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Akaleberyo—ey’Erigha  |  Okwakasathu 2016

Esyosura n’Emilhondo—Oyuwabihira Omwa Biblia Nindi?

Esyosura n’Emilhondo—Oyuwabihira Omwa Biblia Nindi?

THALENGEKANIA iwune Mukristayo omwa kighonye ky’erimbere. Neryo ekithunga ekya wulimu kyabiribana ebaruha erilhua okwa mukwenda Paulo. Yikabya yinemusomwa, iwowa ebinywe ebinene ebya Paulo ibilhuire omwa “masako abuyirire,” nibugha ambu, Amasako w’Ekihebrania. (2 Timoteo 3:15) Neryo omwa muthima, iwayibughako wuthi, ‘Ngambwa ngathaminya aha binywe ebyo biri omwa masako.’ Aliwe ekyo sikyangabere kyolho. Busana naki?

SIMWABYA ESYOSURA KUTSE EMILHONDO

Thuthalebya emikunzo “y’amasako abuyirire” ey’omwa buthuku bwa Paulo nga yabya yithi. Omughuma anakanganibwe ahikwa—ni kitsweka ky’okwa kitabu kya Isaya omwa Mikunzo eya Dead Sea. Wamalhangira ibithondire bithi? Binywe buyira! Isimuli ehiminyikalho ehikaghabulha ebinywe. Kandi simuli esyosura n’emilhondo ngoku biri munabwire.

Abahandika amasako w’erimbere mubathahira mw’esyosura n’emilhondo. Ibakahandika ebyosi ebyo Nyamuhanga alyababwira, nuku abakendi bisoma, babisome ebyosi ngoku bine, butsira mwa thutsweka-thutsweka. Aliwe nawu ekyo si kya wukanakolha wukabana ebaruha eyikalhua okwa munywani wawu oyo wanzire. Wukasoma ebaruha eyosi, butsira mwa thutsweka-thutsweka.

Aliwe omwa Masako eribya isimwabya esyosura kutse emilhondo, mukyabya kitsibu. Paulo iniakabya akabugha ebiri omwa masako ayo, iniakakolesaya ebinywe nga “ngoku kisakire kithi” kutse athi “ngoku Isaya abugha erimbere athi.” (Abanya Roma 3:10; 9:29) Neryo ikikalire eribana ah’aly’iha emyatsi eyo, mbwino iwunalyabya iwunabeghere ndeke “amasako abuyirire” awosi.

N’ekindi, “amasako abuyirire” ayo mwathasira murundi mughuma akalhua oku Nyamuhanga. Aha kighonye ky’erimbere kyahwera, byabya ibyamabiribya bitabu muthina-muthina 66. Abasomi be Biblia munabwire batsemire eribya hathya omwa Biblia imuli esyosura n’emilhondo eyikabawathikaya eribana omwatsi mulebe, ng’ebingyi ebyo Paulo abya akabugha omwa syobaruha siwe.

Neryo iwangana yibulya, ‘ibbwa kwesi oyuwahira omwa Biblia mw’esyosura n’emilhondo nindi?’

OYUWAHIRA MW’ESYOSURA NINDI?

Omukulhu w’edini, Stephen Langton, oyuwathasyabya Bisyopu Mukulhu we Canterbury, yuwahira omwa Biblia mw’esyosura. Akikolha okw’itsuka ly’ekighonye kye 13 E.K., omughulhu abya akasomesya okwa Yunivaste ye Paris e France.

Aliwe kera, enyuma oku Langton, hane abandi basomi abanabya ibabiri lengaho erihira omwa Biblia mw’esyosura, kandi alinga ini busana n’eryolhobya emibere y’eribaniramu amasako. Wukalhangira kwenene ini kyolho erisondya erisako wamabya iwunasi esura, omwakanya k’erisonderya omwa kitabu ekyosi, ng’ekitabu kya Isaya omuli esyosura 66.

Aliwe kyabya ikikinakalira abangyi. Abasomire mubahulhukya emibere muthina-muthina mingyi ey’erighabulira mw’esyosura kandi isiyihambene. Ng’eky’erileberyako, ekitabu kya Mariko, hane oyuwabya iniabirikighaba mw’esyosura hakuhi 50, aliwe munabwire muli sura 16 nyisa. Omwa buthuku bwa  Langton, abanya sukuru ababya bakalhua omwa bihugho bingyi ibakasa okwa Yunivaste ibane n’esyo Biblia sy’omwa mibughe y’ewabu. Aliwe ikikakalira abathendeki n’abanya sukuru erikangirirana amasako. Ekyaleka niki? Kundi esyosura isisirihambangana.

Neryo Langton mwahira h’eyindi mithondere y’esyosura. Ekitabu History of the Bible kikabugha kithi “emithondere yiwe muyanzwa n’abasomi bangyi n’abahandiki, neryo muyaghenderana kutsibu omwa Yuropu.” Emithondere yiwe, y’emithondere y’esyosura eyo thuwithe munabwire.

OYUWAHIRA MW’EMILHONDO NINDI?

Enyuma w’emyaka nga 300, ahakathi-kathi k’ekighonye kye 16, omulhume oyusomire kutsibu, iya Robert Estienne mwongera eryolhobya emyatsi. Ekilhubirirwa kiwe anza kyolhobere abangyi erigha e Biblia. Mwalhangira omughaso owangabya omw’ihiraho emibere eyisosene ey’esyosura n’emilhondo.

Estienne siyuwatsuka ekirengekanio ky’erihira omwa Biblia mw’emilhondo. Hanabya ababya ibabirikikolha. Ng’eky’erileberyako, abahandiki Abayuda, babya ibabirihira omwa Masako w’Ekihebrania kutse aw’akanahulhawa mwa Endaghano Ngulhu, mw’emilhondo misa-misa, isimuli sura. Omwa ndondekania eyo, n’emilhondo nayu isiyirihambana ngoku byanabya omughulhu w’esyosura nyisa-nyisa.

Estienne mwathondekania Amasako w’Ekigiriki, kutse Endaghano Mbyaka, amahira mw’emilhondo neryo amahamba-hambaniayo n’eyilhue iyine omwa Masako w’Ekihebrania. Omwa 1553, mwahulhukya e Biblia y’erimbere iyine mw’ebitabu ebyosi, (omwa French) imune esyosura n’emilhondo ng’ebiri omwa sya munabwire. Abandi mubamutsweba, bathi ambu emilhondo yikaghaba-ghaba e Biblia, ikyaleka iyabya nga yiri mw’emyatsi eyighaba-ghabire. Aliwe mukyalhua ikyaliwa n’abangyi abakahulhukaya esyo Biblia.

OMUGHISA OKWA BAK’IGHA E BIBLIA

Endondekania y’esyosura n’emilhondo kwenene yikolhobaya emyatsi. Obuli mulhondo wukabya iwunawithe aho wukendyeyagho. Ni kwenene, esyosura n’emilhondo, Nyamuhanga siyuwabihira omwa Biblia, kandi kwenene wukan’eghaya eyindi milhondo iyabirithwirwa ahakabya nga sihatholere. Aliwe kikolhoba erikangirira erisako lirebe kutse eriramba omulhondo ogho wanzire—ngoku thukanaramba emyatsi eya thwanzire omwa bitabu.

Nomwakine indi eki kikaleka iky’olhoba eribana esura n’emilhondo, aliwe ambi iwabya iwun’ibukire ngoku wutholere iwaminya enzumwa eyithimbire okwa mwatsi oyo, nibugha ambu enzumwa eya Nyamuhanga abugha omo mwatsi wosi. Ambi iwabya n’omubere w’eriyitheghererya omwatsi kw’atsukire omwakanya k’erisoma akalhondo kaghuma-kaghuma. Erikolha ekyo likendi kuwathikya eriminya ndeke “amasako abuyirire awakathoka erikuha amenge w’erikuthwalha okw’ilhamibwa.”—2 Timoteo 3:15.