthile, futhi wazimisela ukulalela umthetho kanye lokuphila ngawo. Waphinda wathi: “Ngikhumbula ngawo [umthetho wakho] ilanga lonke.” (IHubo 119:11, 97) Wayehlala efunda ngemithetho kaJehova. Akuthandabuzwa ukuthi ukuyifunda imithetho le kwamenza wayithanda kakhulu. Ngesikhathi esifananayo lokhu kwaphinda kwamenza lokuthi amthande kakhulu uMenzi waleyo mithetho, uJehova uNkulunkulu. Njengoba uqhubeka ufunda ngomthetho kaNkulunkulu, kwangathi lawe ungaqhubeka usondela kuJehova, uMenzi wemithetho oMkhulu kanye loNkulunkulu owahlulela kuhle.

^ indima 8 Ngokwesibonelo, imithetho eyayisithi ingcekeza yomuntu kumele igqitshelwe, abagulayo behlukaniswe labanye abantu, futhi umuntu othinte isidumbu ageze, yayitshengisa impucuko enkulu kakhulu okwathatha iminyaka eminengi ukuthi ezinye izizwe zibe layo.​—ULevi 13:4-8; AmaNani 19:11-13, 17-19; UDutheronomi 23:13, 14.

^ indima 9 Emathempelini amaKhenani kwakulamakamelo okwakusenzelwa khona ezemancansini, kodwa uMthetho kaMosi wona wawusithi labo abangahlanzekanga kwakungamelanga bangene ethempelini. Ngakho, njengoba ukuya emacansini kwakusenza ukuthi umuntu angahlanzeki okwesikhathi esithile, akulamuntu owayengenza ezemacansini zibe yingxenye yokukhonza uJehova endlini yakhe.

^ indima 10 Ukufundisa kwakuyisiqokoqela soMthetho. I-Encyclopaedia Judaica ithi ibala lesiHebheru elitsho “umthetho” elithi toh·rahʹ, litsho “umlayo.”

^ indima 17 UMthetho wawubuza ngokucacileyo: “Kambe izihlahla zeganga zingabantu ukuthi lingazivimbezela na?” (UDutheronomi 20:19) UPhilo, ingcitshi yolwazi engumJuda yekhulu lokuqala, wakhuluma ngomthetho lo, echasisa ukuthi uNkulunkulu ukubona “kuyinto engafanelanga ukuthi ulaka okumele luqondiswe ebantwini lucine seluqondiswa ezintweni ezingelacala.”