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BUU-MƆƆ FEBRUARY 2013

Mɛni ji Wolo ni Akɛɛ Eji Yuda (Iskariot) Sanekpakpa lɛ?

Mɛni ji Wolo ni Akɛɛ Eji Yuda (Iskariot) Sanekpakpa lɛ?

YƐ April afi 2006 mli lɛ, adafitswaa woji babaoo ni yɔɔ je lɛŋ hei srɔtoi lɛ kala naakpɛɛ sane ko, ni awo lɛ gbɛ́i akɛ “Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ.” Eji blema wolo ko ni ayana ni nilelɔi akuu ko miitao ni mɛi ale emli saji. Saji ni akala lɛ kɛɛ akɛ nilelɔi lɛ nuɔ he akɛ nɛkɛ blema wolo nɛɛ tsakeɔ susumɔ ni wɔ fɛɛ, ni nilelɔi lɛ tete fata he lɛ, yɔɔ yɛ Yuda, mɔ ni tsɔɔ Yesu sɛɛ gbɛ lɛ he lɛ he. Saji ni akala nɛɛ tsɔɔ akɛ Yuda bɔ mɔdɛŋ waa, eji bɔfo ni nu Yesu shishi jogbaŋŋ fe bɔfoi lɛ fɛɛ, ni ákɛ etsɔɔ Yesu sɛɛ gbɛ koni agbe lɛ, ejaakɛ Yesu diɛŋtsɛ fã lɛ ni efee nakai.

Ani eji blema wolo lɛɛlɛŋ loo fo afo atã? Ni kɛ́ nakai lɛ, ani ejieɔ saji komɛi ni kɔɔ Yuda Iskariot, Yesu Kristo, loo mra beaŋ Kristofoi lɛ ahe ni kulɛ aleee lɛ akpo? Ani esa akɛ etsake bɔ ni wɔnaa Yesu kɛ etsɔɔmɔi lɛ wɔhaa lɛ?

BƆ NI FEE NI ANÁ WOLO NI AKƐƐ EJI YUDA SANEKPAKPA LƐ

Kɛbashi amrɔ nɛɛ, anyɛko atsɔɔ bɔ ni fee ni aná wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa nɛɛ. Nɔ pɛ ni wɔle ji, aaafee afi 1970 afii lɛ naagbee gbɛ jio afi 1980 afii lɛ shishijee gbɛ lɛ, mɔ ko kɛ wolo nɛɛ tee blema nibii ahɔɔmɔhe ko koni eyahɔɔ. Eeenyɛ efee akɛ aná yɛ gbonyobu ko ni kã shi efolo mli, ekolɛ yɛ tɛkplo ko mli yɛ Egipt (Mizraim) yɛ afi 1978 mli. Eji woji ejwɛ ni ayana yɛ blema wolokpo ko mli ni akɛ Egiptbii ablema wiemɔ ko ni ji Kɔptik ŋmala lɛ ateŋ ekome.

Beni ajie wolokpo nɛɛ yɛ etoohe yɛ Egipt, maŋ ni kɔɔyɔɔ lɛ mli dɔɔ lɛ mli lɛ, ebɔi fitemɔ oyayaayai. Yɛ afi 1983 mli lɛ, akɛ wolokpo lɛ tsɔɔ nilelɔi fioo komɛi be kukuoo ko; shi jara ni tere lɛ lɛ naa wa tsɔ, no hewɔ lɛ mɔ ko kwraa heee. Akɛni ni loloolo lɛ akwɛɛɛ wolokpo lɛ nɔ jogbaŋŋ ni akɛtooo jogbaŋŋ hu hewɔ lɛ, etee nɔ efite. Yɛ afi 2000 mli lɛ, Swiss yoo ko ni heɔ blema nibii lɛ hé wolokpo lɛ. Sɛɛ mli lɛ, yoo nɛɛ kɛ wolokpo lɛ wo kuu ko ni he esa waa yɛ woji ahe nitsumɔ mli lɛ adɛŋ koni amɛfee wolokpo lɛ kɛ emli nibii ni no mli lɛ ekomɛi etserɛ lɛ fɛɛ ehee ekoŋŋ. Kuu nɛɛ kɛ nitsumɔhe ko (Maecenas Foundation for Ancient Art and the National Geographic Society) baatsu nitsumɔ ni akɛwo amɛdɛŋ nɛɛ. Kɛfata he lɛ, kuu nɛɛ baatao afii abɔ ni wolokpo nɛɛ eye, ni amɛbaatsɔɔ emli saji lɛ hu ashishi.

 Adamɔ nɔ ko ni akɛbuɔ be (Carbon-14) nɔ atsɔɔ akɛ eeenyɛ efee akɛ wolokpo nɛɛ ehi shi kɛjɛ afi 200 Ŋ.B loo afi 300 Ŋ.B afii lɛ amli. Kɛlɛ, nilelɔi lɛ mu sane naa akɛ aŋma wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa yɛ Hela (Greek) wiemɔ mli, ni fee sɛɛ kwraa dani atsɔɔ shishi kɛtee Egiptbii ablema wiemɔ ni ji Kɔptik lɛ mli. Mɛɛ be tuuntu, ni mɛɛ shihilɛ diɛŋtsɛ mli aŋma wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ yɛ?

WOLO NI AKƐƐ EJI YUDA SANEKPAKPA LƐ JƐ IRENAEUS BEAŊ TƆ̃Ɔ

Klɛŋklɛŋ be kwraa ni atsĩ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda (Iskariot) Sanekpakpa lɛ tã lɛ ji beni ana yɛ woloŋmalɔ Irenaeus niŋmai amli lɛ. Irenaeus hi shi yɛ klɛŋklɛŋ afi 100 afii lɛ naagbee gbɛ, ni etsɛɔ ehe Kristofonyo. Yɛ wolo ko (Against Heresies) ni Irenaeus ŋma lɛ mli lɛ, ewie eshi kui komɛi ni ekɛ amɛtsɔɔmɔ kpãaa gbee lɛ ateŋ ekome, eŋma akɛ: “Amɛkɛɔ akɛ Yuda, ni eji sɛɛgbɛtsɔɔlɔ lɛ, le nibii nɛɛ fɛɛ fitsofitso, ni ákɛ ele anɔkwale lɛ fe kaselɔi lɛ ateŋ mɔ fɛɛ mɔ, ni no ha etsu sɛɛgbɛtsɔɔlɔ ni ji teemɔŋ sane lɛ he nii lɛ. Kɛtsɔ Yuda nɔ lɛ, nɔ fɛɛ nɔ ni yɔɔ ŋwɛi kɛ shikpɔŋ lɛ nɔ lɛ fee basaa. Amɛfo Yuda he yinɔ saji amɛtã, ni amɛwo lɛ gbɛ́i akɛ Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ.”

“Ejeee Sanekpakpa ni mɔ ko ni le Yuda Iskariot jogbaŋŋ lɛ ŋma yɛ Yuda beaŋ”

Irenaeus kɛfee oti krɛdɛɛ ni ma ehiɛ akɛ ebaakpa mɛi ni tsɛɔ amɛhe Kristofoi nɛɛ ni amɛkɛɔ akɛ amɛyɛ mligbɛ nilee krɛdɛɛ ko lɛ atsɔɔmɔi lɛ ahe mama. No beaŋ lɛ, kui babaoo yɛ ni tamɔ mɛi nɛɛ, ni kuu lɛ eko fɛɛ eko yɛ lɛ diɛŋtsɛ eshishinumɔ yɛ nɔ ni etsɔɔ akɛ eji “anɔkwale” lɛ he. Kui nɛɛ damɔ amɛ diɛŋtsɛ amɛsaji ni amɛŋmala lɛ anɔ amɛgbɛ amɛtsɔɔmɔi lɛ amɛshwa yɛ klɛŋklɛŋ afi 100 afii lɛ amli.

Be pii lɛ, nakai niŋmai lɛ tsɔɔ akɛ Yesu bɔfoi ni ale amɛ waa lɛ eyanuuu Yesu sane lɛ shishi, ni ákɛ teemɔŋ tsɔɔmɔ ko yɛ ni Yesu kɛha ekaselɔi lɛ, shi amɛteŋ mɛi fioo ko pɛ nu shishi. * Mɛi ni hiɛ nakai hemɔkɛyeli lɛ ekomɛi heɔ amɛyeɔ akɛ, no mli lɛ hiɛkalɔi aje lɛ ji tsuŋwoohe. No hewɔ lɛ, “nyɔŋmɔ ni bɔ ade” ni yɔɔ Hebri Ŋmalɛi lɛ amli lɛ ji nyɔŋmɔ bibioo kwraa, ni te shi ewo nyɔŋmɔi wuji krokomɛi lɛ. Amɛkɛɔ akɛ mɔ ko ni yɔɔ “nilee krɛdɛɛ” ko lɛ baanu “teemɔŋ sane” nɛɛ shishi, ni ebaashi eheloo gbɔmɔtso lɛ mli bɔni afee ni ená heyeli.

Wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ damɔ hemɔkɛyeli nɛɛ nɔ. Ejeɔ shishi kɛ wiemɔi nɛɛ: “Teemɔŋ saji ni Yesu kɛɛ Yuda Iskariot yɛ amɛsanegbaa ni ye gbii kpaanyɔ lɛ mli, ni enɛ ba gbii etɛ dani eye Hehoo lɛ.”

Ani wolokpo nɛɛ, ni abu akɛ elaaje afii ohai abɔ nɛɛ nɔŋŋ ji nɔ ni Irenaeus ŋma he sane lɛ? Marvin Meyer ni fata klɛŋklɛŋ kuu ni kwɛ wolokpo nɛɛ mli ni amɛtsɔɔ shishi lɛ he lɛ kɛɛ akɛ, “srɔtofeemɔ ko bɛ Irenaeus niŋmai lɛ kɛ amrɔ nɛɛ Kɔptik niŋmai ni awo lɛ gbɛ́i akɛ Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ mli.

MƆ NI AKƐƐ YUDA JI YƐ WOLO NƐƐ MLI—WOLOŊLELƆI AYIŊ ETƐ̃ƐƐ AMƐ YƐ HE

Awie yɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ mli akɛ beni Yesu kaselɔi lɛ kɛ amɛnifeemɔi tsɔɔ akɛ amɛbɛ nilee kpakpa lɛ, Yesu ŋmɔ amɛ jogbaŋŋ kɛye amɛhe fɛo. Yɛ bɔfoi 12 lɛ ateŋ lɛ, Yuda pɛ ji mɔ ni tsɔɔ akɛ enuɔ nɔ gbɔmɔ ni Yesu ji lɛ shishi jogbaŋŋ diɛŋtsɛ. No hewɔ lɛ, lɛ pɛ Yesu kɛgbaa “maŋtsɛyeli lɛ he teemɔŋ saji lɛ.”

Nɔ ni Irenaeus wie lɛ ná nilelɔi akuu ni ka klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa akɛ amɛbaasaa wolo nɛɛ lɛ anɔ hewalɛ waa. Beni amɛtsɔɔ wolo lɛ shishi lɛ, amɛha ana Yuda akɛ lɛ ji kaselɔi lɛ ateŋ mɔ ni Yesu sumɔɔ esane waa ni baanu teemɔŋ saji lɛ ashishi, ni enine “baashɛ maŋtsɛyeli lɛ nɔ.” Bɔfoi ni alaka amɛ lɛ baatao mɔ ko aye Yuda najiaŋ, shi abaajuro Yuda babaoo fe bɔfoi krokomɛi lɛ fɛɛ, ejaakɛ lɛ eye ebua Yesu ni eshi eheloo gbɔmɔtso lɛ mli.

Woji aŋmalalɔi ni ehé gbɛ́i waa tamɔ Bart Ehrman kɛ Elaine Pagels, ni ale amɛ hu akɛ amɛhe esa jogbaŋŋ yɛ mra beaŋ Kristofoi kɛ kui ni susuɔ akɛ amɛhiɛ mligbɛ nilee krɛdɛɛ ko lɛ asaji  ahe lɛ kɛ oyaiyeli kala amɛ diɛŋtsɛ amɛsusumɔi yɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ he, ni amɛsusumɔ nɛɛ kɛ bɔ ni asaa atsɔɔ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ shishi lɛ nyiɛ ŋɛlɛ kome nɔ. Kɛlɛ, etsɛɛɛ kɛkɛ nɔŋŋ ni woloŋlelɔi krokomɛi tamɔ April DeConick kɛ Birger Pearson tsɔɔ amɛjwɛŋmɔ yɛ sane lɛ he. Amɛtsɔɔ mli akɛ, akɛni National Geographic Society lɛ miitao ni efee mɔ klɛŋklɛŋ ni kɛ sane lɛ ba la hiɛ hewɔ lɛ, ekɛ oyaiyeli yakala nakai blema sane lɛ. Kɛfata he lɛ, April DeConick kɛ Birger Pearson kɛɛ edɔ amɛ waa ejaakɛ aku hiɛ ashwie gbɛ ni atsɔɔ nɔ apɛiɔ woji amli ni asusuɔ he lɛ anɔ.

Woloŋlelɔi ni pɛi wolokpo lɛ mli lɛ ateŋ mɔ kome flo po nyɛɛɛ atsɔɔ kɛji yinɔsaji ni yɔɔ mli lɛ ji anɔkwale

Beni DeConick kɛ Pearson fee ekome kɛpɛi nii amli lɛ, amɛmu sane naa akɛ mɛi ni tsɔ hiɛ amɛtsɔɔ wolokpo ni miitsɛrɛ lɛ shishi lɛ etsɔɔɔ fãi komɛi ashishi jogbaŋŋ. Yɛ DeConick gbɛfaŋ lɛ, beni etsɔɔ wolokpo lɛ shishi lɛ, etsɔɔ mli akɛ Yesu tsɛ Yuda akɛ “Daimonio ni Ji Nyɔŋma kɛ Etɛ Nɔ,” jeee “mumɔ ni ji nyɔŋma kɛ etɛ nɔ.” * Kɛfata he lɛ, Yesu gba mli kpoo ekɛɛ Yuda akɛ Yuda eyaŋ “maŋtsɛyeli” lɛ mli. Nɔ najiaŋ ni Yuda nɔ baakwɔ fe bɔfoi krokomɛi lɛ, Yesu kɛɛ lɛ akɛ: “Onii baafee mɔbɔ fe amɛ fɛɛ. Ejaakɛ obaaŋɔ nuu ni woɔ mi atade lɛ oha.” Yɛ DeConick susumɔ naa lɛ, wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ ji blema sane ni afo atã ni yeɔ bɔfoi lɛ fɛɛ ahe fɛo. DeConick kɛ Pearson mu sane naa yɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ he akɛ, Yuda jeee ekãalɔ ni tsu nɔ ko kpakpa ko.

MƐNI WƆBAANYƐ WƆKASE KƐJƐ WOLO NI AKƐƐ EJI YUDA SANEKPAKPA LƐ HE?

Kɛ́ woloŋlelɔi ni pɛi wolokpo lɛ mli lɛ mu sane naa akɛ Yuda Iskariot ji mɔ ko ni bɔ mɔdɛŋ waa jio eji daimonio jio lɛ, amɛteŋ mɔ kome flo po nyɛɛɛ atsɔɔ kɛji yinɔsaji ni yɔɔ mli lɛ ji anɔkwale. Bart Ehrman tsɔɔ mli akɛ: “Ejeee Sanekpakpa ni Yuda Iskariot ŋma loo eko ni tsɔɔ nakai. . . . Ejeee Sanekpakpa ni mɔ ko ni le Yuda Iskariot jogbaŋŋ lɛ ŋma yɛ Yuda beaŋ . . . No hewɔ lɛ, ejeee wolo hu ni baanyɛ aye abua wɔ ni wɔle saji krokomɛi ni tee nɔ lɛlɛŋ yɛ Yesu wala beaŋ.”

Wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ ji wolo ni afo atã kɛjɛ klɛŋklɛŋ afi 100 afii lɛ amli, ni aŋma klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa yɛ Hela wiemɔ mli. Kɛbashi ŋmɛnɛ lɛ, woloŋlelɔi nyɛko amɛma nɔ mi akɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ nɔŋŋ ji nɔ ni Irenaeus wie he lɛ. Shi wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ kɛ odaseyeli ni he hiaa waa ni kɔɔ be ni “Kristojamɔ” mli bagbala, ni kui srɔtoi kɛ tsɔɔmɔi ni kɛ amɛhe kpãaa tetee shi lɛ ahe. Yiŋtoo ákɛ akɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda sanekpakpa lɛ baatsɔɔ akɛ Biblia lɛ ejaaa lɛ eyayeee omanye, moŋ lɛ emaa kɔkɔbɔi ni akɛha yɛ bɔfoi lɛ abeaŋ, tamɔ bɔfo Paulo nɔ ni aŋma yɛ Bɔfoi lɛ Asaji 20:29, 30 lɛ anɔ mi, ekɛɔ akɛ: “Mile akɛ, kɛ́ mikpa mihe lɛ . . . nyɛ diɛŋtsɛ nyɛteŋ hu lɛ, hii ni wieɔ nii ni ejaaa aaate shi, ni amɛaakpala kaselɔi lɛ amɛshwie amɛsɛɛ.”

^ kk. 11 Bei pii lɛ, akɛ mɛi ni akɛɛ amɛ amɛnu Yesu anɔkwa tsɔɔmɔi lɛ ashishi jogbaŋŋ lɛ agbɛ́i woɔ woji nɛɛ, taakɛ eji yɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Toma Sanekpakpa lɛ kɛ Maria Magdaleena Sanekpakpa lɛ ahe lɛ nɛkɛ. Kɛ́ abua fɛɛ naa lɛ, ana blema niŋmaai nɛɛ aaafee 30 sɔŋŋ.

^ kk. 18 Woloŋlelɔi ni kpɛlɛɔ nɔ akɛ Yuda ji daimonio yɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ mli lɛ—ákɛ eji mɔ ko ni le Yesu jogbaŋŋ fe kaselɔi krokomɛi lɛ fɛɛ—naa akɛ bɔ ni daimonioi ni awie amɛhe yɛ Sanekpakpai ni yɔɔ Biblia lɛ mli lɛ tsɔɔ mɔ tuuntu ni Yesu ji lɛ, nakai pɛpɛɛpɛ atsɔɔ yɛ wolo ni akɛɛ eji Yuda Sanekpakpa lɛ mli akɛ Yuda Iskariot fee.—Marko 3:11; 5:7.