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Akaleberyo—ey’Erigha  |  Okwomusanju 2016

Abamasoreti mubayitheya kutsibu omw’ithasyahandika Amasako

 OMWATSI W’OKWA KIDIPA | E BIBLIA—NGOKU YASABUKA

E Biblia Muyasabuka Bakanza Erihengemya Omwatsi Owalimu

E Biblia Muyasabuka Bakanza Erihengemya Omwatsi Owalimu

EKITSIBU: Erihakanisibwa n’erilhunda ly’esyombapura sibyathaleka e Biblia yikabulirana. Aliriryo, abandi bahandiki n’abahinduli omwa yindi mibughe babiryanza erihengemya omwatsi we Biblia. Babirilengesya n’erihira omwa Biblia mw’ebikasighika esyongangirirya syabu, omwakanya k’erilhangira bathi esyongangirirya syabu sikaseghemera okwa Biblia. Thuthalebya eby’erileberyako:

  • Ah’eriramirya: Ahakathi-kathi k’ekighonye kyakani n’ekyakabiri E.K.K., abahandika ebitabu bithanu eby’erimbere omwa Biblia omwa mihandikire y’Abasamaria, mub’ongera okw’ighunzerera ly’omulhondo wa Eriluayo 20:17 mw’ebinywe bino; “omwa Aargaareezem. Eyo yo mwasyahimba ekiherero.” Omw’ikolha ekyo, Abasamaria babya bakanza Amasako abye ng’amasighika obuhimbe bwabu bw’ehekalu okwa “Aargaareezem,” kutse Ekithwe Gerizimu.

  • Engangirirya y’obusathu: Emyaka nga 300 e Biblia iyamabirihwa erihandikwa, omuhandiki oyukasighika engangirirya y’obusathu mwongera omu 1 Yoane 5:7 mw’ebinywe bino; “elhubulha, Thatha, Kinywe, n’Omulimu Abuyirire: abasathu aba ni mughuma.” Ebinywe ebyo sibyabya omwa Masako w’erimbere. Oyusomire eby’Amasako ya Bruce Metzger, akabugha athi, “Eritsuka okwa kighonye ky’omukagha n’erilholha embere,” ebinywe ebyo mubyatsuka “eribanika kutsibu omwa Masako w’Olhulatini.”

  • Erina lya Nyamuhanga: Abangyi abasubaya e Biblia omwa yindi mibughe mubathwamu erilhusya erina lya Nyamuhanga ly’omwa Masako bakaghendera okwa bihaniriro by’Abayuda. Omwa mwanya w’erina eryo mubasubya mw’ebitsumbi nga “Nyamuhanga” kutse “Mukama,” kandi nibya ebinywe ebyo omwa Biblia sibirikolesibawa okwa Muhangiki musa, aliwe bikakakolesibawa n’okwa bandu, okwa bindu ebikakolesibawa omw’iramya ly’amabehi, nibya n’oku Sitani.—Yoane 10:34, 35; 1 Abanya Korinto 8:5, 6; 2 Abanya Korinto 4:4. *

NGOKU E BIBLIA YASABUKA: Eky’erimbere, nomwakine indi abandi abathasyakopera e Biblia y’okwa sindi  mbapura ibali mw’obuthatsomana kutse n’erihandika amabehi, abandi bangyi ibasi ndeke omubiiri oyo kandi ibakayitheghaya kutsibu. Abamasoreti mubathasyahandika Amasako w’Ekihebrania ahakathi-kathi k’ekighonye ky’omukagha n’eky’erikumi E.K. Amasako ayo asibwe mwa Masoretic text. Kikabughawa indi ibakabara ebinywe n’esyonyughuta erilhangira indi simuthalhabira kasobyo. Ibakabya bamalhangira omwa bakalhusaya omwatsi imune ahasobire, ibakakikanganaya okwa musike w’ebyabu ebyabamahandika. Abamasoreti ibo mubathwamu erihandika Amasako ngoku ane. Profesa Moshe Goshen-Gottstein akabugha athi Abamasoreti “Ibakalhangira ini lhubanza olhukalire kutsibu erikighenderera erihengemya Amasako.”

Ekyakabiri, eby’okwa Masako awa kera ebiriho omwa bungyi munabwire bikawathikaya abakasomerera eby’Amasako eribana ahali ebisobyo. Ng’eky’erileberyako, ahabw’emyaka mingyi, abakulhu b’amadini babya ibabiribugha bathi e Biblia yabu ey’Olhulatini yihambene ndeke n’Amasako wa kera, kandi nibya ibabiryongera omu 1 Yoane 5:7, mw’ebinywe ebya thulyakanayako ahighulhu. Esobya eyo muyahika n’okw’ingira omwa Biblia eyabya yikakolesibwa kutsibu ey’Olhusungu eye King James! Aliwe ebindi by’okwa Masako wa kera byabere byabanika, wunasi nga mubyakanganiaki? Bruce Metzger mwahandika athi: “Ebinywe ebya b’ongera [omu 1 Yoane 5:7] sibiri omwa wandi Masako wosi awa kera (awa Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Arabic, Slavonic), aliwe omwa w’Olhulatini masa.” Busana n’ekyo, esyo Biblia sye King James esisubirwemu n’esindi Biblia syabirilhusibwa mw’ebinywe ebyo.

Chester Beatty P46, e Biblia y’esyombapura sy’amatukuru erilhua kera ng’omwa 200 E.K.

Mbwino eby’okwa Masako owa kera, byanabirikangania ngoku hane esindi Biblia isithethahengemya Amasako? Emikunzo eya Dead Sea yabere yabanwa omwa 1947, abasomire eby’Amasako mubabana akaghisa ak’erilinganisya amasako w’Ekihebrania aw’Abamasoreti n’ebyabya omwa mikunzo ye Biblia eyabya iyo iyabirisangwa yahandikwa myaka rukumi kera. Omughuma w’okwa bakasekulhaya okwa by’emikunzo ye Dead Sea mwaghunzerera athi n’omukunzo mughuma musa “akakanganaya ndeke-ndeke ngoku ahabw’emyaka eyilhabire omu 1000, Abayuda abahandiki ibakayitheghaya kutsibu omwa mubiiri wabu w’erikopera Amasako okwa sindi mbapura.”

Eleburale eye Chester Beatty eyiri e Dublin, omwa Ireland, yinabikiremu esyombapura syamatukuru esiriko hakuhi ebitabu byosi by’Amasako w’Ekigiriki, n’ebindi bisakango ebyahandikawa omwa kighonye kyakabiri E.K.—myaka nga 100 misa e Biblia iyamabirihwa erihandikwa. Ekitabu The Anchor Bible Dictionary kikabugha kithi, “Nomwakine indi esyombapura sy’Amatukuru sikaleka ithwaminya emyatsi mihyaka eyihambire okwa masako, aliwe kandi sikanganaya ngoku habya eriyitheya kutsibu omw’ithasyahandika amasako.”

“Kihikire eribugha thuthi sihali wundi mwatsi owa kera ow’abirighenda akakopwa ndeke ng’amasako ayo”

EKYALHWIRIRIRAMU: Esyombapura sy’amasako esya kera eribya ini nyingyi kandi isyabiribyaho myaka minene kutsibu, sikyathatsandya amasako, aliwe ibbwa kyabiryuwaniagho. Frederic Kenyon, akakania okwa Masako w’Ekigiriki mwahandika athi, “Sihali kindi kitabu ekiwithe emyatsi mingyi ng’ikyo, eyahandikawa kera eyikakisighika, kandi n’ababisomire batholere ibaligha ngoku hane amasako awa thuli nagho aw’akine ndeke.” N’okwa Masako w’Ekihebrania, omusomi William Henry Green mwabugha athi: “Kihikire eribugha thuthi sihali wundi mwatsi owa kera ow’abirighenda akakopwa ndeke ng’Amasako ayo.”

^ enu. 6 Erithasyaminya bingyi, lebaya Endomeko okwa lhupapura 195-197 omwa kitabu E Biblia Kwenene Yikakangirirayaki?, kine n’okwa muthahulha wethu owa jw.org.