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Tshibumba tshia Nsentedi  |  Ngondo wa 9 2014

Bible wa mu tshiena Sulia—Mua kumanya malu a bungi bua nkudimuinu ya kumpala ya Bible

Bible wa mu tshiena Sulia—Mua kumanya malu a bungi bua nkudimuinu ya kumpala ya Bible

Mu tshidimu tshia 1892, bamamu babidi ba mapasa Agnes Smith Lewis ne Margaret Dunlop Gibson bakenza luendu lua matuku tshitema pa tumelu tuabu bapitshila mu tshipela batangile ku kuvan wa Sainte Catherine, kuinshi kua mukuna wa Sinayi. Bua tshinyi bakaji aba bavua ne bidimu 40 ne bia mu njila bakenza luendu lua mushindu eu mu tshikondo tshivua kuenza luendu lua nunku mu matunga a mu Asie kuikale bualu bua njiwu? Diandamuna dia lukonko elu didi mua kukuambuluisha bua kukolesha ditabuja diudi nadi bua mudi Bible wamba malu ne bujalame.

Agnes Smith Lewis ne kuvan wa Sainte Catherin

KUMPALA kua Yezu kupingana mu diulu, wakapesha bayidi bende mudimu wa kuyisha ne kumanyisha bualu buende “mu Yelushalema, mu Yudaya mujima, mu Samaleya, too ne ku ntengu ya buloba.” (Bienzedi 1:8) Bayidi bende bakenza mudimu eu ne tshisumi ne dikima. Kadi, mu Yelushalema mudimu wabu eu wakabajudila buluishi bukole ne kufikabu ku dishipa Stefano. Bayidi ba bungi ba Yezu bakanyema kuyabu mu Antiyokiya, Suliya, tshimue tshia ku tshitupa tshinene tshia bimenga bia mu Bukalenge bua Lomo mutantshi wa kilometre 550 ku Nord kua Yelushalema.—Bienzedi 11:19.

Mu Antiokiya bayidi bakatungunuka ne kuyisha “lumu luimpe” lua Yezu, ne bantu ba bungi bavua kabayi bena Yuda bakalua bena Kristo. (Bienzedi 11:20, 21) Nansha muvua tshiena Greke tshikale muakulu uvuabu bakula mu Antiyokiya, pambelu pa tshimenga ne mu provense, muakulu uvua bantu batamba kuakula uvua tshiena Sulia.

LUMU LUIMPE MU TSHIENA SULIA

Bu muvua bena Kristo bavua bakula tshiena Sulia bavule mu siekele muibidi, bakapeta dijinga dia kukudimuna lumu luimpe mu muakulu wabu. Nunku, biakamueneka ne: tshiena Sulia ke muakulu wa kumpala uvuabu  bakudimune bimue bitupa bia mikanda ya bena Kristo ivua mu tshiena Greke, kadi ki mmuakulu wa latin to.

Kumbukila mu 170 bikondo bietu ebi, Tatien mufundi wa bena Sulia (120-173 bikondo bietu ebi) wakakuatakaja Evanjeliyo inayi ivuabu banyishe ne kuyipatula mu tshiena Greke anyi mu tshiena Sulia, bavua babikila mikanda yende eyi ne: Diatessaron, muaku eu mu tshiena Greke udi umvuija ne: “mu Evanjeliyo inayi.” Pashishe, Ephraem muena Sulia (310-373 bikondo bietu ebi) wakapatula mukanda uvua umvuija Diatessaron, bua kuleja ne: bena Kristo bena Sulia bavua benza nawu mudimu bikole.

Mukanda wa Diatessaron udi ne mushinga wa bungi kutudi lelu. Bua tshinyi? Mu bidimu bia 1800, bamue bamanyi bakamba ne: bavua bafunde Evanjeliyo bu ku ndekelu kua siekele muibidi, pankatshi pa 130 ne 170 bikondo bietu ebi, nunku miyuki ya nsombelu wa Yezu idimu ki mmilelela to. Kadi maniskri a kale a Diatessaron adibu bapete mmajadike ne: Evanjeliyo wa Matayi, Mâko, Luka ne Yone ikavua ku bianza bia bantu munkatshi mua siekele muibidi. Bidi bimueneka ne: bavua ne bua kuikala bayifunde kumpala kua bidimu ebi. Bualu bukuabu, pavua Tatien musangishe Evanjeliyo inayi mianyishibue bua kuenza mukanda wa Diatessaron, kavua muangate mikuabu ya dishima ivuabu bamona bu evanjeliyo, bualu ebu ntshijadiki tshidi tshileja ne: evanjeliyo ya dishima kayivua ya kueyemenyibua anyi mianyishibue to.

Bible wa mu tshiena Sulia ne mikanda itanu ya ntuadijilu mu 464 bikondo bietu ebi, maniskri mibidi a kale a Bible

Ku ntuadijilu kua siekele muitanu, bakatuadija kuenza mudimu ne Bible wa mu tshiena Sulia ku Nord kua Mesopotamia. Nkudimuinu wa Bible eu uvua mua kuikala wa mu siekele muibidi anyi muisatu bikondo bietu ebi, ne uvua ne mikanda yonso ya mu Bible pa kumbusha 2 Petelo, 2 Yone ne 3 Yone, Yuda, ne Buakabuluibua. Mmumanyike mu dîna dia Peshitta, didi diumvuija “mupepele” anyi “umvuika bimpe.” Peshitta, (uvua muenza ne maniskri) ngumue wa ku mikanda ya kale ne wa mushinga mukole uvua muambuluishe bikole mu dikudimuna Bible ya kumpala.

Bualu bukuabu budi bukemesha mbua ne: mu maniskri amue a Peshitta mbafundamu matuku a ngondo adi apetangana ne bidimu bia 459/460 bikondo bietu ebi, bivuija maniskri a Bible aa a kale menemene. Bu mu bidimu bia 508 bikondo bietu ebi, pavuabu balue kufundulula Bible wa Peshitta bavua bakumbaje mikanda itanu ivua kayiyimu. Uvua mulue kumanyika mu dîna dia Nkudimuinu wa Philoxénie.

MANISKRI A BUNGI A MU TSHIENA SULIA AVUABU BAPETE

Too ne mu bidimu 1800, mikanda yonso ya bena Kristo ivua mu tshiena Greke ivua mimanyike ivua ya mu bidimu bia 400 anyi bidimu bishadile ku ebi. Bua bualu ebu, bamanyi ba malu a mu Bible bavua batamba kutabalela bikole nkudimuinu ya kumpala bu mudi wa mu Latin Vulgate ne wa tshiena Sulia. Mu tshikondo atshi, bamue bavua bitaba ne: Bible wa Peshitta uvua wa ku nkudimuinu wa kale wa tshiena Sulia. Kadi kakuvua mifundu ya mushindu eu ivua mimanyike. Bu muvua Bible wa mu tshiena Sulia muikale wa mu siekele muibidi, nkudimuinu wa nunku uvua mua kuambuluisha mu malu a Bible, ne uvua bushuwa mua kuikala ne mushinga wa bungi kudi bamanyi ba malu a mu Bible! Nkudimuinu wa kale wa tshiena Sulia uvuaku bulelela anyi? Bavuaku bamupete anyi?

Tshidi tshimueneka muinshi mua mulongo eu mmêyi a kuinshi kua Evanjeliyo

Eyowa! Bushuwa, bavua bapete maniskri mimpe abidi a mushindu eu. Maniskri a kumpala nga mu siekele muitanu. Avua munkatshi mua maniskri a bungi a mu tshiena Sulia avuabu bapete mu tshilaminu tshia bintu tshia mu Angleterre mu 1842 mafumine mu kuvan wa Nitrian mu tshipela tshia mu Ejipitu. Bavua baabikila ne: Curetonian wa tshiena Sulia bualu William Cureton muambuluishi wa ku tshilaminu tshia maniskri ke uvua muapete ne muapatule. Maniskri mimpe aa adi ne Evanjeliyo inayi milonga bimpe: wa Matayi, Mâko, Luka ne Yone.

 Maniskri mibidi adiku too ne mu matuku etu aa nga Sinaitic Syriac. Bamamu babidi ba mapasa batuvua batele ku ntuadijilu kua tshiena-bualu etshi ke bavua bangule maniskri aa. Nansha muvua Agnes kayi mulonge tulasa tua bungi, uvua mulonge miakulu mikuabu muanda mukulu, munkatshi muayi muvua tshiena Sulia. Mu 1892, Agnes wakangula tshintu tshia mushinga mukole mu Ejipitu mu kuvan wa Sainte Catherine.

Wakapeta maniskri a mu tshiena Sulia mu kabadi muvua mufike. Bilondeshile mudi muyuki wende uleja, “maniskri aa avua mabi pambidi, bualu avua ne lupuishi lua bungi ne mabeji awu avua makuatakane onso pamue bu muvuawu mashale” bidimu bia bungi. Kadi Agnes wakangula mukanda mukuabu mubuikidija, kadi pa mutu pawu pikale mêyi a “Matayi” anyi “a Mâko” peshi “a Luka.” Mukanda uvuaye muangule au uvua kodekse wa Evanjeliyo isatu ya mu Evanjeliyo inayi ya mu tshiena Sulia! Bamanyi ba malu a mu Bible badi bitaba mpindieu ne: kodekse eu uvua mufunda ku ndekelu kua siekele muinayi.

Badi bangata maniskri a Sinaitic Syriac bu maniskri a Bible a mushinga mukole anu mudibu bangata maniskri a mu tshiena Greke, Kodekse wa Sinaiticus ne Kodekse wa Vaticanus. Mpindieu bantu badi bitaba ne: maniskri a Curetonian ne a Sinaitic mmafumine ku Evanjeliyo ya mu tshiena Sulia ya kale ya ku ndekelu kua siekele muibidi anyi ku ntuadijilu kua siekele muisatu.

‘DÎYI DIA NZAMBI WETU NEDIJALAME TSHIENDELELE’

Balongi ba Bible badiku mua kuenza mudimu ne maniskri aa lelu anyi? Eyowa. Tuangate tshilejilu tshia mêyi a ndekelu a bungi adi mu Evanjeliyo wa Mâko adi alonda kuinshi kua Mâko 16:8 mu imue Bible. Adi mu Kodekse wa tshiena Greke wa Alexandrinus wa mu siekele muitanu, Kodekse wa Vulgate wa mu Latin, ne mu kodekse mikuabu. Kadi Kodekse mimpe bu mudi wa Sinaiticus ne wa Vaticanus ya mu siekele muinayi ya mu tshiena Greke, mêyi adimu adi mu mukanda wa Mâko nshapita 16 adi ajika ne mvese wa 8.

Tuangate tshilejilu tshikuabu. Mu bidimu bia 1800, nkudimuinu ya Bible pabuipi ne yonso ivua misakidile lungenyi lua Busatu bunsantu mu 1 Yone 5:7. Kadi mêyi masakidila aa kaena mu maniskri a kale a mu tshiena Greke to. Kaena nansha mu Bible wa Peshitta, nunku bidi bileja ne: mêyi adibu basakidile mu 1 Yone 5:7 adi bushuwa dinyanga dia mêyi a mu Bible.

Bidi biumvuika patoke ne: Yehowa Nzambi mmulame Dîyi diende Dinsantu anu muvuaye mulaye. Bible udi utujadikila mu bualu ebu ne: ‘Mashinde adi afubidila, tshilongo tshidi tshitutuka; kadi dîyi dia Nzambi wetu nedijalame tshiendelele.’ (Yeshaya 40:8; 1 Petelo 1:25) Nkudimuinu wa Peshitta mmuambuluishe ndambu, kadi udi ne mushinga wa bungi mu dikudimuna mukenji wa mu Bible ne bujalame bua bantu bonso.