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Elias Hutter ne Mabible Andi a mu Kihebelu Atendelwa

Elias Hutter ne Mabible Andi a mu Kihebelu Atendelwa

LE UBWANYA kutanga Bible wa mu Kihebelu? Padi kubwanyapo. Pakwabo kwamwene’nka ne Bible wa mu Kihebelu mwine. Inoko, ubwanya kutamija mutyima obe wa kufwija’ko pa Bible wa Bisonekwa Bijila odi nandi, na kwifunda myanda yālongekele mu myaka katwa 16 itala mwifindi umo witwa bu Elias Hutter, ne myanda itala Mabible andi abidi a mu Kihebelu aālupwile.

Elias Hutter wābutwilwe mu 1553 mu Görlitz, kibundi kityetye kya mu Alemanye ku mukalo na Polonye ne na Repiblike Tsheke. Hutter wāfundile ndimi ya Kutunduka ku Iniveleshite ya Luthérienne mu Iéna. Aye uwanya’tu myaka 24, wātongwa bu polofesele wa Kihebelu mu Leipzig. Pa kulumbulula myanda itala bwifundi, wāshimikile’ko masomo mu Nuremberg kwine kwādi kubwanya befundi kuyuka Kihebelu, Kingidiki, Kilateni, ne Kialemanye mu bula bwa myaka’tu iná. Bino kebyādipo bibwanika ku masomo makwabo.

“BUYAMPE BWA UNO BIBLE”

Pa uno paje, padi mutwe wa mwanda wa Bible wa mu Kihebelu wa Hutter wa mu 1587

Mu 1587, Hutter wālupwile Bible wa mu Kihebelu uyukene dyalelo bu Kipwanino Kikulu. Pa uno Bible padi mutwe wa mwanda unena amba Derekh ha-Kodesh, uselelwe mu Isaya 35:8 ushintulula amba “Dishinda dya Bu-Ujila.” Mulembelo wandi muyampe wa bisonekwa wālengeje bantu banene amba “bino bintu bituntwilanga ku buyampe bwa uno Bible.” Inoko, byobya byālengeje uno Bible ekale na mvubu mpata i mwanda befundi bādi babwanya kumwingidija bu kingidilwa kya kwifunda nakyo Kihebelu.

Pa kwivwanija senene kine kyādi kikadile Bible wa Hutter wa mu Kihebelu na mvubu mpata, tala bidi bikoleja bibidi byādi bikonda nabyo mwifundi patanga Bible wa mu Kihebelu. Kibajinji, alufabe mishile na ludimi lwandi kadi yakebidilepo, ne kya bubidi, bipindi bya ku ngalwilo kwa kishima (préfixes) ne bipindi bya ku mfulo kwakyo (suffixes) byādi bilengeja bishima bikale bikomo kujingulula. Kimfwa, tala kishima kya Kihebelu נפשׁ (kyalamwinwe bu ne’phesh), kushintulula ko kunena’mba “muya.” Mu Ezekyele 18:4, kino kishima i kibadikilwe na kipindi ה (ha), kine kilengeje kino kishima kibundwe na bishima bibidi bishile (nom composé) הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh). Kishima הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) kibwanya kumweka bu kishile bininge na kishima נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Pa kukwasha befundi, Hutter wātampile uno Bible na bunwa—ne na mulembelo muyampe wa masomo a Kihebelu mu bityite kadi melonde senene. Wādi ulemba nsulo ya kishima ne kishima mu masomo matyite. Pa kusokola kipindi kibajinji kya kishima ne kya ku mfulo kwakyo, watūdile’ko nondelo ya bishima  (bishile byaba). Ano manwa āpēleleje befundi bajingulule kwine kutambile kishima kya Kihebelu’kya ne kwibakwasha pobefunda ludimi. Bible wa Les Saintes Écritures. Traduction du monde nouveau (avec notes et références) nandi wingidije ano manwa mayampe ku bilembwa bya kunshi kwa dyani. * Bishima bya ludimi lungi byalamwinwe i bilembwe mu bityite, kadi kipindi kibajinji kya kishima ne kya ku mfulo i bilembwe’nka na mulembelwanga nyeke. Ino myanda yashintululwa mu bino bimfwa ilombola mulembelo wāingidije Hutter mu Bible wa Kihebelu mu Ezekyele 18:4 kadi wingidijibwe ne mu Bible avec notes et références ku bilembwa bya kunshi kwa dyani bya uno vese umo yenka.

BIBLE WA MU KIHEBELU WA “KIPWANINO KIPYA”

Kadi Hutter wātampile Bible uyukene bu Kipwanino Kipya mu ndimi 12. Uno Bible wālupwilwe mu 1599 mu kibundi kya Nuremberg kadi utelwanga divule bu Polyglot (dibuku didi mu ndimi mivule) dya mu Nuremberg. Hutter wāsakile ne kwalamuna Bisonekwa bya Kingidiki bya Bwine Kidishitu mu Kihebelu. Ino unena’mba shi “wāfutyile bantu bangi” balamune uno Bible mu Kihebelu, nabya bukimbi bwandi bwādi bwa kwikala bwa bitupubitupu. * O mwanda wākwete butyibi bwa kwalamuna aye mwine Kipwanino Kipya kya mu Kingidiki mu Kihebelu. Hutter wāpwile uno mwingilo mukatampe wa kwalamuna uno Bible mu mwaka’tu umo kete!

Le bwalamuni bwa mu Kihebelu bwa Hutter bwa Bisonekwa bya Kingidiki bya Bwine Kidishitu i buyampe namani? Tala byanenene Franz Delitzsch, mwifundi umo Muhebelu wa mu myaka katwa 19 amba: “Bwalamuni bwandi bwa mu Kihebelu bwalengeje bantu bevwanije senene ludimi lwadi lukomene bene Kidishitu kadi bukingidijibwanga ne dyalelo mwanda wālongele bukomo bwa kwingidija bishima bifike’po kadi byendele’mo.”

UKIDI NA LUPUSA NE DYALELO

Hutter kāpetelepo pa mwanda wa mwingilo wandi wa bwalamuni; na bubine Mabible andi keādipo apotwa senene. Nansha nankyo, mwingilo wandi udi na mvubu ne na lupusa lukatampe dyalelo. Kimfwa, Kipwanino Kipya kyandi kya mu Kihebelu kyājadikilwe ne kutampululwa mu 1661 na William Robertson, mu 1798 namo na Richard Caddick. Hutter byaādi walamwina ku bilembwa bibajinjibajinji bya Kingidiki, o mwanda waālamwine bitenta Kyʹri·os bu (Mfumwetu), The·osʹ bu (Leza), ne “Yehova” bu (יהוה, YHWH) ponso pādi papitulukilwe binenwa bya mu Bisonekwa bya Kihebelu ne paādi umona amba bifunkilanga padi Yehova. Bine kino i kya kamweno mwanda nansha malamuni mavule a Kipwanino Kipya byokeengidijepo dijina dya Leza dyandi dya bunka, ino bwalamuni bwa Hutter i bukwashe bininge ku kujokeja dijina dya Leza mu Bisonekwa bya Kingidiki bya Bwine Kidishitu.

Shi ubatana dijina dya Leza, Yehova mu Bisonekwa bya Kingidiki bya Bwine Kidishitu, ne potala bilembwa bya kunshi kwa dyani mu Bible avec notes et références, nabya vuluka mu ñeni mwingilo wāingile Elias Hutter ne Mabible andi a mu Kihebelu atendelwa.

^ mus. 7 Tala bilembwa bya bubidi bya kunshi kwa dyani bidi mu Ezekyele 18:4 ne Mbwejo 3B mu Bible avec notes et références.

^ mus. 9 Na bubine, kwādi befundi bamo bādi ke balamune kala Kipwanino Kipya mu Kihebelu. Umo bidi i Simon Atoumanos, mwine Byzantin, kubwipi na 1360. Mukwabo i Oswald Schreckenfuchs, mwifundi umo mwine Alemanye, kubwipi na 1565. Ano malamuni keālupwilwepo kadi pano kemajimine.