Mwomwo ika jiMbimbiliya vanajalumwina mujijila jakulisezaseza makumbi ano? Uno jiMbimbiliya jajihya vali nakwalumuna jili nakumikafwa mwivwishise kanawa Mbimbiliya tahi nyi jili nakumihonesa? Kutachikiza kanawa vatu vasoneka jiMbimbiliya kana novyo vajisonekela nachimikafwa mumone chihandwa chajo.

Chatete tulihulisenu ngwetu, iya apwile watete kusoneka Mbimbiliya, kaha lwola muka?

MBIMBILIYA YAKULIVANGA

Mbimbiliya vayihandununa muvihanda vivali. Chihanda chatete chatwama namikanda 39 yize vasoneka “vihande vyajila vyaKalunga.” (Wavaka-Loma 3:2) Kalunga ahwiminyine malunga vakushishika vasoneke eyi mikanda hamyaka kafwe 1,100 kufuma mu 1513 B.C.E. nakuheta muji 443 B.C.E. Eyi mikanda yayivulu vayisonekele mulilimi lyachiHepeleu, shikaho twavulukila echi chihanda ngwetu Visoneka VyachiHepeleu, chipwe ngwetu Tesetamende Yamwaka.

Chihanda chamuchivali chatwama namikanda 27. Mikanda kana nayikiko yapwa “himazu aKalunga.” (Wavaka-Tesolonyika 1, 2:13) Kalunga ahwiminyine tumbaji twaYesu Kulishitu vakushishika vasoneke eyi mikanda hamyaka kafwe 60 kufuma mu 41 C.E. nakuheta mu 98 C.E. Eyi mikanda yayivulu vayisonekele mulilimi lyachiHelase, shikaho twavulukila echi chihanda ngwetu Visoneka VyachiHelase vyaVaka-Kulishitu, chipwe ngwetu Tesetamende Yayihya.

Eyi mikanda 66 yikiko yatunga Mbimbiliya yamuundu yize yapwa mazu aKalunga asonekela vatu. Jino mwomwo ika vanalumwinako jiMbimbiliya jeka? Mwomwo yavishina vino vitatu.

  • Mangana vatu vatangenga Mbimbiliya mumalimi avo.

  • Mangana volole vyuma valimbenjele vaka-kunungulula mazu, nakukindulwisamo mazu avene aze apwilemo hakavanga.

  • Mangana yipwenga yayashi kwivwishisa.

Achitalenu omu vishina vino vyazachile hakwalumuna jiMbimbiliya jakulivanga jivali.

 VISONEKA VYASEPTUAGINT YACHIHELASE

Omu kwasalile myaka 300 shimbu kanda Yesu asemuke, vaYuleya valinangula chikuma vaputukile kwalumuna Visoneka VyachiHepeleu mulilimi lyeka lyachiHelase. Evi visoneka valumwine vavivulukilenga jino ngwavo visoneka vyaSeptuagint YachiHelase. Mwomwo ika valumwinyine visoneka kana? Mangana vikafwe vaYuleya vavavulu vaze vahanjikilenga chiHelase kuhambakana chiHepeleu vejive kanawa “mikanda yajila.”—WaChimoteu 2, 3:15.

Visoneka vyaSeptuagint vyakafwile vatu vavavulu vaze kavapwilenga vaYuleya, vaze vahanjikilenga chiHelase mangana vatachikize vyuma yanangwile Mbimbiliya. Mujila muka? Chilolo umwe walijina lyaW. F. Howard uze alinangula chikuma ambile ngwenyi: “Kufuma vene mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakulivanga, evi visoneka vyapwile jino hichinoma chaVaka-Chachi yaVaka-Kulishitu, chinoma chize vazachishilenga vamishonali mujisunangonga ‘hakulumbunwina vatu nakuvalweza unjiho wamuvisoneka wakuvuluka nge Meshiya ikiye vene Yesu.’” (Vilinga 17:3, 4; 20:20) Kaha chilolo F. F. Bruce uze alinangwile chikuma Mbimbiliya ambile ngwenyi, evi vikiko vyalingishile vaYuleya vavavulu “vahunge evi visoneka vyaSeptuagint.”

Omu tumbaji twaYesu vatwalileho kutambula mikanda yaVisoneka VyachiHelase vyaVaka-Kulishitu, vayilamikile hamwe naVisoneka vyaSeptuagint yachiHepeleu, ngocho vatungile jino Mbimbiliya yamuundu eyi tuli nakuzachisa makumbi ano.

MBIMBILIYA YACHILATIN VULGATE

Omu mwahichile myaka kafwe 300 kufuma haze vakumishile kusoneka Mbimbiliya, chilolo Jerome uze alinangwile chikuma vyamukwitava alowele Mbimbiliya yamulilimi lyaLatinyi, yize vavulukilenga ngwavo Latin Vulgate. Halwola kana kwapwile lyehi jiMbimbiliya jeka jamulilimi kana. Uno mwomwo ika Jerome alowelele eyi yayihya? Mukanda waThe International Standard Bible Encyclopedia wamba ngwavo, ou chilolo asakile kwolola “mijimbu yakuhenga, namazu akuhenga, namazu vahakilileko nawaze vafumishile muMbimbiliya yamwaka.”

Jerome olwele vyavivulu vize vyalimbenjele. Oloze kutwala muze, vakulwane vajichachi valimbenjele mwamunene. Vambile ngwavo eyi Mbimbiliya yaLatin Vulgate yikiko kaha yakwoloka vatelele kuzachisa vatu vosena, kaha valingile ngocho hamyaka yayivulu. Muchishishisa chakukafwa vatu vamuchivulu vevwishise eyi Mbimbiliya oloze valingishile jino vatu vahone kuyivwishisa mwomwo vatu vavavulu kavatachikijile lilimi lyachiLatinyiko.

 JIMBIMBILIYA JEKA JAJIHYA

Mukuhita chamyaka, vatu vaputukile kulovola jiMbimbiliya jeka jajihya. Chakutalilaho, mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyamuchitanu, kwalovokele Mbimbiliya yaSyriac Peshitta yize yayile fuma chikuma. Jino kuheta mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakusokesa 14 hakiko jino vatu vaputukile kuhundangana mangana valovole jiMbimbiliya mumalimi navahasa kwivwishisa vatu.

Kuheta kusongo yalikulukaji lyamyaka lyakusokesa 14, chilolo John Wycliffe wamuEngland aputukile kwalumuna Mbimbiliya mulilimi lyaChingeleshi lize vazachishilenga chikuma vatu mulifuchi kaneli. Kufumaho, kapani yakupulita mikanda yaJohannes Gutenberg yakafwile vatu valinangula vahase kulovola jiMbimbiliya mumalimi akulisezaseza nakujipangila kuvatu vahalitungu lyaEurope.

Omu jiMbimbiliya javulile muChingeleshi, vaka-kufwefulula vaputukile kuhulisa ngwavo mwomwo ika jiMbimbiliya jajivulu vali nakujilowela mulilimi lyolimwe. Mulikulukaji lyamyaka lyakusokesa 18, chilolo John Lewis asonekele ngwenyi: “Lilimi lyeji kwalumukanga mukuhita chalwola, ngocho chapwa chamwaza kusononona jiMbimbiliya jamwaka kuzachisa mazu vali nakuzachisa vatu oholyapwa, mangana navanyike vali nakusemuka vahase kwivwishisa Mbimbiliya.”

Makumbi ano, chinapu chachashi kuli vaka-kulinangula Mbimbiliya kusononona jiMbimbiliya jamwaka. Mwomwo vali nakwivwishisa chikuma malimi akulivanga vasonekele Mbimbiliya, kaha nawa kuli jimanyusikilipiti jakushikulu jaMbimbiliya jajilemu jize vanawane kalinwomu. Vyuma kana vinakuvakafwa vatachikize mazu avene apwile muMbimbiliya yatete.

Ngocho chapwa chachilemu kutanganga jiMbimbiliya jajihya vali nakulovola. Oloze twatela kuzangama najiMbimbiliya jimwe. * Kachi nge vatu vanasononona Mbimbiliya vanalingi ngocho mwomwo yakuzanga Kalunga, kaha Mbimbiliya yavo yinahase kutunganyalisa chikuma.

 

^ par. 24 Talenu chihande chamuKaposhi Kakutalila waChingeleshi waMay 1, 2008 chakwamba ngwavo “How Can You Choose a Good Bible Translation?”