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Shaidun Jehobah

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5 GA NUWAMBA, 2013
ARMENIYA

Armeniya Ta Ba Wadanda Suka Ki Shiga Soja Wani Aiki

Armeniya Ta Ba Wadanda Suka Ki Shiga Soja Wani Aiki

Kamar dai idon gwamnatin Armeniya ya bude yanzu da ta soma amincewa da ’yanci da Shaidun Jehobah suke da shi na ki da aikin soja saboda imaninsu. A ranar 23 ga Oktoba, 2013, Hukumar Republican Commission ta Armeniya ta mai da hankali ga afilkeshan na neman ’yancin yin aikin farar hula maimakon shiga soja da Shaidun Jehobah suka aika kuma sun yarda wa mutum 51 a cikin fiye da 90 da suka aika da wannan afilkeshan (daga baya, Hukumar za ta mai da hankali ga sauran afilkeshan din). Bayan haka, Hukumar ta je kurkukun Erebuni kuma ta amince da afilkeshan guda 6 a cikin guda 20 da Shaidun da suke tsare a wurin suka aika. An saki wadannan fursunoni shida a ranar 24 ga Oktoba, 2013. A nan gaba, Hukumar za ta mai da hankali ga afilkeshan da sauran Shaidun da ke tsare a kurkuku suka aika don neman izinin yin aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja, kuma idan ta yi hakan, za a saki sauran mutanen da ake tsare da su.

Wani Sabon Tsari

An soma samun wadannan ci gaban ne a ranar 8 ga Yuni, 2013, sa’ad da Armeniya ta yi gyara a tsarinta na Armenia’s Law on Alternative Service don ya jitu da ka’idodin da Turai ta kafa a wannan batun, kuma a ranar 25 ga Yuli, 2013, ta kafa dokokin da za su sa a aiwatar da wannan sabon tsarin. Shugaban kasar Armeniya ya jawo hankalin ’yan majalisa wato, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe ga wannan dokar da aka yi mata gyara a kwanan nan sa’ad da yake magana da su a ranar 2 ga Oktoba, 2013. Ya ce: “Bisa ga tsarin da muke da shi yanzu, idan mutum ba ya so ya shiga soja domin imaninsa, ba za a hukunta shi a matsayin mai aikata laifi ba.” A ranar 3 ga Oktoba, 2013, gwamnatin Armeniya ta kafa doka da ke tanadar da ahuwa ga wadanda suka ki shiga soja domin imaninsu, kuma hakan ya rage tsawon lokaci da za su yi a kurkuku da watanni shida. Bisa ga wannan ahuwar, a ranar 8 da 9 ga Oktoba 2013, an saki Shaidu guda takwas, wadanda ya rage musu kasa da watanni shida a kurkuku.

Wannan sabon tsari na yin aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja yana ba wadanda suka ki shiga soja damar taimaka wa kasarsu a hanyar da ba za ta saba wa lamirinsu da suka horar bisa ga koyarwar Littafi Mai Tsarki ba. A yanzu haka, wannan tsarin ba ya karkashin ja-gorancin Rundunar Sojojin Armeniya kuma yana karkashin ja-gorancin farar hula. Wannan aikin farar hula zai dauki watanni 36 kuma hakan zai bukaci su yi awoyi 48 a mako. Kari ga haka, za a ba su hutun kwanaki 10 a shekara. Wadanda aka dauke su a wannan aikin za su yi shi kusa da inda suke da zama kuma ba zai kunshi wani abu da ke da alaka da aikin soja ba.

Matakai da Suka Kai ga Gyarar Wannan Kundin Tsarin Mulki

A lokacin da kasar Armeniya ta zama daya cikin kasashen da ke Council of Europe a shekara ta 2001, ta sa hannu a yarjejeniyar da ke tilasta wa sabbin membobi su kafa dokar da za ta ba talakawanta damar zaban aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja, kuma ta saki wadanda gwamnati take tsare da su a kurkuku a kan wannan batun. Duk da wannan yarjejeniya da Armeniya ta kulla, kasar Armeniya ta ci gaba da hukunta da kuma tsare matasa maza cikin Shaidun Jehobah.

A cikin shekaru 20 da suka gabata, an kai Shaidun Jehobah fiye da 450 kurkuku kuma sun dauki lokaci mai tsawo a wurin kafin a sake su. Sau da yawa an yi musu wulakanci sosai a wadannan kurkuku.

A ranar 1 ga Yuli, 2004, sa’ad da aka kafa tsarin Republic of Armenia’s Law on Alternative Service, wadanda suka gwammace yin aikin farar hula a kan aikin soja sun dauka cewa wannan tsarin zai magance musu matsalar da suke fuskanta a wannan batun. Amma sa’ad da aka fara zartar da wannan tsarin, suka fahimci cewa tsarin yana karkashin ja-gorancin sojoji kuma ana amfani da shi wajen hukunta mutane. Sau da sau, majalisar Council of Europe ta bayyana cewa irin wannan tsarin aikin farar hula da aka kafa a Armeniya ya saba wa ka’idodin kasashen Turai. Alal misali, a cikin yarjejeniya mai jigo Resolution 1532 (da aka yi a shekara ta 2007), majalisar Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe ta ce: “Muna bakin ciki matuka cewa an ci gaba da tsare tulin mutane da suka gwammace su je kurkuku maimakon su yi aikin farar hula da ke karkashin ja-gorancin soja, musamman ma Shaidun Jehobah, tun da yake babu wani tsari da ke ba su dama su yi ainihin aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja.”

Hakazalika, Kwamitin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya don Kāre Hakkin Dan Adam, wato UN Human Rights Committee, ya nuna bakin cikinsa a kan yadda kasar Armeniya take ci gaba da tsare Shaidun Jehobah da suka ki shiga soja domin imaninsu. A furucinsa na karshe a sashe na 105 (da aka yi a shekara ta 2012), Kwamitin ya ce:

“Ya kamata Gwamnatin kasar ta kafa wani tsari na yin ainihin aikin farar hula da ba shi da alaka da aikin soja, wanda dukan wadanda ba su so su yi aikin soja domin imaninsu za su iya sa hannu a ciki, kuma tsarin ba zai kunshi hukunci ba, kuma ba za a nuna wariya a yanayinsa ko albashinsa ko kuma yawan lokaci da zai dauka ba. Kari ga haka, ya kamata gwamnatin ta saki dukan wadanda suke tsare a dalilin kin shiga soja ko kuma yin aikin farar hula da aka tanadar, wanda ke karkashin ja-gorancin soja.”

Kotun ECHR Ya Yanke Hukunci

Sa’ad da Vahan Bayatyan da wasu Shaidu guda biyu suka ga cewa kotunan Armeniya ba su yi gaskiya a hukuncin da suka yanke musu ba, sai suka kai karar gwamnatin a Kotun Turai na Kāre Hakkin Dan Adam, wato ECHR. Shari’ar Bayatyan ta zama gagarumar hukunci da ba a taba yanke irinsa ba. Hakan ya faru ne a ranar 7 ga Yuli, 2011, sa’ad da Hukuma Mafi Iko a Kotun Turai, wato, Grand Chamber ta yanke hukuncin da ya wanke Bayatyan daga laifi. Lokaci na farko ke nan a tarihi da kotun ECHR ya yanke shari’a cewa tsarin European Convention on Human Rights yana kāre wadanda suka ki shiga soja saboda imaninsu. Bayan yanke wannan shari’ar, ECHR ta sake yanke shari’u dabam-dabam guda hudu da suka wanke wadanda suka ki shiga soja domin imaninsu daga laifi. *

Wadanda suka aika afilkeshan zuwa kotun ECHR kuma suka yi nasara a shari’ar da aka yi musu a kan ki da aikin soja saboda imaninsu: Vahan Bayatyan, Hayk Bukharatyan, Ashot Tsaturyan.

Amma gwamnatin Armeniya ta yi banza da wannan hukunci da ECHR ya yanke a shari’ar Bayatyan kuma ta kai matasa Shaidu guda 29 a gaban shari’a har da tsare guda 23 a cikinsu a kurkuku. Idan aka hada shekarun da mazaje 86 suka yi a kurkuku daga Yuli na shekarar 2011 zuwa Oktoba na shekarar 2013, za su kai fiye da shekaru 168. Wasu a cikin matasan nan sun kai kara don rashin adalcin da aka yi musu ta wajen aika afilkeshan na daukaka kara zuwa Kotun Turai na Kāre Hakkin Dan Adam, wato, ECHR.

Abin Damuwa

Shaidun Jehobah da aka sake su daga kurkuku a watan Oktoba ta 2013 suna sa rai cewa za a cire sunayensu daga cikin masu aikata laifi a kasar, kamar yadda yake a cikin sabon tsarin da Armeniya ta yi game da masu aikata laifi. Kari ga haka, wadanda aka tsare su bayan shari’ar Bayatyan suna sa rai cewa za a biya su diyya domin rashin adalcin da aka yi masu.

Ana jira a ga ko kasar Armeniya za ta bi gyarar da ta yi a dokar ba da aikin farar hula ga wadanda suka ki shiga soja domin imaninsu. Amma, a bayyane yake cewa Armeniya ta soma amincewa da ’yanci da mutane suke da shi na kin shiga soja saboda imaninsu.

Matakai da Aka Dauka Kafin a Amince Su Yi Aikin Farar Hula

gridDefaultShekara

Mataki

2001

Armeniya ta zama memban Council of Europe kuma hakan ya bukaci ta kafa doka da za ta ba mutane damar yin aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja

2004

An kafa dokar da ta ba da damar yin aikin farar hula amma a karkashin ja-gorancin sojoji, saboda haka Shaidun Jehobah ba su amince da wannan tsarin ba

2006

An yi gyara a tsarin ba da aikin farar hula ga wadanda suka ki da aikin soja, amma ta hada da hukunta mutane kuma ta saba wa imanin Shaidun Jehobah

2011

A cikin shari’a da Grand Chamber ta yanke, inda mutane 16 sun goyi bayan Bayatyan, alhali guda kawai ya goyi bayan gwamnatin Armeniya, kotun ya ce an keta ’yancin addini, kuma da hakan, kotun ya kāre ’yancin mutane na zaban aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja

2012

Kotun Turai ya yanke hukunci a kan gwamnatin Armeniya a shari’a biyu domin ta ki amince wa mutane su yi aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja, wato shari’ar Bukharatyan da kuma Tsaturyan

2013

A ranar 8 ga Yuni, Armeniya ta yi gyara a tsarinta, kuma a ranar 25 ga Yuli, ta kafa dokokin da za su sa a aiwatar da wannan sabon tsarin. Hakan zai bude wa Shaidun Jehobah hanyar yin aikin farar hula da ba zai saba wa imaninsu ba

A ranar 8 da 9, Armeniya ta saki Shaidun Jehobah takwas da take tsare da su, wadanda suka ki yin aikin soja saboda imaninsu

A ranar 23 ga Oktoba, majalisar Republican Commission ta yarda Shaidun Jehobah guda 57 su yi aikin farar hula a maimakon aikin soja, kuma wannan adadin ya hada da 6 daga cikin Shaidu guda 20 da suka rage a kurkuku a Armeniya

A ranar 24 ga Oktoba, gwamnatin Armeniya ta saki Shaidu shida daga kurkukun Erebuni

^ sakin layi na 12 Ka duba Erçep v. Turkey, no. 43965/04, 22 ga Nuwamba 2011; Bukharatyan v. Armenia, no. 37819/03, 10 ga Janairu 2012; Tsaturyan v. Armenia, no. 37821/03, 10 ga Janairu 2012; Feti Demirtaş v. Turkey, no. 5260/07, 17 ga Janairu 2012.