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Tonga Ludimi Kiluba

“Evanjile ya Yudasa” i bika?

“Evanjile ya Yudasa” i bika?

MU Kweji 4, 2006, majulunale a ntanda yonso adi na mānga ilenga moyo yalupwilwe na kisumpi kya bafundi, mudi myanda yasokwelwe panopano ya bilembwa bya kala binena’mba “Evanjile ya Yudasa.” Ano majulunale ādi esambila pa bafundi bamwene bu bino bilembwa i bishinte bininge mulangilo wetu padi Yudasa, mwanā bwanga waābile Yesu. Mungya uno mumweno, Yudasa wāfwile pambulwa mambo, mutumibwa wāivwanije Yesu biyampe, wāmwabile bamwipaye mungya mwādi musakila Yesu aye mwine.

Le bino bilembwa i bya bine? Shi i bya bine, le bisokola buyuki bumo bubajinji bwādi bufyeme butala mānga ya Yudasa Isakadiota, Yesu Kidishitu, nansha bene Kidishitu babajinji? Le bidi na lupusa pa muswelo otumona bwine Kidishitu?

KUSOKOLWA KWA “EVANJILE YA YUDASA”

Muswelo wāsokwelwe “Evanjile ya Yudasa” kewayukene. Pa kyaba kya kusokolwa ne kulembwa na bafundi ba bintu bya kishiyekulu, uno mukanda wāmwekele mu kitulumukila mu nsoko ya kala dya ku mfulo kwa myaka 1970 nansha ku ngalwilo kwa myaka 1980. Bimweka’mba wāsokwelwe mu Edipito mu 1978 mu kibundu kya kala, padi mu muta. Bino bilembwa byādi bibadilwa mu bilembwa biná byādi mu kodekishi (muswelo umo wa dibuku dya kala) dyālembelwe mu Coptic (ludimi lwātambile ku bene Edipito wa kala).

Ino kodekishi byoyālupwilwe mu Edipito moyādi ilaminwe mu bula bwa tutwa twa myaka, yādi yenda yoneka bukidibukidi. Kadi ino kodekishi yāsumbilwe ku bafundi batyetye mu 1983; ino na lupoto lukande, o mwanda keyāpotelwepo. Byoyāsudilwe mu myaka mivule ne kubikwa’yo mu muswelo wa kubulwa kufwaninwa, ino kodekishi yāendelele koneka. Mu 2000, yapotwa na nsunga wa kala mwine Swise. Mwenda mafuku wakapa’yo kisumpi kya ntanda yonso kya bantu bapotolwele, bādi bakwatakanibwe na bulongolodi bwa Maecenas bwa busendwe bwa Kala. Kadi kitango kimo (The National Geographic Society), kyāpelwe mwingilo mukomo wa kulongolola ne kukongakanya kodekishi, ino imo yādi ke miketeke tupindi tupindi. Kadi kino kisumpi kyādi kya kulombola myaka yādi kemilale kodekishi, kwalamuna ne kushintulula myanda yādi’mo.

Mbadilo ya mafuku a mweji ya kalandadiye ka Carbone-14 ilombola’mba, bimweka bu kodekishi  yāikele’ko mu myaka katwa ka busatu nansha katwa ka buná K.K. Inoko, bafundi bādi bafwatakanya’mba bilembwa bya mu ludimi lwa Coptic bya Evanjile ya Yudasa,” byaālamwinwe ku bilembwa bya Kingidiki kibajinjibajinji bya tamba kala. Le i kitatyi’ka kibajinjibajinji ne kifuko kine kwābundilwe “Evanjile ya Yudasa”?

“EVANJILE YA YUDASA”—EVANJILE YA FILOSOFI YA MYANDA YA LEZA

Binenwa bibajinji bilombola kwikala’ko kwa dibuku ditwa bu “Evanjile ya Yudasa” bitanwa mu bilembwa bya Irenaeus, mulembi wādi witela bu mwine Kidishitu wa ku mfulo kwa myaka katwa ka bubidi K.K. Mu dibuku ditwa bu Contre les hérésies, Irenaeus usonekele’mo myanda itala bisumpi bivule bidi na mfudijo yaāpatenye amba: “Badi banena amba Yudasa i nzazangi wādi uyukile ne pa mfulo bino bintu, ne amba i aye kasuku kandi wādi uyukile bubinebine kebwādipo buyukile bakwabo, wāvuije mwingilo mukomo kushintulula wa kwabañana. Bintu byonso bya pano panshi ne bya mūlu byātwelele mu kavutakanya kupityila kudi aye. Balupulanga mānga ya kufwatakanya ya uno muswelo, yobeta bu Evanjile ya Yudasa.”

“Ke Evanjilepo yāsonekelwe mu kitatyi kya Yudasa na muntu kampanda wādi umuyukile biyampe”

Nakampata Irenaeus wādi na kitungo kya kupela mfundijo mishileshile ya Gnostiques ya bene Kidishitu (filozofi ya myanda ya Leza), bādi balanga bu bāsokwele buyuki bufyame. Gnosticisme i kishima kifyame kitabije bisumpi bivule, abyo byonso na mwivwanino wabyo, ne nshintulwilo yabyo ya “bubinebine” bwa bwine Kidishitu. Gnostiques idi na nshintulwilo imanine pa bilembwa bya abo bene byāvudile mu bula bwa myaka katwa ka bubidi K.K.

Ano maevanjile a Gnostiques alombolanga divule amba, batumibwa ba Yesu batumbe kebāivwanijepo biyampe musapu wandi ne amba kudi bufundiji bufyame bwāpityile Yesu kūlukūlu bwāivwenwe’nka na batyetye kete bādi batongwe. * Bamo mu bano ba Gnostiques bādi bakulupile amba ino ntanda kyādi kifungo. Kadi, “leza umpangi” utelelwe mu Bisonekwa bya Kihebelu i leza mutyetye, mwishile na baleza palapala babwaninine. Muntu wa “buyuki” bwa bine wāivwanije kino “kifibwe” ne kukimba kwipandija.

Ne “Evanjile ya Yudasa” nayo imanine pa luno lukulupilo. Ishilula na binenwa bya amba: “Binenwa bifyame byēsambile Yesu na Yudasa Isakadiota mu bula bwa mafuku mwanda, mafuku asatu kumeso kwa kusoba masobo a Pashika.”

Le ino kodekishi po pene padi pemanine bilembwa bya Irenaeus, bine byādi bilangilwa bu byājimine mu tutwa na tutwa twa myaka? Marvin Meyer, umo wa mu kino kisumpi kibajinji kyābandawile ne kwalamuna ino kodekishi, unena’mba binenwa bīpi bya Irenaeus “bikwatañene biyampe na bilembwa bya mu ludimi lwa dyalelo lwa Coptic bidi na mutwe wa mwanda unena’mba Evanjile ya Yudasa.”

BAFUNDI BESAMBILA PA MUSWELO ULOMBWELWE YUDASA MU INO EVANJILE

Mungya “Evanjile ya Yudasa,” Yesu wāsepele bya kapuni kitatyi kyālombwele bandi bana ba bwanga amba kebadipo na buyuki bufwaninwe. Ino Yudasa i muntu umo kete wa mu batumibwa 12 wāivwanije mwine mwādi mwikadile Yesu. O mwanda, Yesu wesambile nandi kufula pa “kikata kifyame kya bulopwe.”

Bilembwa bibajinji byaālamwinwe na kisumpi kya bafundi byādi bilamete ku binenwa bidi mu evanjile ya Irenaeus. Mu bwalamuni bwabo, Yudasa wādi musanshibwe na Yesu bu mwanā bwanga umo wādi wa kwivwanija kikata kifyame ne “kufikila” pa “bulopwe.” Batumibwa bāongwelwe bāpingakenye muntu pa kyaba kya Yudasa, ino Yudasa wādi wa kwikala bu “mushipiditu wa dikumi ne busatu” mwine wādi “wakutabuka [bana ba bwanga] bonso,” mwanda Yesu unena’mba, “mukela muntu ukangaba bu kitapwa.”

Balembi ba mabuku apotwa bininge, pamo bwa Bart Ehrman ne Elaine Pagels, nabo bafundi batumbe ba mu bwine Kidishitu bubajinji ne mu  Gnosticisme, bālupwile bukidi bonka bubandaudi bwabo ne binenwa byabo pa Evanjile ya Yudasa” byādi bikwatañene bininge na bwalamuni bwaālamwine kisumpi kibajinji. Inoko, kitatyi kityetye pa kupita’po, bafundi bakwabo pamo bwa April DeConick ne Birger Pearson, bādi ke balangalanga. Bānene’mba kitango kimo (The National Geographic Society) kitala myanda ya bisanji kyāpelakene kulupula bino bilembwa bya pa kala. Kadi, ba April DeConick ne Birger Pearson baākaminwe’mba, bino bilembwa bya kala byalupwilwe bukidibukidi mwanda’tu wa kukokela milangwe ya bantu ku bisanji. Kadi bajingulwile amba ndudi yadi ifwaninwe kulondwa pa kubandaula bino bilembwa keyalondelwepo.

Kekudipo mwifundi nansha umo wābandawile bino bilembwa unene amba, mudi mānga ya bine

Byobadi bengila wa pandi wa pandi, ba DeConick ne Pearson bafudile kukunena amba, myanda mikatampe imo ya bino bipindi bya kodekishi yaālamwinwe bibi na bafundi babajinji. Kukwatañana na bushintuludi bwa bilembwa bya DeConick, Yesu wāityile Yudasa bu “Demona wa Dikumi ne busatu,” ke bu “mushipiditupo wa dikumi ne busatu.” * Kadi Yesu wāsapwidile Yudasa patōkelela amba, kākatwelapo mu “bulopwe.” Pa kyaba kya kunena’mba ‘utabukile’ bana babwanga bakwabo, Yesu wānene Yudasa amba: “Ukalonga bintu bibi kupita bano’ba bonso. Ku yewa muntu ukangaba mukamwela bu kitapwa.” Mungya mumweno wa DeConick, “Evanjile ya Yudasa” i Gnostiques ya kala ifutulula batumibwa bonso. Ba DeConick ne Pearson bāfudile kukunena pangala pa myanda idi mu ino “Evanjile ya Yudasa,” amba, Yudasa kāfwilepo pambulwa mambo.

LE I ÑENI’KA YOTUBWANYA KUBOILA KU “EVANJILE YA YUDASA”?

Nansha byobādi bamona Yudasa wa mu ino evanjile bu muntu wāfwile pambulwa mambo nansha bu demona, kekudipo mufundi nansha umo wābandawile bino bilembwa unene amba, mudi mānga ya bine. Bart Ehrman ushintulula amba: “Ke Evanjilepo yāsonekelwe na Yudasa nansha na muntu witela bu Yudasa. . . . Ke Evanjilepo yāsonekelwe mu kitatyi kya Yudasa na muntu kampanda wādi umuyukile biyampe . . . Nanshi ke dibukupo ditusapwila myanda mikwabo ya ntentekelo yalongekele kitatyi kyādi’ko Yesu pano pa ntanda.”

“Evanjile ya Yudasa” i bilembwa bya Gnostiques bya tamba mu myaka katwa ka bubidi  K.K., byāsonekelwe dibajinji mu Kingidiki. Nansha ino Evanjile ya Yudasa” byoyasokwelwe panopano, ino i miifwane na bilembwa byātelele Irenaeus amba i myanda isambilanga’po nyeke bafundi. Inoko Evanjile ya Yudasa” ilombola patōkelela bukamoni bwa mvubu kebutalepo’nka pa kitatyi kine kyāpalakene ne kwilalulula kwa “bwine Kidishitu” mu tutangotango ne mfundijo mivule. Pa kyaba kya kufutulula Bisonekwa, “Evanjile ya Yudasa” ibingija bidyumu byādyumwinwe batumibwa, kimfwa byobya byāsonekele Polo mu Bilongwa 20:29, 30 amba: “Ami nayūka kuno kunyuma kwami kuno bampumpi bamalwa bakemutwelelanga bakubulwa kukaleka luombe. Kadi ne ku bānwe bene nako kukemutalukilanga bantu bakwisamba byalupatalupata, mwanda wa kukokela bāna-babwanga ko badi’mba, betulonde.”

^ mus. 11 Ano maevanjile etyilwanga divule pa majina a bantu bādi bamonwa bu bāivwanije biyampe bufundiji bwa bine bwa Yesu, kimfwa “Evanjile ya Tomase” ne “Evanjile ya Madia Madaleni.” Kwāsokwelwe kintu kya bilembwa 30 bya kala bya uno muswelo.

^ mus. 18 Bafundi bāitabije mulangwe wa amba, Yudasa i demona mu bino bilembwa—muntu wājingulwile Yesu senene kupita bana babwanga bakwabo—balombola mukwatañenine ino myanda na nsekununi ya Evanjile ya mu Bible isambila pa muswelo wasapwile bademona mwine mwādi mwikadile Yesu.—Mako 3:11; 5:7.