PAMO kanda mwivwengangaho lyehi mutu walijina lyaAbū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. MuArabic vamuvuluka ngwavo al-Hasan, oloze kuEurope nakuAmerica vamuluka ngwavo Alhazen, kweseka nalilimi lyachiLatinyi. Chikupu vene munahase kunganyala kuvyuma alingile Alhazen mukuyoya chenyi. Ou lunga vamuvuluka kupwa “himutu umwe uze azachile mulimo waulemu chikuma mumijimbu yasayasi.”

Alhazen asemukile kafwe mumwaka wa 965 C.E mumbaka yaBasra mulifuchi lyaIraq. Alinangwile chikuma vyuma vyamuutangatanga, namakumi, navitumbo, namyaso, navyuma vyakutenga, natushimutwiji navyuma vyeka vyavivulu. Jino mwomwo ika twatela kumusakwilila?

CHIJIVA CHAKALWIJI NYILE

Mujimbu waAlhazen unatande chikuma hamyaka yayivulu. Mujimbu kana wasolola omu asakile kukehesa muta wakalwiji Nyile mulimo uze vazachile mu 1902 mumbaka yaAswân omu mwahichile myaka kafwe 1,000.

Mujimbu kana, wasolola nawa vishinganyeka apwile navyo vyakusaka kufula chijiva kukalwiji Nyile mangana akeheseko mavaji, nachanga chapwilenga muEjipitu. Omu muka-kuyula walijina lyaCaliph al-Hakim wamuCairo evwile vishinganyeka vyaAlhazen, amusanyikile mangana afule chijiva muEjipitu. Oloze omu Alhazen amwene kalwiji kana ashinganyekele jino ngwenyi keshi kuhasa kuzata mulimo kanouko. Kaha evwile woma ou muka-kuyula wamuchima waupi ngocho alyongele kuzaluka palanga nomu afwile uze muka-kuyula mu 1021 omu mwahichile kafwe myaka 11. Halwola kanelu apwile Alhazen muchipatela chavaka-kuzaluka, apwile nalwola lwaluvulu lwakuhehwojola vyuma vyeka vyakulisezaseza.

MUKANDA WASAYASI WAHANJIKA HAMITELELEJI

Halwola Alhazen vamufumishile muchipatela, alingile hanasoneka lyehi mukanda waBook of Optics volyumu 7, uze vamwene kupwa waulemu chikuma hamikanda yahanjika havyuma vyakutenga. Mumukanda kana mukiko asonekele omu musana weji kutambukanga nakulingisa vyuma visoloke muulombo wakulisezaseza, nakuvyakuma chavitalilo, nomu yeji kutambukanga miteleleji kufuma hachuma chimwe nakuya hachikwavo. Kaha alinangwile nawa omu yapwa  mijimba yavatu neyi yatunyama nomu azata meso.

Kuheta mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakusokesa 13 vyuma asonekele Alhazen vavyalumwine mulilimi lyachiLatinyi. Kahomu mwahichile makulukaji amyaka, vatu valinangula chikuma vamuEurope vetavishile kuzachisa vyuma kana. Vyuma asonekele Alhazen kutalisa kuvivanjilo vyakafwile vaka-kutunga vivanjilo vamuEurope vaputuke kutunga makina atelesikopu namayikulosikopu.

KAMELA YAKUSHIKULU

Alhazen awanyine jindongi vatela kuzachisa vaka-kukopa jize akavangijile hakutunga kamela yatete. Mukapete kana mwapwile muteta muze mwengilililenga muteleji uze nausolola muvwimbimbi wachuma chili haweluka namukachi.

Alhazen atungile likina vavuluka ngwavo kamela yakushikulu (camera obscura) lize pamo lyapwile lyatete kutunga

Kuheta muji 1800, vatungileko vyuma vavuluka ngwavo jifyumu jize jahashile kulamanga mivwimbimbi hatando yayisuku. Vyuma muka vyafuminemo? Jikamela. Jikamela josena jamakumbi ano jazata mujila yoyimwe nge muze lyazachilenga likina vavuluka ngwavo kamela yakushikulu (camera obscura). *

JIJILA JAVAKA-SAYASI

Chuma chalingishile milimo yaAlhazen kupwa yakulipwila shina jijila jamwaza azachishile hakuhehwojola. Jijila kana japwile jajikalu kujivwishisa kuvatu vayoyelenga mumakumbi kana. Apwile hamukana wavatu vatete kutachikiza vyuma mwomwo yakuhehwojola vyuma kana kaha nawa apwilenga nakuhulisanga vihula kachi nge vyuma vimwe kavyeshi nakusolola unjiho wamuchano.

Lushimbi lwalulemu lwasayasi yamakumbi ano vanahase kululumbununa namazu akwamba ngwavo: “Hunananenu havyuma mwatachikiza muwane numba nge vyamuchano.” Vatu vamwe vamona Alhazen kupwa ikiye “kuluwa hali vaka-sayasi vamakumbi ano.” Ngocho twatela kumusakwilila havyuma alingile.

^ par. 13 Vatu vakuEurope nakuAmerica kavatachikijile chikuma omu lyazata likina kana palanga nomu Johannes Kepler alumbunwine kanawa omu lyazata, mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakusokesa 17.