Tsɔɔmɔ bɔ ni obaasumɔ ni ona niŋmai lɛ oha

Halamɔ wiemɔ

Shi kɛya saneyitsei bibii lɛ anɔ

Shi kɛya he ni ato saneyitsei lɛ anaa yɛ lɛ

Shi kɛya he ni ato saneyitsei lɛ anaa yɛ lɛ

Yehowa Odasefoi

Ga

BUU-MƆƆ SEPTEMBER 2013

Ani Aná Wɔwiemɔi lɛ Kɛjɛ “Babel Mɔɔ” lɛ Maa Beaŋ?

Ani Aná Wɔwiemɔi lɛ Kɛjɛ “Babel Mɔɔ” lɛ Maa Beaŋ?

“Yehowa gbɛ amɛ eshwa kɛje jɛi kɛtee shikpɔŋ lɛ fɛɛ nɔ, ni amɛfɔ̃ɔ maŋ lɛ too. No hewɔ lɛ atsɛɔ egbɛi akɛ Babel, ejaakɛ jɛi Yehowa tɔ̃tɔ̃ shikpɔŋ lɛ fɛɛ naa [loo wiemɔ] yɛ, ni jɛi Yehowa jɛ egbɛ amɛ eshwã shikpɔŋ lɛ fɛɛ nɔ.”1 Mose 11:8, 9.

ANI nakai sane ni aŋma yɛ Biblia lɛ mli lɛ ji shihilɛ ko ni ba lɛɛlɛŋ? Ani gbɔmɛi bɔi wiemɔi srɔtoi awiemɔ shi kome nɔŋŋ taakɛ atsɔɔ lɛ? Mɛi komɛi yeɔ Biblia amaniɛbɔɔ ni tsɔɔ bɔ ni fee ni aná adesai awiemɔi srɔtoi lɛ, kɛ bɔ ni fee ni egbɛ eshwa lɛ he fɛo. Woloŋmalɔ ko wie akɛ: “Eyɛ faŋŋ akɛ saji ni jwɛŋmɔ bɛ mli kwraa ni atã pɛŋ lɛ ateŋ ekome ji Babel Mɔɔ lɛ he sane lɛ.” Yudafoi ajamɔŋ osɔfo ko tsɛ Babel Mɔɔ lɛ sane lɛ akɛ, “Eji yiŋ kɛkɛ ni akaa kɛtsɔɔ majimaji lɛ ashikwɛ̃ɛhe.”

Mɛni hewɔ mɛi ekpɛlɛɛɛ Babel sane lɛ nɔ lɛ? Ekukufoo ji akɛ ekɛ tsɔɔmɔi komɛi ni kɔɔ wiemɔ shikwɛ̃ɛhe lɛ he lɛ kpãaa gbee. Akɛ nɔkwɛmɔnɔ lɛ, woloŋlelɔi kpanai komɛi kɛɔ akɛ wiemɔi srɔtoi lɛ baaa trukaa, shi moŋ aná lɛ fiofio kɛjɛ “adesai ashikwɛ̃ɛ wiemɔ kome lɛ mli.” Mɛi komɛi hu heɔ amɛyeɔ akɛ, shikwɛ̃ɛ wiemɔi babaoo komɛi yɛ ni aná eko fɛɛ eko kɛjɛ gbɛɛmɔi komɛi kɛkɛ ni naa walaaa amli, ni fiofio lɛ amɛbatsɔmɔ wiemɔi diɛŋtsɛ ni awieɔ. Tsɔɔmɔi nɛɛ kɛ ekrokomɛi ni kɛ amɛhe kpãaa gbee lɛ eha mɛi babaoo efĩ Woloŋlelɔ W. T. Fitch sɛɛ; eŋma yɛ ewolo ko (The Evolution of Language) mli akɛ: “Kɛbashi amrɔ nɛɛ wɔnyɛko wɔná sane nɛɛ hetoi ni kɔneɔ mɔ yiŋ.”

Mɛni shitsalɔi kɛ niiamlipɛilɔi ena yɛ gbɔmɛi awiemɔi ashikwɛ̃ɛhe kɛ bɔ ni fee ni egbɛ eshwa lɛ he? Ani nibii ni amɛkpa shi amɛna lɛ fiɔ mɛi nɛɛ atsɔɔmɔi loo susumɔi lɛ eko sɛɛ? Aloo efiɔ Babel Mɔɔ lɛ he amaniɛbɔɔ ni yɔɔ Biblia lɛ mli lɛ sɛɛ? Klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ, ha wɔpɛi Biblia amaniɛbɔɔ lɛ mli jogbaŋŋ wɔkwɛ.

NƐGBƐ EBA YƐ, NI MƐƐ BE EBA?

Biblia lɛ tsɔɔ akɛ gbɔmɛi awiemɔ lɛ futumɔ kɛ amɛgbɛɛ kɛshwãmɔ lɛ ba “yɛ Shinear shikpɔŋ lɛ” ni sɛɛ mli lɛ abatsɛ lɛ akɛ Babilonia lɛ nɔ. (1 Mose 11:2) Mɛɛ be enɛ ba? Biblia lɛ kɛɛ akɛ, “[Peleg] gbii  lɛ amli agbala shikpɔŋ lɛ mli,” ni afɔ Peleg aaafee afii 250 dani afɔ Abraham. Belɛ, enɛ tsɔɔ akɛ Babel sane lɛ ba aaafee afii 4,200 ni eho nɛ.1 Mose 10:25; 11:18-26.

Woloŋlelɔi komɛi tsɔɔ akɛ, aná wiemɔi ni wɔwieɔ amrɔ nɛɛ kɛjɛ wiemɔ kome mli—wiemɔ kome ni amɛsusuɔ akɛ no ji nɔ ni adesai wie nɔ ni miihe ashɛ afii 100,000 ni eho nɛɛ lɛ. * Mɛi krokomɛi hu kɛɔ akɛ, wiemɔi ni wɔwieɔ amrɔ nɛɛ kɛ shikwɛ̃ɛ wiemɔi ni awie kɛ́ hooo kwraa lɛ, afii 6,000 ni eho nɛɛ lɛ yɛ tsakpãa. Shi te wiemɔ he nikaselɔi feɔ tɛŋŋ amɛleɔ bɔ ni fee ni wiemɔ ko ni shishi ebule lɛ gbɛ eshwa lɛ? Wolo ko (Economist) kɛɛ akɛ, “Efeemɔ baawa waa. Mɛi ni kaseɔ nibii ni wala yɔɔ mli lɛ ahe nii lɛ náa nibii tamɔ kooloi awui loo tsei kɛ amɛhenɔi ni yeɔ ebuaa amɛ kɛleɔ blema nibii komɛi, shi wiemɔi ahe nikaselɔi bɛ nɔ ko nakai.” Wolo lɛ wie yɛ wiemɔ he nikaselɔ ko ni heɔ sutsakemɔ eyeɔ lɛ he akɛ, “nibii fɛɛ ni etsɔɔ lɛ, ebɛ nɔdaamɔ nɔ pɔtɛɛ ko yɛ he, eyiŋ kɛkɛ ekaa ewieɔ.”

Fɛɛ sɛɛ lɛ, “nibii yɛ ni tsɔɔ wiemɔi ashikwɛ̃ɛhe.” Mɛni ji nibii nɛɛ, ni mɛni amɛhaa anaa yɛ gbɔmɛi awiemɔi ashikwɛ̃ɛ he? Wolo ko (The New Encyclopædia Britannica) tsɔɔ mli akɛ: “Odaseyeli ni etsɛ fe fɛɛ ni kɔɔ wiemɔ ni aŋmaa he, ni ji nɔ pɛ ni adesa baanyɛ akɛɛ akɛ eyɔɔ, lɛ tekeŋ afii 4,000 loo 5,000 ni eho nɛ lɛ.” Nɛgbɛ shitsalɔi lɛ yana nibii nɛɛ yɛ? Yɛ Mesopotamia wuoyigbɛ—blema Shinear * shikpɔŋ lɛ nɔ. No hewɔ lɛ, odaseyeli pɛ ni yɔɔ lɛ kɛ anɔkwalei ni yɔɔ Biblia lɛ mli lɛ kpãa gbee.

WIEMƆI SRƆTOI, SUSUMƆI SRƆTOI

Biblia amaniɛbɔɔ lɛ tsɔɔ akɛ Nyɔŋmɔ fee nɔ ko ‘kɛtɔ̃tɔ̃ amɛnaa yɛ jɛi, koni mɔ ko akanu enaanyo wiemɔ shishi dɔŋŋ.’ (1 Mose 11:7) Jɛ enɛ hewɔ lɛ nitsulɔi lɛ ‘fɔ̃ɔ Babel maŋ lɛ too’ ni amɛgbɛ amɛshwã “shikpɔŋ lɛ fɛɛ nɔ.” (1 Mose 11:8, 9) No hewɔ lɛ, enɛ haa wɔnaa akɛ Biblia lɛ ewieee akɛ aná ŋmɛnɛ beaŋ wiemɔi lɛ fɛɛ kɛjɛ “shikwɛ̃ɛ wiemɔ” kome mli. Moŋ lɛ, ehaa anaa bɔ ni trukaa nɔŋŋ lɛ, aná wiemɔi heei babaoo komɛi, ni anyɛɔ akɛ wiemɔi nɛɛ eko fɛɛ eko jieɔ adesa henumɔ kɛ susumɔ srɔtoi lɛ akpo, ni eko fɛɛ eko hu yɛ srɔto ni ehiɛ ehe yɛ ekrokomɛi lɛ ahe.

Tɛtao ko ni aŋma nii yɛ nɔ ni aná kɛjɛ Mesopotamia, yɛ afii akpei etɛ D.Ŋ.B. afiiaŋ

Ni wiemɔ kui ni yɔɔ je lɛŋ ŋmɛnɛ lɛ hu? Ani fɛɛ je amɛhe loo esoro eko fɛɛ eko? Adesa jwɛŋmɔ he nilelɔ kpanaa ko ni atsɛɔ lɛ Lera Boroditsky lɛ ŋma akɛ: “Beni wiemɔ he nikaselɔi kpa je lɛŋ wiemɔi ashi jogbaŋŋ lɛ, amɛna srɔtofeemɔi babaoo komɛi ni amɛjwɛŋmɔ shɛɛɛ he kwraa (wiemɔi 7,000 loo nɔ̃ lɛ mli fioo komɛi pɛ apɛi mli).” Hɛɛ, eyɛ mli akɛ etamɔ nɔ ni wiemɔ kui komɛi tamɔ Akuapem Twi kɛ Asante Twi ni awieɔ yɛ wɔmaŋ nɛɛ mli lɛ je amɛhe moŋ, shi anɔkwa sane ji akɛ esoro amɛ kwraa yɛ wiemɔ kui krokomɛi tamɔ French he.

Wiemɔi náa bɔ ni mɛi susuɔ nii ahe amɛhaa, kɛ bɔ ni amɛtsɔɔ nibii ni bɔle amɛ lɛ mli amɛhaa lɛ anɔ hewalɛ—tamɔ bɔ ni amɛtsɔɔ mɔ gbɛ, kɔla, nɔ ko yibɔ, he ni nɔ ko yɔɔ, kɛ ekrokomɛi. Akɛ nɔkwɛmɔnɔ lɛ, yɛ wiemɔ ko mli lɛ, mɔ ko baakɛɛ, “Kooloo bibioo ko kpɛtɛ oninejurɔ he.” Shi mɔ ko baawie enɛ nɔŋŋ yɛ wiemɔ kroko mli akɛ, “Kooloo bibioo ko kpɛtɛ onine wuoyi anaigbɛ lɛ he.” Srɔtofeemɔi nɛɛ baanyɛ afutu mɔ yiŋ waa diɛŋtsɛ.  Ebɛ naakpɛɛ mɔ akɛ Babel mɔɔmalɔi lɛ eyanyɛɛɛ amɛtsa mɔɔ ni amɛmaa lɛ nɔ dɔŋŋ lɛ.

GBƐƐMƆI FOJI KOMƐI KƐKƐ LOO WIEMƆI DIƐŊTSƐ?

Te klɛŋklɛŋ wiemɔ ni adesa wie lɛ tamɔ tɛŋŋ? Biblia bɔɔ amaniɛ akɛ Adam, ni ji klɛŋklɛŋ gbɔmɔ lɛ, nyɛ esɔ̃ wiemɔ komekomei kɛwo kooloi srɔtoi lɛ fɛɛ gbɛ́i. (1 Mose 2:20) Kɛfata he lɛ, Adam fo lala wiemɔ kɛtsɔɔ miishɛɛ ni ená yɛ eŋa lɛ he, ni eŋa hu tsɔɔ famɔ ni Nyɔŋmɔ kɛha amɛ, kɛ nɔ ni baajɛ mli aba kɛ́ amɛgbo Nyɔŋmɔ nɔ toi lɛ mli faŋŋ. (1 Mose 2:23; 3:1-3) Belɛ enɛ tsɔɔ akɛ klɛŋklɛŋ wiemɔ lɛ ha adesai nyɛ amɛgba sane ni anu shishi, ni amɛkɛ wiemɔ tsu nii yɛ gbɛi srɔtoi anɔ kɛjie amɛsusumɔi akpo.

Gbɔmɛi lɛ awiemɔ ni afutu yɛ Babel lɛ haaa adesai anyɛ afee ekome kɛjwɛŋ nii ahe jogbaŋŋ koni amɛtsu he nii. Kɛlɛ, anuɔ wiemɔi heei ni amɛbɔi wiemɔ lɛ shi taakɛ eji yɛ klɛŋklɛŋ nɔ lɛ gbɛfaŋ lɛ. Afii ohai fioo komɛi asɛɛ lɛ, gbɔmɛi to maŋtiasei wuji kɛ asraafoi akui ni he wala shishi, ni amɛkɛ amɛhe wo majimaji ateŋ jarayelii amli. (1 Mose 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25) Eji amɛbɛ wiemɔi komekomei ni amɛkɛtsɛɔ nibii agbɛ́i loo amɛkɛtsɔɔ saji amli kulɛ, aso amɛbaanyɛ amɛná hiɛyaa ni tamɔ nɛkɛ? Biblia lɛ tsɔɔ mli akɛ, klɛŋklɛŋ wiemɔ ni adesa wie lɛ kɛ wiemɔ ni aná yɛ Babel lɛ jeee gbɛɛmɔi foji komɛi kɛkɛ, shi eji wiemɔi diɛŋtsɛ ni anuɔ shishi.

Ŋmɛnɛ beaŋ niiamlipɛimɔ kɛ Biblia lɛ kpãa gbee yɛ sane nɛɛ he. Wolo ko (The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language) wie akɛ: “Gbɔmɛi akui fɛɛ ni apɛi bɔ ni amɛhiɔ shi amɛhaa lɛ mli akwɛ lɛ, ekɔɔɔ he eko bɔ ni amɛhiɛ gbeleko ha lɛ, ayɔse akɛ amɛnyɛɔ amɛjɛɔ amɛwiemɔi lɛ amli amɛfeɔ nibii babaoo taakɛ eji yɛ maji ni ‘etee amɛhiɛ’ lɛ awiemɔi lɛ amli lɛ nɔŋŋ.” Nakai nɔŋŋ adesa jwɛŋmɔ he nilelɔ kpanaa ko ni atsɛɔ lɛ Steven Pinker ni etsɔɔ nii yɛ Harvard College lɛ ŋma yɛ ewolo (The Language Instinct) lɛ mli akɛ: “Wiemɔ ko bɛ ni abaakɛɛ ehiii kɛ nɔ ko feemɔ.”

MƐƐ WIEMƆ ABAAWIE WƆSƐƐ?

Beni wɔsusu be ni akɛna “nibii ni tsɔɔ wiemɔi ashikwɛ̃ɛhe” kɛ he ni ana yɛ, srɔtofeemɔi ni yɔɔ wiemɔ kui lɛ amli, kɛ bɔ ni blema wiemɔi lɛ ji wiemɔ ni anuɔ shishi lɛ ahe wɔgbe naa nɛɛ, mɛɛ sanenaatsɔɔmɔ ni ja ni jwɛŋmɔ yɔɔ mli wɔbaanyɛ wɔkɛha? Mɛi babaoo muɔ sane naa akɛ, Biblia amaniɛbɔɔ ni kɔɔ nɔ ni ba yɛ Babel lɛ he lɛ ji sane mlitsɔɔmɔ ni ja ni abaanyɛ akɛ he afɔ̃ nɔ.

Biblia lɛ kɛɔ wɔ akɛ, Yehowa Nyɔŋmɔ futu gbɔmɛi lɛ awiemɔ yɛ Babel akɛni amɛtse ehiɛ atua lɛ hewɔ. (1 Mose 11:4-7) Kɛlɛ Yehowa ewo shi akɛ: “Maŋɔ naabu [loo wiemɔ] krɔŋŋ maha majimaji, koni amɛ fɛɛ kwa amɛtsɛ́ Yehowa gbɛi lɛ, koni amɛkɛ gbee kome asɔmɔ lɛ.” (Zefania 3:9) Ŋmɛnɛ lɛ, “wiemɔ krɔŋŋ” nɛɛ, ni ji anɔkwale ni yɔɔ Nyɔŋmɔ Wiemɔ lɛ mli lɛ, miifee gbɔmɛi ni yɔɔ jeŋ fɛɛ lɛ ekome. Etamɔ nɔ ni wɔbaanyɛ wɔkɛɛ akɛ, wɔsɛɛ lɛ Nyɔŋmɔ baafee adesai ekome kɛtsɔ wiemɔ kome ni ebaaha amɛwie lɛ nɔ koni ekɛjaje tɔ̃tɔ̃mɔ ni ba yɛ Babel lɛ.

^ kk. 8 Bei pii lɛ, tsɔɔmɔi ni kɔɔ wiemɔ shikwɛ̃ɛ he lɛ tsɔɔ akɛ gbɔmɛi jɛ aduji ahenɔ ko mli. Kɛha nakai tsɔɔmɔi lɛ ahe susumɔ lɛ, kwɛmɔ January 1, 2008, Buu-Mɔɔ lɛ baafa 14 ni Yehowa Odasefoi fee lɛ.

^ kk. 9 Shitsalɔi etsa shi ena nibii komɛi ni tamɔ jamɔ mɔji ni shishigbɛ yɔɔ lɛkɛtɛɛ kɛ amɛŋwɛigbɛ piɔpiɔ yɛ Shinear niiaŋ gbɛ. Biblia lɛ kɛɔ akɛ mɛi ni ma Babel mɔɔ lɛ fo ntayai, jeee tɛ, ni amɛkɛ amãtɛ loo kootaa fee sũ loo mɔɔta kɛtswa mɔɔ lɛ. (1 Mose 11:3, 4) Wolo ko (The New Encyclopædia Britannica) wie akɛ, no beaŋ yɛ Mesopotamia lɛ, “tɛi ahe esɛ̃ loo anáaa kwraa” shi nakai beaŋ nɔŋŋ lɛ asɛ̃ɛɛ kootaa he.