“Nguvulu . . . alumukile nakupwa muka-kwitava, mwomwo alikomokelele hakunangula kanechi chakuli Yehova.”—VILI. 13:12.

1-3. Ukalu muka vamwene tumbaji twaYesu hakwambulula mujimbu wamwaza “kuli vaka-mafuchi osena”?

YESU KULISHITU ahanyine vaka-kumukavangiza mulimo waunene chikuma. Avalwezele ngwenyi: “Yenunga mukatunge tumbaji kuvatu vakumafuchi osena.” Ngocho vatelelele kwambulula ou ‘mujimbu wamwaza waWangana kumavu kwatwama vatu kwosena, nakupwa unjiho kuli vaka-mafuchi osena.’—Mateu 24:14; 28:19.

2 Tumbaji vazangile chikuma Yesu namulimo wakwambulula mujimbu wamwaza. Oloze pamo vapwile nakuhuhwasana omu navahasa kuzata ou mulimo vavahanyine, mwomwo vapwile vavandende chikuma. Yesu nawa uze vambulwilenga ngwavo apwile MwanaKalunga vamujihile. Tumbaji twaYesu nawa vavamwenenga kupwa “vatu vakuzeneka kunanguka kaha nawa hivatu vanganavene.” (Vili. 4:13) Oloze vatelelele kwambulula mujimbu uze walimbalakile navyuma vanangwilenga vatwamina vavalemu vamukwitava vaze valinangwile visemwa navilika vyakushikulu. Tumbaji vavamwene kupwa vamokomoko kujingalila javo vasemukilile. Kaha nawa muyachi wavaIsalele wapwile wakukuminamo  hakuwesekesa kuWangana waukelenga wavaLoma.

3 Chikwavo nawa, Yesu ahuhumwine tumbaji twenyi ngwenyi navakavahunga nakuvayanjisa, kaha vamwe navakavajiha. (Luka 21:16, 17) Avalwezelele chimweza ngwenyi navakalipika navaka-kuvasolola kuli vaka-kole, navapolofweto vamakuli, kaha nawa upapwoki naukavula chikuma. (Mateu 24:10-12) Numba tuhu mujimbu wavo navakawitavilanga kujingalila jajivulu, kutala navakahasa ngachilihi kuuhetesa “kuvihela vyakwakusuku vyahamavu”? (Vili. 1:8) Atela chavakaluhwilile kushinganyeka omu navakahasa kutesamo mulimo wavo chamokomoko namaukalu osena awa.

4. Uno mulimo wakwambulula watumbaji vamulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga wafukilile ngachilihi?

4 Chamokomoko nakala ukalu wavalingishile valizakamine, tumbaji vaputukile kwambulula mujimbu wamwaza natwima muYelusalema namuSamaliya nakujingalila jeka jamukaye. Numba tuhu tumbaji valitalasanyine naukalu wauvulu, oloze omu mwahichile myaka 30, mujimbu wamwaza “va[wa]mbulwile muli vakutenga vosena vaze vatwama mwishi yamelu,” kaha wapwile “nakwima mihako nakukula mukaye kosena.” (Kolo. 1:6, 23) Chakutalilaho: Mwomwo yavyuma vize kaposetolo Paulu ahanjikile nakulinga halitungu lyaKupulusu, nguvulu wavaLoma Seleju Paulu “alumukile nakupwa muka-kwitava, mwomwo alikomokelele hakunangula kanechi chakuli Yehova.”—Tangenu Vilinga 13:6-12.

5. (a) Vyuma muka Yesu afwelelesele tumbaji twenyi? (b) Hakukekesa havyuma vyasolokelenga mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga, vyuma muka vanakukulula vatu vamwe?

5 Tumbaji twaYesu vatachikijile ngwavo kaveshi kuhasa kuzata ou mulimo wakwambulula mungolo javoko. Yesu avashikile ngwenyi mwapwanga navo hamwe, kaha nawa ngwenyi shipilitu yajila nayivakafwanga. (Mateu 28:20) Vyuma vimwe vyapwile nakusoloka mukaye hamakumbi aze vyakafwile mulimo wakwambulula Wangana uzovoloke. Mukanda umwe wakushikulu wamba ngwawo, lwola lwamulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga lukiko lwola lwapwile lwamwaza vaka-Kulishitu kuputuka mulimo wakwambulula. Mukanda kana wamba nawa ngwawo vaka-Kulishitu vamwene nge Kalunga ikiye avawahishilile jila.

6. Vyuma muka natushimutwila (a) muchihande chino? (b) muli echi nachikavangizaho?

6 Mbimbiliya kayatulweza hatoma vyuma alingile Kalunga mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga numba mulimo wakwambulula uzovolokeko. Chipwe ngocho, twatachikiza ngwetu Yehova asakile mujimbu wamwaza vawambulule, oloze Satana kasakileko. Muchihande chino, natushimutwila vyuma vimwe vyalingishile chipwenga chachashi kwambulula mujimbu wamwaza mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga kuhambakana omu chapwile mumyaka yeka yakunyima. Kaha muchihande nachikavangizaho, natukekesa vyuma vimwe vinasolojokanga makumbi ano vize vinatukafwenga twambulule mujimbu wamwaza mukaye kosena.

KUUNDA CHAVALOMA

7. Uno Kuunda chavaLoma chapwile chika, kaha mwomwo ika chapwilile lwola lwamwaza?

7 Wangana wavaLoma wakafwile vaka-Kulishitu mujijila jimwe. Chakutalilaho, kwapwile lwola lwaKuunda chavaLoma. Wangana Wavaka-Loma wakashile chivwasano chakutwama mukuunda mujingalila jawangana josena. Lwola lumwe kwapwilenga vene “jijita namijimbu yakuvuluka jijita,” ngana muze ahanjikile chimweza Yesu. (Mateu 24:6) Maswalale javaLoma vanongesele Yelusalema mu 70 C.E., kaha nawa kujingiza jalifuchi kwapwilenga jijita jajindende. Oloze myaka kafwe 200 kufuma haze afwile Yesu, mumafuchi  amuMendetelenya mwapwilenga kuunda. Mukanda umwe wamba ngwawo: “Putu kushikulu, kanda kupwengangaho lyehi lwola lwalusuku vatwama vatu mukuunda ngana luzeko, kaha nawa kaveshi kukahasa kulingisa vatu vavavulu ngana vakatwame mukuundako.”

8. Uno kuunda chapwileko halwola luze chakafwile ngachilihi vaka-Kulishitu vakulivanga?

8 Omu mwahichile myaka kafwe 300 kufuma hakufwa chaKulishitu, chilolo Origen uze alinangwile chikuma asonekele vyalwola kanelu kwapwile kuunda. Ambile ngwenyi hakuwana nge vaLoma vayulilenga mafuchi amavulu, ngocho tumbaji vahashile kwambulwila mumafuchi osena awa. Vatu kavapwile nakulizungisa mangana vakinge mafuchi avoko. Vatwaminenga mumembo avo mukuunda. Ngocho ou chilolo ambile ngwenyi, mwomwo yavyumevi, vatu vavavulu vapwile nalwola lwakwivwilila kutumbaji vaze vambulwilenga mujimbu wakundwijile zangi nakuunda. Numba tuhu ava tumbaji vavayanjishilenga, oloze vakiko vapwile vakuunda, kaha nawa kuunda chize chapwileko halwola luze chavakafwile vatandakanyise mujimbu wamwaza.—Tangenu Wavaka-Loma 12:18-21.

CHAPWILE CHACHASHI KUTAMBUKA

9, 10. Vyuma muka vyakafwile tumbaji vahase kutambwojoka muWangana Wavaka-Loma wosena?

9 Vaka-Kulishitu vanganyalile chikuma kumikwakwa yamwaza yamuLoma. Hakusaka kukinga nakulama vatu vamulifuchi, fulumende yaLoma yapwile namaswalale vangolo vakunangula kanawa. Ngocho kwasakiwile mikwakwa yakutambukila ava maswalale washiwashi, kaha vaLoma vapwile vakuluwa mukutunga mikwakwa. Vamanjimela vavaLoma vatungile mikwakwa yajikilomita jakuzomboka 80,000 yize yahetele kujingalila josena jamulifuchi. Mikwakwa kana yahichile mumisenge, namuvyana, nahajipili.

10 Chikwavo nawa, vaLoma vatambukilenga namato. Vatambukilenga mutulwiji namutupila nahakalungalwiji hakuya kuvyau vyakulisezaseza muwangana wavo. VaLoma vatambukilenga mujijila jahakalungalwiji kafwe 900. Ngocho navaka-Kulishitu nawa vatambukilenga namato nakuya kuvihela vyavivulu. Numba tuhu kwapwilenga ukalu hakutambuka, oloze kaposetolo Paulu navakwavo vatambwojokelenga mwahita Loma chakuzeneka vitupa vyakutambuka navyo chipwe mapapilo akwitavisa mutu kwingila mulifuchi lyeka. Kakwapwile jiofesi jakwitavisa vatu navikumba kwingila mulifuchiko. Mumikwakwa nawa kamwapwilenga vihwanga vavavuluko mwomwo vatachikijile ngwavo vaLoma vazangamishilenga mwamupi vaze vahokwelenga jishimbi. Ngocho vatu valitambukililenga kwavo mumikwakwa chakuzeneka kuvalukuka. Vatu nawa valitambukililenga kwavo mukalungalwiji chakuzeneka kuvalukuka kuveji mwomwo mwapwilenga maswalale javaLoma. Numba tuhu Paulu avombele nawato mapapa kakavulu, kaha nawa kwapwilenga jiponde jeka hakalungalwiji, oloze Visoneka kavyatulweza ngwavo likumbi limwe vavalukukile kuvejiko.—Koli. 2, 11:25, 26.

LILIMI LYACHIHELASE

Chapwile chachashi kuwana visoneka mumukanda wakutonga (Talenu palangalafu 12)

11. Mwomwo ika tumbaji vazachishililenga lilimi lyachiHelase?

11 Lilimi lyachiHelase lize vavulukilenga ngwavo Koine, lyakafwile vatu vahase kulivwasana kanawa nakulinunga muvikungulwilo vyavaka-Kulishitu. Hakuwana nge Alekesande Wamunene afungulwile mafuchi amavulu, ngachize vatu vavavulu vahanjikilenga nakwivwa lilimi lyachiHelase. Shikaho vangamba jaKalunga vahashilenga kushimutwila navatu vakulisezaseza, kahechi chalingishile mujimbu wamwaza utande. Kaha nawa vaYuleya vaze vatwaminenga muEjipitu valumwine Visoneka VyachiHepeleu  mulilimi lyachiHelase. Vatu vatachikijile chikuma evi Visoneka valumwine vize vavulukilenga ngwavo Mbimbiliya yaSeptuagint, kaha vaka-kukavangiza Kulishitu vakulivanga vazachishile eyi Mbimbiliya chakuzeneka kuvakanyisa. Vaka-Kulishitu nawa vachiwanyine kupwa chachashi kusoneka vyuma mulilimi lyachiHelase. Lilimi kana lyapwile namazu amavulu akuzachisa hakulumbununa vyuma, kahechi chakafwile kulumbununa vyuma vyakushipilitu.

12. (a) Uno mikanda yakutonga yafwanyine ngachilihi, kaha mikanda kana yawahile ngachilihi kuhambakana yize yakuvunga? (b) Mwaka uka mikanda yakutonga yalisalile kuli vaka-Kulishitu?

12 Vaka-Kulishitu vazachishilenga ngachilihi Visoneka mumulimo wavo wakwambulula? Mikanda yakuvunga yapwilenga yayikalu kuzachisa, mwomwo yasakiwilenga kuyivunga nakuyivungulula, kaha nawa yayivulu yapwilenga yakusoneka kusali yimwe kaha. Mukanda waMujimbu Wamwaza waMateu ukawawo wazalishile mukanda wosena wakuvunga. Kufumaho kwejile mikanda yakutonga. Eyi mikanda yapwile namapapilo aze vakashilile hamwe. Chapwile chachashi kupandumuna eyi mikanda yakutonga nakuwana visoneka. Numba tuhu katwatachikiza mwaka uvene vaka-Kulishitu vaputukile kuzachisa eyi mikanda yakutonga, oloze mukanda umwe wamba ngwawo: “Vaka-Kulishitu vavavulu vazachishilenga eyi mikanda yakutonga mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyamuchivali. Shikaho chasoloka nge eyi mikanda vaputukile kuyizachisa kafwe mumwaka wakusokesa 100.”

JISHIMBI JAVALOMA

13, 14. (a) Uno Paulu azachishilenga ngachilihi lisesa lyenyi hakupwa kaLoma? (b) Jishimbi javaLoma janganyalishile ngachilihi vaka-Kulishitu?

13 Jishimbi javaLoma vajizachishilenga muwangana wosena, kaha jahanyine vaLoma lisesa lyakulinga vyuma vyavivulu nakuvakinga. Paulu anganyalile kujishimbi kana mwomwo nayikiye apwile kaLoma. Omu vasakile kumuveta vikote muYelusalema, ou kaposetolo ahulishile kapitau kamaswalale javaLoma ngwenyi: “Uno vachitavisa kuli enu malunga kuveta mutu wakaLoma uze kanda vachihane mulonga tahi?” Chuma kana kavachitavishileko. Omu Paulu avulukile ngwenyi apwile kaLoma wakusemukila muLoma, “malunga vaze vasakile kumwipula vikote mangana ambulule, vamusosolokele; kaha uze kapitau kamaswalale wamukulwane evwile woma hakumona ngwenyi [Paulu] apwile kaLoma kaha nawa amukasanga mumalenge.”—Vili. 22:25-29.

14 Hakuwana nge Paulu apwile kaLoma, ngocho jishimbi jamukingile nakumukafwa omu apwile muFwilipi. (Vili. 16:35-40) Muka-kusoneka  vyuma vyamunganda muEfwesu avulukile omu jazata jishimbi javaLoma hanyima yakuholesa liyongomena lyavatu vaze vapihililile. (Vili. 19:35-41) Omu Paulu apwile muKesaliya, alombele chihande chenyi vakachisope kuli Kesale, kahechi chamukafwile alihakwile ivene kumeso aKesale. (Vili. 25:8-12) Ngachize, jishimbi javaLoma jakafwile “hakuhakwila mujimbu wamwaza nakuuzamisa najishimbi.”—Fwili. 1:7.

VAYULEYA VATUNGILE MUMAFUCHI AMAVULU

15. Uno vaYuleya vavavulu vatungile kulihi mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga?

15 Vaka-Kulishitu pamo vachiwanyinenga kupwa chachashi kuzata mulimo wavo wakwambulula mwomwo vaYuleya vatungile mujingalila jamuwangana wavaLoma josena. Myaka yayivulu kunyima, vaAsulya navaMbavilone vakwachile vaYuleya ufunge nakuvatwala kumafuchi avo. Kuheta mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyamuchitanu B.C.E., vaYuleya vatungile mujingalila 127 jamuWangana wavaPeleja. (Ese. 9:30) Omu Yesu apwile hano hamavu, vaYuleya vatungile muEjipitu namumafuchi eka akunote yaAfrica, namuHelase, namuAja, namuMesopotamya. Vatu vamwe vamba ngwavo havatu kafwe 60,000,000 vaze vapwile muWangana wavaLoma, vatu vakuhambakana 4,000,000 vapwile vaYuleya. Kweshokwo vayilenga vaYuleya, vayilenga nakwitava chavo.—Mateu 23:15.

16, 17. (a) Uno kutunga chavaYuleya kumafuchi amavulu changanyalishile ngachilihi vaze kavapwile vaYuleyako? (b) Vyuma muka valingilenga vaYuleya vize valingilenga natumbaji?

16 Hakuwana nge vaYuleya vatungile kumafuchi amavulu, ngocho vatu vavavulu vaze kavapwile vaYuleyako vatachikijile Visoneka VyachiHepeleu. Valinangwile nge kwatwama Kalunga wamuchano umwe kaha, kaha nawa vaze veji kumuzachilanga vatela kukavangiza jishimbi jenyi. Visoneka VyachiHepeleu nawa vyazala naupolofweto wakuvuluka Meshiya. (Luka 24:44) VaYuleya navaka-Kulishitu vosena vatachikijile ngwavo Visoneka VyachiHepeleu vavihwima kuli Kalunga, kahechi chakafwile kaposetolo Paulu awane hakuputukila kushimutwila navatu vaze vasakilenga kulinga vilinga vyakwoloka. Ngocho ou kaposetolo engililenga mujisunangonga javaYuleya nakushimutwila navo kanawa haVisoneka.—Tangenu Vilinga 17:1, 2.

17 VaYuleya vapwilenga najila yavo yakulemeselamo Kalunga. Valikungulwililenga mujisunangonga namumeluka. Vembilenga myaso, nakulomba, nakushimutwila haVisoneka. Omu mukiko veji kulinganga navatu muchikungulwilo chavaka-Kulishitu makumbi ano.

YEHOVA AVAKAFWILE KWAMBULULA

18, 19. (a) Uno vyuma vyapwile mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga vyakafwile ngachilihi? (b) Vyuma muka munalinangula hali Yehova hakukekesa vyuma tunashimutwila muchihande chino?

18 Vyumevi tunavuluka vikiko vyalingishile numba mulimo wakwambulula mujimbu wamwaza ufukile. Kuunda chavaLoma, nakutambuka kanawa, nakuhanjika lilimi limwe, najishimbi javaLoma, nakutunga chavaYuleya kumafuchi amavulu vikiko vyakafwile tumbaji twaYesu vahase kuzata kanawa ou mulimo avahanyine Kalunga wakwambulula mujimbu wamwaza.

19 Myaka kafwe makulukaji awana kunyima, Plato, kaHelase uze alinangwile mangana autu ambile ngwenyi chapwile chachikalu vatu kutachikiza Tengi, nakwambulila vatu mukaye vatachikize ou Tengi. Oloze Yesu ambile ngwenyi: “Vyuma vize kavyapwa vyavyashi kuvatuko, vyapwa vyavyashi kuli Kalunga.” (Luka 18:27) Tengi atengele melu namavu asaka vatu vamutachikize. Kaha nawa Yesu alwezele vaka-kumukavangiza ngwenyi: “Yenunga mukatunge tumbaji kuvatu vakumafuchi osena.” (Mateu 28:19) Tuli nakutesamo ou mulimo mwomwo yakutukafwa kuli Yehova Kalunga. Chihande chinakavangizaho nachisolola omu tuli nakuzata ou mulimo makumbi ano.