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Akaleberyo  |  Na. 3 2017

E Biblia​​—⁠Busana Naki Hali Mbindulha Nyingyi?

E Biblia​​—⁠Busana Naki Hali Mbindulha Nyingyi?

Busana naki munabwire hali mbindulha nyingyi sye Biblia? Wukanalhangira embindulha embyaka, ng’eyikendi kuwathikya eriyitheghererya Biblia kutse ng’eyikendiongera erikalyayo? Eriminya nga ni bahi abahindulhayo n’enzumwa eyaleka, kyangana kuwathikya erithwamu nga wangakolesya yahi.

Aliwe ibbwa, ni bahi abahandika e Biblia, kandi mughulhu wahi?

E BIBLIA EY’ERIMBERE

E Biblia yighabire mw’ebitsweka bibiri. Ekitsweka ky’erimbere kiri mw’ebitabu 39 omuli ‘erikangirirya lya Nyamuhanga.’ (Abanya Roma 3:2) Nyamuhanga mwasondolha abalhume abathaleghulha erihandika ebitabu ebi ahabw’obuthuku buuli—emyaka nga 1,100 erilhua 1513 E.K.K. erihika myaka mirebe enyuma wa 443 E.K.K. Kwilhabirirya mubahandika omwa Kihebrania, busana n’ekyo, ekitsweka eki thukakyahulha mo Amasako w’Ekihebrania, kandi akathasyahulhawa mo Endaghano Ngulhu.

Ekitsweka kyakabiri kiri mw’ebitabu 27, nabyo ini “kinywe kya Nyamuhanga.” (1 Abanya Tesalonika 2:13) Nyamuhanga mwasondolha abigha ba Yesu Kristo abathaleghulha erihandika ebitabu ebi ahabw’obuthuku buke kutsibu—emyaka nga 60 erilhua ng’omwa 41 E.K. erihika 98 E.K. Mubahandika kwilhabirirya omwa Kigiriki, neryo thuk’ahulha ekitsweka eki mo Amasako w’Ekigiriki, kandi kikathasy’ahulhawa mwa Endaghano Nyihya-nyihya.

Ebyosi haghuma ebitabu 66 ebyasondolibawa na Nyamuhanga bya bikakolha e Biblia—omwatsi wa Nyamuhanga busana n’abandu. Aliwe busana naki esindi mbindulha sye Biblia musyakolhwa? Hano hane esyonzumwa isathu.

  • Eriwathikya abandu erisoma e Biblia omwa mubughe wabu.

  • Erilhusya mw’esyosobya esyo abahandiki bahiramu n’erisubya mw’omwatsi w’enyine-nyine ow’erimbere.

  •   Eriha mw’ebinywe ebithakikolesibawa lino.

Lebaya esyonzumwa esi ngoku musyakolesibwa esyombindulha ibiri esy’erimbere-mbere sikahindulhwa.

E GREEK SEPTUAGINT

Myaka nga 300 Yesu athaly’abuthwa, Abayuda abasomire mubatsuka erihindulha Amasako w’Ekihebrania omwa wundi mubughe—Ekigiriki. Embindulha eyi muyahulhwa mwa Greek Septuagint. Ni kyahi ekyaleka iyakolhwa? Eriwathikya Abayuda bangyi ababya bakabugha Olhugiriki okwa buthuku obo omwakanya k’Olhuhebrania nuku sibibirirawe “amasako abuyirire.”—2 Timoteo 3:15.

Kandi e Septuagint eyi muyawathikya esyomiliyoni nyingyi sy’Abayuda eriminya ebya e Biblia yikakangiriraya. Yithi? Profesa W.  F.  Howard akabugha athi, “Eritsuka omwa kathi-kathi k’ekighonye ky’erimbere, muyabya Biblia y’Ekanisa y’Ekikrisitayo, eyo abamisani b’Ekanisa baghenda bakakolesya erilhua omwa nyumba nguma y’erihindanamu eriya omwa yindi, ‘ibanemukangania erilhua omwa masako ngoku Yesu ya Masiya.’” (Emibiri 17:3, 4; 20:20) Erikwamana n’oyusomire ebye Biblia iya F.  F. Bruce, eyi y’enzumwa nguma eyaleka Abayuda bangyi “ibabya isibakitsomene e Septuagint.”

Abigha ba Yesu babere banemughenda bakabana ebitabu ebya Masako w’Ekigiriki, mubabihira haghuma n’embindulha eye Septuagint ey’Amasako w’Ekihebrania, neryo ku mwalhua muthya e Biblia eyosi eya thuwithe munabwire.

E LATIN VULGATE

Emyaka nga 300 yalihwere erihandikwa, oyusomire eby’edini iya Jerome mwahulhukya embindulha ye Biblia omwa Lhulathini, eyahulhawa mwa Latin Vulgate. Kundi habya ihane esyombindulha muthina-muthina omwa Lhulathini, busana naki muhayithaghisibwa eyindi? E International Standard Bible Encyclopedia yikabugha yithi, Jerome anza erihengulha “ebinywe ebithahikire, esyosobya esilhangirikire, n’eby’ongerawamu n’ebyasighawa.”

Jerome mwahengulha okwa syasobya esyo. Aliwe obuthuku mubwahika, abakulhu b’ekanisa bamakolha ekindu ekithabya kitholere nahake! Mubabugha bathi embindulha ye Biblia eya Latin Vulgate y’eyihamulirwe nyisa kandi mukyaghunza myaka mingyi ikukine kithya! Omwakanya k’eriwathikya abandu ba buli kiro eriyitheghererya e Biblia, e Vulgate muyalemesya abandu eriyitheghererya e Biblia, kundi abandu bangyi babya isibasi Olhulathini nahake.

 ESYOMBINDULHA NYIHYA-NYIHYA SIKAKANYIRIRA

Obuthuku bwabere bune mulhaba, abandu mubalholha embere erikolha esindi mbindulha sye Biblia—ng’eyabya yasibwe kutsibu eya Syriac Peshitta eyahindulhawa ng’omwa kighonye ekyakathano E.K. Ekighonye kye 14 kyabere kyahika, muhahirwa kaghalha kanene nuku abandu bangyi ababuli kiro babane Amasako omwa mibughe yabu.

E England, omwa kighonye kye 14, John Wycliffe mwatsuka endegheka ey’eriha abandu b’omwa bukobe bw’omubughe owatheyitheghereribawa omw’ihulhukya e Biblia omwa Lhusungu, omubughe ow’abandu b’ewabu babya bakayitheghererya ndeke. Enyuma waho, ekyuma kya Johannes Gutenberg ekikaprintinga ebitabu mukyawathikya abasomire ebye Biblia erighaba esyombindulha nyihya-nyihya sye Biblia omwa mibughe mingyi muthina-muthina omwa Yuropu.

Esyombindulha sy’Olhusungu syabere sikakanyirira, abakahakanisaya mubabugha bathi sikitholere eribya n’esyombindulha nyingyi omwa mubughe omughumerere. Omwa kighonye kye 18, omukulhu we dini John Lewis mwahandika athi: “Omubughe akakulha n’eribya isyanga thasyayitheghereribwa, busana n’ekyo kikayithaghisibawa erithasyalhaba omwa Mbindulha esya kera nuku mubye omubughe owakakolesibawa okwa buthuku obwa mulimu n’eriyitheghereribwa n’abandu ab’omughulhu oyo.”

Munabwire, abasomire ebye Biblia bo banga thoka ndeke erilhaba omwa mbindulha syakera. Bo bakayitheghereraya ndeke emibughe eyakera eyakolesibawa e Biblia yikahandikwa, kandi banawithe n’emikunzo eya kera eye Biblia eyikabanawa lino-lino. Ebi bikabawathikaya eriminya ndeke Amasako w’erimbere-mbere.

Busana n’ekyo, kikawathikaya kutsibu eribya n’esyombindulha nyihya-nyihya sye Biblia. Aliwe, thunatholere ithwayitheya okwa sindi mbindulha. * Abakalhaba muyo bak’uwanayayo bamabya ibakakikolha busana n’olhwanzo olhwa bawithire Nyamuhanga, omubiiri wabu angana thughasira kutsibu.

 

^ enu. 24 Lebaya omwatsi “Wanga Minya Wuthi Embindulha ye Biblia Eyuwene?” owali omwa Watchtower ey’Okwakathano 1, 2008.