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Tshibumba tshia Nsentedi  |  No 4 2017

Elias Hutter ne Bible yende ya mu tshiena Ebelu ya pa buayi

Elias Hutter ne Bible yende ya mu tshiena Ebelu ya pa buayi

UDI mua kubala tshiena Ebelu tshia mu Bible anyi? Pamuapa kuena mua kutshibala to. Imue misangu kutu nansha muanji kumona Bible wa mu tshiena Ebelu to. Kadi udi mua kuvudija dianyisha dia Bible uudi nende pa kulonga bualu kampanda bua Elias Hutter, mumanyi wa malu a mu Bible wa mu bidimu bia 1500 ne bua Bible ibidi ya mu tshiena Ebelu ivuaye mupatule.

Elias Hutter uvua muledibue mu 1553 mu Görlitz, tshimenga tshikese tshidi ku mikalu ya ditunga dia Allemagne wa lelu ne dia Pologne ne République tchèque. Hutter uvua mulonge miakulu ya mu Asie mu iniversite wa bena Luther mu tshimenga tshia Yena. Kavua nansha muanji kukumbaja bidimu 24, pakamutekabu mulongeshi wa tshiena Ebelu mu tshimenga tshia Leipzig. Bu muvuaye mushintulule malu a ndongeshilu, wakalua kuasa tulasa mu tshimenga tshia Nuremberg muvua balongi mua kulonga tshiena Ebelu, tshiena Greke, Latin, ne tshiena Allemagne mu bidimu binayi. Tshikondo atshi, kakuvua tulasa tukuabu anyi iniversite muvuabu mua kulonga nanku to.

“BUIMPE BUA BIBLE EU”

Tshiena-bualu tshia pa tshizubu tshia Bible wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa Hutter wa mu 1587

Mu 1587, Hutter wakapatula nkudimuinu wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa tshitu bantu babikila ne: Dipungila Dikulukulu. Bavua babikila Bible eu ne: Derekh ha-Kodesh, dîna diangatshila mu Yeshaya 35:8 didi diumvuija ne: “Njila wa Tshijila.” Buimpe bua maleta avua mu Bible au buakasaka bantu bua kuamba ne: “Malu onso adi aleja buimpe bua Bible eu.” Kadi tshivua tshitamba kuvuija Bible eu ne mushinga wa bungi mmushindu uvuaye wambuluisha balongi bua kulonga tshiena Ebelu.

Bua kumvua muvua Bible wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa Hutter ne diambuluisha dia bungi, tukonkonone ntatu ibidi ivua mulongi upeta pavuaye ujinga kubala Bible mu tshiena Ebelu. Lua kumpala, Bible eu mmufunda mu maleta mashilangane adi bantu kabayi bibidilangane nawu, ne luibidi, maleta adibu basakidila kumpala kua muaku munene ne ku ndekelu kuawu adi enza bua bikolele muntu bua kumanya kabidi muaku au. Tshilejilu, tuangate muaku wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa נפשׁ (udibu babala ne: nephesh) udi umvuija “anyima.” Mu Yehezekele 18:4, mbasakidile kumpala kua muaku eu dileta dia ה (ha) kanungu kadi kasunguluja tshintu, bua kuenza muaku wa bitupa bia bungi wa הנפשׁ (hannephesh), anyi “anyima wa.” Bua muntu udi kayi mumanye muakulu, muaku wa הנפשׁ (hannephesh) udi mua kumueneka mushilangane bikole ne muaku wa נפשׁ (nephesh).

Bua kuambuluisha balongi bende, Hutter wakapatuisha Bible wende ku biamu ne mayele a dikema: wakapatula maleta a mu tshiena Ebelu avua matuile bikole ne avua kayi matuile. Muaku wonso munene uvua mu maleta matuile bikole. Bua maleta avua masakidila kumpala kua muaku munene ne ku ndekelu kuawu kaavua wowu matuile to. Mushindu mupepele eu  wakambuluisha balongi bua kumanya muaku munene wa mu tshiena Ebelu, bibambuluisha bua kulonga muakulu bimpe. Bible wa Nkudimuinu wa bulongolodi bupiabupia wa note ne referanse udi pende ne mfundilu wa mushindu eu mu note idi kuinshi kua mabeji. * Mbafunde muaku munene mu maleta mafikisha bikole, ne maleta adibu basakidile kumpala kua muaku munene au ne ku ndekelu kuawu adi mu maleta etu a tshianana. Bitupa bitokesha bia bimfuanyi bidibu baleje ebi bidi bileja maleta avua mu Bible wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa Hutter mu Yehezekele 18:4 ne mudibu baafunde mu Bible wa referanse mu note idi kuinshi kua dibeji bua mvese eu.

NKUDIMUINU WA MU TSHIENA EBELU WA “DIPUNGILA DIPIADIPIA”

Hutter wakapatula kabidi tshitu bantu babikila ne: Dipungila Dipiadipia, dikale mu miakulu 12. Bavua bapatule nkudimuinu eu mu Nuremberg mu 1599 ne batu bamubikila ne: Nuremberg Polyglot. Hutter uvua musue kusakidila nkudimuinu wa Mifundu ya tshiena Greke ya buena Kristo mu tshiena Ebelu. Kadi wakamba ne: nansha bu yeye ne bua “kufuta makuta a bungi menemene” bua nkudimuinu wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa nunku, uvua ne bua kusama maboko tshianana. * Nunku wakangata dipangadika dia kudikudimuina nkayende Dipungila Dipiadipia mu tshiena Ebelu kumbukila mu tshiena Greke. Hutter wakateka midimu yende mikuabu yonso ku luseke, ne kujikijaye mudimu wonso wa dikudimuna mu tshidimu tshimue tshianana!

Nkudimuinu wa mu tshiena Ebelu wa Mifundu ya tshiena Greke ya buena Kristo wa Hutter eu uvua muimpe anyi? Mumanyi wa tshiena Ebelu udi mumanyike bikole wa mu bidimu bia 1800 diende Franz Delitzsch wakafunda ne: “Nkudimuinu wende wa mu tshiena Ebelu udi uleja muvuaye mumanye muakulu bikole kupita bena Kristo ba bungi, ne utshidi ne mushinga too ne lelu, bualu misangu ne misangu uvua ne diakalenga dia kusungula anu miaku mijalame.”

NKUDIMUINU UDI MULENGE BANTU BIKOLE

Hutter kavua mulue mubanji bua mudimu wende wa dikudimuna eu to; bidi bimueneka patoke ne: bantu kabavua basumbe Bible yende bikole to. Nansha nanku, mudimu wende mmuambuluishe bantu ne mubalenge bikole. Tshilejilu, William Robertson uvua muakajilule Dipungila Dipiadipia dia Hutter dia mu tshiena Ebelu ne mudipatule mu 1661, ne Richard Caddick wakenza pende nanku mu 1798. Pavua Hutter ukudimuna kumbukila mu tshiena Greke tshia ntuadijilu wakafunda dîna “Yehowa” (יהוה, JHVH) pa muaba wa muanzu Kyrios (Mukalenge) ne Theos (Nzambi) muaba uvuabu batela mvese ya mu Mifundu ya tshiena Ebelu anyi muaba uvuaye umona ne: bavua bakula bua Yehowa. Bualu ebu budi ne mushinga bualu nansha mudi nkudimuinu ya bungi ya Dipungila Dipiadipia kayiyi mitele dîna disunguluke dia Nzambi, nkudimuinu wa Hutter yeye mmuditele, ne nunku udi ufila tshijadiki tshikuabu tshidi tshisaka bantu bua kupingajilula dîna dia Nzambi mu Mifundu ya tshiena Greke ya buena Kristo.

Musangu onso uudi umona dîna dia Nzambi, Yehowa, mu Mifundu ya tshiena Greke ya buena Kristo anyi ubala note ya kuinshi kua dibeji mu Bible wa referanse, vuluka mudimu wa Elias Hutter ne Bible yende ya mu tshiena Ebelu ya pa buayi.

^ tshik. 7 Tangila note muibidi wa Yehezekele 18:4 ne tshisakidila tshia 3B mu Bible wa referanse.

^ tshik. 9 Bamanyi bakuabu ba malu a mu Bible bakavua bapatule nkudimuinu ya mu tshiena Ebelu ya Dipungila Dipiadipia. Umue wa kudibu uvua Simon Atoumanos, mudiambike wa mu Byzance, mu tshidimu bu tshia 1360. Mukuabu uvua Oswald Schreckenfuchs, mumanyi wa malu a mu Bible wa mu Allemagne, mu tshidimu bu tshia 1565. Nkudimuinu yabu eyi kayitu mipatuke to, ne mpindieu ikadi mijimine.