Ndaku munda

Ndaku ku menu makese

Ndaku ku tshikebelu

Bantemu ba Yehowa

Tshiluba

Tshibumba tshia Nsentedi  |  Ngondo 3 2014

Dîyi dia Nzambi mu Espanye wa kale

Dîyi dia Nzambi mu Espanye wa kale

“Nunku ndi mutekemene ne: pangikala mu luendu luanyi mutangile ku Espanye, nengikale mua kunumona, nenunshindikije tshitupa tshia njila, pangikala mumane kusanka mutantshi munkatshi muenu.”Lomo 15:24.

MUPOSTOLO Paulo wakafundila bena Kristo nende ba mu Lomo mêyi aa mu 56 bikondo bietu ebi. Bible kena utuambila dîba divua Paulo muenze luendu muye mu Espanye to. Nansha nanku, Paulo anyi bamisionere bakuabu bena Kristo bavua benze muabu muonso bua lumu luimpe lua mu Bible Dîyi dia Nzambi lufike mu Espanye mu siekele muibidi bikondo bietu ebi.

Mu matuku makese, bisumbu bia bena Kristo biakatuadija kumueneka ne kuvulangana mu Espanye. Dijinga diakamueneka bua bena mu Espanye kupetabu Bible uvua mukudimuna mu muakulu wa Latin. Bidi nanku, bualu mu siekele muibidi ditunga dia Espanye divua ku bupika bua bena Lomo ne muakulu wa Latin uvua muakulu uvuabu bakula kudi bantu ba bungi mu tshipapu tshinene dia bukalenge bua bena Lomo.

BIBLE YA MU LATIN IVUA MIKUMBAJE DIJINGA DIA BANTU

Bena Kristo ba kumpala ba mu Espanye bavua bapatule nkudimuinu ya bungi ya mu Latin ivua mimanyike mu dîna dia Vetus Latina Hispana. Bible ya mu Latin eyi ivua ku bianza bia bantu mu Espanye munkatshi mua bidimu bia bungi kumpala kua Jérôme kujikijaye nkudimuinu mupiamupia wa Vulgate mu Latin mupepele ku ntuadijilu kua bidimu bia 405.

Jérôme wakajikija nkudimuinu wende eu mu Yelushalema mu Palestine. Nkudimuinu eu wakatangalaka ne lukasa luonso mu Espanye. Pavua Lucinius, mulongi munene wa Bible, mumvue ne: Jérôme uvua wenda ukudimuna Bible mu Latin, uvua dijinga ne kupeta ne lukasa luonso nkudimuinu eu pavuaye upatuka. Wakatuma bafundi basambombo mu Beteleheme bua kutentulabu Bible eu ne kuluabu nende mu Espanye. Mu bidimu biakalonda, Bible wa Vulgate wakalua kuangata muaba wa Bible wa Vetus Latina Hispana. Bible ya mu Latin eyi ivua miambuluishe bantu ba mu Espanye bua kubala Bible ne kumvua malu adimu. Kadi bu mukavua bukalenge bua Lomo buye butangile ku ndekelu, bantu bavua dijinga ne muakulu mukuabu.

BIBLE MUFUNDA PA BIPESA BIA MABAYA

Mu bidimu bia nkama inayi, Visigoths ne ne bisa bikuabu bia mu Allemagne biakakuata ditunga dia Espanye, ne muakulu mupiamupia Gothic wakabuela mu tshidiila etshi. Bantu bavua bakuate Espanye aba bavua ne buena Kristo bukuabu buvua bumanyike mu dîna dia Arius, buvua buikale bubenga dilongesha dia Busatu bunsantu. Bakalua kabidi ne nkudimuinu wabu wa Bible wa Ulfilas Gothic. Bavua babala Bible eu mu Espanye too ne ku ndekelu kua bidimu bia nkama itanu, pavua mukalenge Reccared, Visigothic mulue muena Katolike ne mulekele ntendelelu wa Arius. Wakasangisha mikanda yonso ya Arius too ne Bible wa Ulfilas yeye kuyosha. Ke bualu kayi mifundu yonso ya mu Gothic yakajimina mu Espanye.

Tshipesa tshia dibaya tshikale ne mifundu ya mu Bible ya mu muakulu wa Latin, mu bidimu bia 500 bikondo bietu ebi

Kadi, Dîyi dia Nzambi diakatungunuka ne kumuangalaka mu Espanye tshikondo atshi. Pa kumbusha mifundu ya Gothic, kuvua anu muakulu wa Latin uvuabu bakula mu Espanye, uvua mulue kulela miakulu ya bena Lomo ivuabu bakula mu tshidiila tshia Ibérie. * Mikanda ya kale ya mu muakulu wa mu Latin eyi mmimanyike mu dîna dia mabaya a Visigothic bualu bavua bayifunde pa bipesa bia mabaya. Bipesa  bia mabaya ebi bivua bia mu bidimu bia nkama itanu ne nkama isambombo, ne amue mabaya avua ne mvese ya mu mukanda wa Misambu ne Evanjeliyo. Dimue dibaya divua ne mvese yonso ya mu Musambu wa 16.

Dikala dia mvese eyi pa bipesa bia mabaya divua dileja ne: bantu bapuekele bavua pabu babala ne batentula Dîyi dia Nzambi mu tshikondo atshi. Bidi bimueneka ne: balongeshi bavua bakuata mudimu ne mvese ya mu Bible bua kulongesha balongi mua kubala ne kufunda. Mabaya aa mmiaba ivuabu bafundila bintu ne kaavua mushinga mukole bu parchemin ivua bamfumu banene benza nayi mudimu bua kufundila yabu Bible ya mushinga mukole.

Mu Bible wa León mbalejamu ne: nansha muvua Bible eyi mimpe, ivua miambuluishe anu kakese bua kumuangalaja Dîyi dia Nzambi mu bantu

Bible mukuabu wa mushinga mukole eu mbamulame mu tshitanda kampanda tshia San Isidoro, mu Espanye. Bible eu uvua wa mu bidimu bia 960 bikondo bietu ebi, udi ne mabeji 516 adi ne bunene bua santimetre 47 ne bujitu bua kilograme 18. Kudi Bible mukuabu wa Ripoll mu tshitekelu tshia mikanda tshia mu Vatican wa mu bidimu bia 1020 bikondo bietu ebi. Ngumue wa ku Bible ya mushinga mukole ne mulengeja bimpe wa mu bikondo bia kale. Mudiambike kampanda uvua ne bua kupitshisha dituku dijima bua kufunda maleta a tshikepeshelu tshia Bible eu, anyi uvua ne bua kuenza lumingu lujima bua kufunda tshiena-bualu tshia pa mutu tshia Bible eu. Nansha muvua Bible eyi milengeja bimpe, kayivua miambuluishe bua kumuangalaja Dîyi dia Nzambi mu bantu to.

BIBLE WA MU TSHIENA ARABE

Mu bidimu bia 700, muakulu mukuabu wakatuadija kuela miji mu Espanye ne uvua mufume kudi ba Mizilman bavua bakuate tshidiila tshia mu Espanye. Miaba ivua ba Mizilman bakuate, muakulu wa tshiena Arabe uvua upita muakulu wa Latin ne dijinga dia kukudimuna Bible mu muakulu mupiamupia eu divua dimueneke.

Kumbukila mu bidimu bia 400-700 bikondo bietu ebi, Bible wa mu Latin ne wa mu tshiena Arabe ivua miambuluishe bena mu Espanye bikole bua kubalabu Dîyi dia Nzambi

Bible ya bungi ya mu tshiena Arabe, nangananga Evanjeliyo ivua ku bianza bia bantu ba bungi mu Espanye. Bidi bimueneka ne: mu bidimu bia nkama muanda mutekete, John, munene wa mu Seville wakakudimuna Bible mujima mu tshiena Arabe. Bia dibungama, Bible ya bungi ya mu tshiena Arabe yakajimina. Bible umue wa mu tshiena Arabe wa Evanjeliyo wa munkatshi mua bidimu bia 900 mmulama mu tshitanda tshia bena Katolike tshia mu León mu Espanye.

Nkudimuinu ya Evanjeliyo mu tshiena Arabe, mu bidimu bia 900 bikondo bietu ebi

 NKUDIMUINU YA MU TSHIENA ESPANYE

Mu bikondo bia kale, muakulu wa Castille anyi wa Tshimputulukeshi wakatuadija kuvulangana bikole mu tshiidila tshia Ibérie. Muakulu mupiamupia eu uvua ne bua kuambuluisha bikole bua kumuangalaja Dîyi dia Nzambi. * Nkudimuinu wa Bible wa kumpala mu Tshimputulukeshi uvua mupatuke mu La Fazienda de Ultra Mar (Deeds From Across the Seas), ku ntuadijilu kua bidimu bia 1200. Mu Bible eu muvua muyuki wa luendu lua bena Isalele, ne mikanda itanu ya ntuadijilu ya mu Bible, ne mikanda mikuabu ya mu Mifundu ya tshiena Ebelu ne Evanjeliyo ne mikanda mikuabu mitumina bena Kristo.

Mukalenge Alfonso X wakambuluisha bua kukudimunabu Bible mu Tshimputulukeshi

Bamfumu ba bitendelelu kabavua banyishe nkudimuinu eu to. Mu 1234, tshisangilu tshinene tshia mu Tarragona, tshivua tshipatule mukenji eu: mikanda yonso idi ne malu a mu Bible ya mu miakulu yetu badi ne bua kuyifila mu bianza bia bamfumu ba bitendelelu bua bayoshe. Diakalenga, mukenji eu kauvua mupangishe bantu bua kukudimuna Bible to. Mukalenge Alfonso X (1252-1284), uvuabu bangata bu muenji wa muakulu wa Tshimputulukeshi uvua musue bua bakudimune Bible mu muakulu mukuabu mupiamupia ne wakambuluisha bua kuenzabu mudimu eu. Munkatshi mua nkudimuinu ya mu Tshimputulukeshi ya tshikondo atshi ivua miende lumu, muvua nkudimuinu ivuabu babikila ne: Bible wa kumpala kua Alfonsine ne Bible wa Alfonsine, ivua milue kupatuka matuku makese pashishe.

Mabeji a mifundu ya mu Bible wa mu bidimu bia 1200 uvua mupatuke kumpala kua wa Alfonsine (ku dia bakaji) ne wa Alfonsine (ku dia balume)

Nkudimuinu yonso ibidi eyi ivua miambuluishe bua kujadika ne kulengeja muakulu wa Tshimputulukeshi. Mulongeshi wa tshikunda Thomas Montgomery udi wamba bua Bible wa kumpala kua Alfonsine ne: “Mukudimunyi wa Bible eu uvua muenze mudimu wa pa buawu pa bidi bitangila bujalame, ne mulengeje muakulu bimpe bitambe. . . . Udi ne ngakuilu mupepele ne umvuika uvua mukumbane bua Bible uvua mulongolola bua bantu bavua kabayi bamanye bikole muakulu wa Latin.”

Kadi Bible ya ntuadijilu ya mu Tshimputulukeshi eyi, ivua mikudimuna bilondeshile muakulu wa Latin Vulgate, kadi ki mbilondeshile miakulu ya ntuadijilu to. Ku ntuadijilu kua bidimu bia 1300, bamanyi ba malu a Bible ba bena Yuda bavua bakudimune Bible ya bungi mu Tshimputulukeshi bilondeshile tshiena Ebelu. Mu tshikondo atshi, mu Espanye muvua bena Yuda ba bungi, ne bakudimunyi ba bena Yuda bavua ne mushindu wa kupeta maniskri mimpe a mu tshiena Ebelu bua kuenzabu mudimu wabu wa dikudimuna. *

Tshilejilu Bible wa Alba uvua mukudimuna bimpe mu bidimu bia 1400. Munene wa mu Espanye, Luis de Guzmán, uvua mulombe Rabbi Moisés Arragel bua kukudimuna Bible mu muakulu wa castizo wa mu Espanye. Uvua muleje malu abidi avua mamusake bua kulomba nkudimuinu mupiamupia eu. Bua kumpala, wakamba ne: “Bible idiku lelu mmikudimuna mu muakulu wa bena Lomo ne ki mmimpe to,” buibidi, “bantu bu tuetu tudi basue bikole note idi munkatshi mua Bible idi yambuluisha bua kumvua bimpe mvese idi mikole.” Dilomba diende edi didi dileja ne: bantu ba tshikondo tshiende bavua dijinga ne kubala Bible ne kumumvua bimpe. Bidi bimueneka ne: bakavua babanye bikole Bible wa mu muakulu uvua bantu bakula mu Espanye.

Ku diambuluisha dia bakudimunyi ba kale ne bafundi,  bantu ba mu Espanye bavua balonge bavua mua kubala Bible mu muakulu wabu kakuyi lutatu. Ke bualu kayi, mumanyi wa malu a kale Juan Orts González wakaleja ne: “Bena mu Espanye bavua bamanye Bible bimpe kupita bena mu ditunga dia Allemagne anyi dia Angleterre kumpala kua bikondo bia Luther.”

“Bena mu Espanye bavua bamanye Bible bimpe kupita bena mu ditunga dia Allemagne anyi dia Angleterre kumpala kua kua bikondo bia Luther.”—Mumanyi wa malu a kale Juan Orts González

Kadi pabuipi ne bidimu bia 1400, bakakandika mu Espanye mudimu wa dikudimuna Bible ne dikala nende mu muakulu onso. Dikandika dia Bible mu Espanye diakanenga bidimu bia bungi. Bidimu nkama isatu biakapita kumpala kua bobu kuanyishabu kabidi Bible mu Espanye. Mu tshikondo tshia ntatu etshi, bamue bakudimunyi ba dikima bakapatula Bible mipiamipia ya mu Tshimputulukeshi mu matunga makuabu ne kuyibuejabu mu Espanye mu musokoko. *

Anu mudibi bileja bua bualu bua Bible mu Espanye wa kale, baluishi bavua benze muabu muonso bua kujimija Dîyi dia Nzambi mu mishindu ya bungi. Kadi kabavua bakumbane bua kupuwisha mêyi a Wa Bukole Buonso to.Musambu 83:1; 94:20.

Mudimu mukole wa bamanyi ba malu a mu Bible uvua muambuluishe bua Bible ikalaku ne bamuabanye bikole mu Espanye wa kale. Bakudimunyi ba matuku etu aa, mbalonde tshilejilu tshia bamanyi aba bavua bakudimune Bible mu Latin, tshiena Gothic, tshiena Arabe ne mu Tshimputulukeshi. Ke bualu kayi lelu, bantu ba bungi badi bakula muakulu wa Tshimputulukeshi badi mua kubala Dîyi dia Nzambi mu muakulu wabu didi dilenga mioyo yabu.

^ tshik. 10 Mu miakulu eyi muvua kabidi muakulu wa Castille, Catalan, Galice, ne tshimputulukeshi.

^ tshik. 17 Lelu eu, Tshimputulukeshi ke muakulu wa kumpala udibu bakula kudi bantu batue ku miliyo 540.

^ tshik. 20 Tangila tshiena-bualu tshia “Le nom divin et les travaux d’exégèse d’Alphonse de Zamora,” tshidi mu tshibejibeji tshia buena etshi tshia 1/12/2011, mu Mfualansa.

^ tshik. 23 Tangila tshiena-bualu tshia “Diluangana dia Casiodoro de Reina bua Bible wa mu tshiena-Espanye,” mu tshibejibeji tshia buena etshi tshia 1/6/1996.