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Shi kɛya he ni ato saneyitsei lɛ anaa yɛ lɛ

 A3

Bɔ Ni Fee Ni Wɔnine Shɛ Biblia Lɛ Nɔ

Mɔ ni ŋma Biblia lɛ kɛ mɔ ni Biblia lɛ jɛ eŋɔɔ lɛ nɔŋŋ ji mɔ ni baa Biblia lɛ yi. Lɛ ji mɔ ni hã aŋma wiemɔ ni nyiɛ sɛɛ nɛɛ akɛ:

“Wɔ-Nyɔŋmɔ lɛ wiemɔ lɛ hiɔ shi kɛyaa naanɔ.”—Yesaia 40:8.

Nakai wiemɔ lɛ ji anɔkwale, eyɛ mli akɛ ŋmɛnɛ lɛ Hebri kɛ Aramaik Ŋmalɛ * lɛ klɛŋklɛŋ wolokpoi loo Kristofoi A-Greek Ŋmalɛ lɛ klɛŋklɛŋ wolokpoi lɛ eko eko bɛ. No hewɔ lɛ, te wɔbaafee tɛŋŋ wɔná nɔmimaa akɛ Biblia ni wɔhiɛ ŋmɛnɛ lɛ mli saji lɛ kɛ nɔ ni ajɛ mumɔŋ aŋma klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ nyiɛ pɛpɛɛpɛ lɛ?

WOLOŊMALƆI BAA NYƆŊMƆ WIEMƆ LƐ YI

Yɛ Hebri Ŋmalɛ lɛ gbɛfaŋ lɛ, blema nifeemɔ ko ni Nyɔŋmɔ to shishi, ni ji akɛ akwɛ ŋmalɛi lɛ anɔ ni aŋmala ekoŋŋ lɛ baahã wɔna sanebimɔ lɛ hetoo. * Akɛ nɔkwɛmɔnɔ lɛ, Yehowa fã Israel maŋtsɛmɛi lɛ koni amɛkwɛ Mla lɛ ni aŋma lɛ nɔ koni amɛŋmala eko amɛhã amɛhe. (5 Mose 17:18) Agbɛnɛ hu lɛ, Nyɔŋmɔ fã Levibii lɛ koni amɛbaa Mla lɛ yi, ni amɛtsɔɔ maŋbii lɛ Mla lɛ. (5 Mose 31:26; Nehemia 8:7) Be ni Yudafoi lɛ ku amɛsɛɛ kɛjɛ nomŋɔɔ mli yɛ Babilon amɛba lɛ, aná mɛi komɛi ni nitsumɔ titri ni amɛtsuɔ ji ni amɛkwɛ ŋmalɛi lɛ anɔ amɛŋmala eko amɛshwie shi, ni atsɛ amɛ akɛ woloŋmalɔi (Soferim). (Ezra 7:6) Be ni be shwie mli lɛ, woloŋmalɔi nɛɛ ŋmala woji 39 ni feɔ Hebri Ŋmalɛ lɛ babaoo amɛshwie shi.

Yɛ afii ohai abɔ ni ho lɛ amli fɛɛ lɛ, woloŋmalɔi to amɛtsui shi ni amɛkwɛ ŋmalɛi lɛ anɔ ni amɛŋmala eko amɛshwie shi. Kɛjɛ aaafee afi 500 Ŋ.B. kɛbashi aaafee afi 1500 Ŋ.B. lɛ, Yudafoi woloŋmalɔi komɛi ni abale amɛ akɛ Masoretebii lɛ tsa nɛkɛ nifeemɔ nɛɛ nɔ. Wolo ni Masoretebii lɛ kɛ amɛniji ŋmala ni etsɛ fe fɛɛ ji Leningrad Kodes lɛ, ni afee yɛ afi 1008 loo 1009 Ŋ.B. Shi yɛ aaafee afi 1950 lɛ, ana Biblia wolokpoi kɛ wolokpoi ni etserɛ aaafee 220 yɛ Ŋshɔ Ni Egbo Wolokpoi lɛ  amli. Aŋmala nakai Biblia wolokpoi lɛ aaafee afii akpe dani afee Leningrad Kodes lɛ. Be ni akɛ Ŋshɔ Ni Egbo Wolokpoi lɛ to Leningrad Kodes lɛ he lɛ, ema sane ni nyiɛ sɛɛ nɛɛ nɔ mi akɛ: Eyɛ mli akɛ esoro wiemɔi komɛi ni akɛtsu nii yɛ Ŋshɔ Ni Egbo Wolokpoi lɛ amli moŋ, shi nakai srɔto lɛ hãaa esoro sane ni yɔɔ blema wolokpoi nɛɛ amli lɛ yɛ nɔ ni yɔɔ Leningrad Kodes lɛ mli lɛ he.

Ni Kristofoi A-Greek Ŋmalɛ lɛ mli woji 27 lɛ hu? Yesu Kristo bɔfoi lɛ ekomɛi kɛ mɛi ni batsɔmɔ ekaselɔi lɛ ateŋ mɛi fioo ko ji mɛi ni kɛ amɛniji ŋmala nakai woji lɛ klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa. Blema Kristofoi lɛ kwɛ woji nɛɛ anɔ ni amɛŋmala eko amɛshwie shi tamɔ bɔ ni Yudafoi woloŋmalɔi lɛ fee lɛ. (Kolosebii 4:16) Eyɛ mli akɛ Roma Nɔyelɔ Diocletian kɛ mɛi komɛi bɔ mɔdɛŋ akɛ amɛbaafite blema Kristofoi lɛ awoji lɛ fɛɛ moŋ, shi anyɛ abaa blema woji ni akɛ niji ŋmala nɛɛ kɛ amɛfãi komɛi ni etserɛ lɛ akpei abɔ ayi kɛbashi ŋmɛnɛ.

Agbɛnɛ hu, atsɔɔ woji ni Kristofoi lɛ ŋmala lɛ ashishi kɛtee wiemɔi krokomɛi amli. Nɛkɛ Bibliai ni atsɔɔ shishi kɛtee wiemɔi krokomɛi amli yɛ blema nɛɛ ekomɛi ji nɔ ni yɔɔ Armeniabii, kɛ Koptbii, kɛ Etiopiabii, kɛ Georgiabii, kɛ Siriabii ablema wiemɔi kɛ Latin wiemɔ mli lɛ.

BƆ NI ATO HEBRI KƐ GREEK ŊMALƐ LƐ AHE GBƐJIANƆ KONI ATSƆƆ SHISHI

Esoro wiemɔi komɛi ni akɛtsu nii yɛ blema Biblia ni akɛ niji ŋmala lɛ ekomɛi amli yɛ ekrokomɛi ahe. No hewɔ lɛ, te wɔfeɔ tɛŋŋ wɔleɔ wiemɔi diɛŋtsɛ ni yɔɔ ŋmalɛi ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ amli lɛ?

Wɔbaanyɛ wɔkɛ sane nɛɛ ato tsɔɔlɔ ko ni bi eskulbii 100 akɛ amɛkwɛ wolo ko mli sane ko nɔ ni amɛŋmala eko amɛfɔ̃ shi lɛ he. Kɛ́ wolo ni amɛkwɛ nɔ amɛŋma sane lɛ laaje sɛɛ mli po lɛ, abaanyɛ akɛ nɔ ni skulbii 100 lɛ ŋma lɛ eko fɛɛ eko ato ekroko he ni ana sane ni yɔɔ wolo lɛ mli diɛŋtsɛ. Eyɛ mli akɛ skulbii lɛ ateŋ mɔ fɛɛ mɔ baanyɛ atɔ̃ yɛ gbɛ ko nɔ moŋ, shi enyɛŋ eba lɛ kɔkɔɔkɔ akɛ amɛ fɛɛ amɛbaatɔ̃ tɔmɔ kome too lɛ nɔŋŋ. Yɛ nakai gbɛ nɔŋŋ nɔ lɛ, kɛ́ woloŋlelɔi kɛ wolokpoi akpei abɔ ni etserɛ ni ana lɛ to blema Biblia mli woji ni amɛyɔɔ lɛ ahe lɛ, amɛbaanyɛ amɛna hei ni mɛi ni ŋmala wolokpoi lɛ tɔ̃ yɛ, ni amɛbaana wiemɔi diɛŋtsɛ ni yɔɔ ŋmalɛi ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ amli.

“Abaanyɛ awie kɛ nɔmimaa akɛ blema wolo ko kwraa bɛ ni abaa yi jogbaŋŋ tamɔ no [ni ji, Hebri Ŋmalɛ lɛ]”

Mɛni hewɔ wɔbaanyɛ wɔhe wɔye akɛ saji ni yɔɔ blema nɔ ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ mli lɛ nɔŋŋ yɔɔ Biblia ni wɔhiɛ ŋmɛnɛ lɛ mli lɛ? Be ni woloŋlelɔ ko ni atsɛɔ William H. Green wieɔ Hebri Ŋmalɛ lɛ he lɛ, ekɛɛ akɛ: “Abaanyɛ awie kɛ nɔmimaa akɛ blema wolo ko kwraa bɛ ni abaa yi jogbaŋŋ tamɔ no [ni ji, Hebri Ŋmalɛ lɛ].” Be ni Biblia he woloŋlelɔ ko  ni atsɛɔ lɛ F. F. Bruce wieɔ Kristofoi A-Greek Ŋmalɛ loo nɔ ni ale lɛ akɛ Kpaŋmɔ Hee lɛ he lɛ, eŋma akɛ: “Wɔyɛ odaseyelii babaoo yɛ wɔ-Kpaŋmɔ Hee lɛ mli woji lɛ ahe kwraa fe odaseyelii ni ayɔɔ yɛ woji ni blema niŋmalɔi ni abuɔ amɛ waa lɛ ŋmala lɛ ahe, ni ji woji ni mɛi buɔ akɛ eja bɔ ni anyɛŋ aje he ŋwane lɛ.” Ekɛɛ hu akɛ: “Eji Kpaŋmɔ Hee lɛ mli woji lɛ ji je lɛ mli woji ni ewieee jamɔ mli saji ahe kulɛ, anyɛŋ aje bɔ ni amɛja jogbaŋŋ hã lɛ he ŋwane kɔkɔɔkɔ.”

Yesaia yitso 40 ni fata Ŋshɔ Ni Egbo Wolokpoi lɛ ahe lɛ (afee yɛ afi 125 kɛmiimɔ 100 D.Ŋ.B.)

Be ni akɛto Hebri Ŋmalɛ ni akɛ niji ŋmala aaafee afii akpe dani afee no lɛ he lɛ, srɔto fioo ko pɛ kɛkɛ ana yɛ mli, titri lɛ yɛ bɔ ni aŋma wiemɔi lɛ ekomɛi ahã lɛ mli

Yesaia yitso 40 yɛ Alepo Kodes lɛ mli; Alepo Kodes lɛ ji Hebri Ŋmalɛ ni he hiaa waa ni Masoretebii lɛ kwɛ Ŋmalɛ lɛ nɔ amɛŋma lɛ eko, ni afee aaafee afi 930 Ŋ.B.

Hebri Ŋmalɛ Lɛ: Akwɛ Biblia Hebraica ni Rudolf Kittel fee lɛ nɔ atsɔɔ blɔfo Hebri Ŋmalɛ Lɛ—Jeŋ Hee Shishitsɔɔmɔ lɛ (1953-1960) shishi. Kɛjɛ nakai beiaŋ kɛbaa nɛɛ, nibii ni ana yɛ Ŋshɔ Ni Egbo Wolokpoi lɛ kɛ blema woji krokomɛi ni akɛ niji ŋmala lɛ amli lɛ ehã afee Hebri Ŋmalɛ krokomɛi ni akwɛɔ nɔ atsɔɔ Biblia lɛ shishi, ni nomɛi ji Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia Biblia Hebraica Quinta. Wolo titri ni yɔɔ Hebri Ŋmalɛ nɛɛ mli ji Leningrad Kodes lɛ, ni shishigbɛ niŋmai ni atsɔɔ wiemɔi krokomɛi ni akɛtsu nii yɛ wolokpoi krokomɛi amli lɛ yɛ mli, ni wolokpoi nɛɛ ekomɛi ji Samaritan Pɛntatɔk lɛ, kɛ Ŋshɔ Ni Egbo Wolokpoi lɛ, kɛ Greek Septuajint lɛ, kɛ Aramaik Targum srɔtoi lɛ, kɛ Latin Vulgate lɛ, kɛ Siriak Peshitta lɛ. Akwɛ Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia Biblia Hebraica Quinta lɛ mli be ni atsɔɔ Biblia nɛɛ ni ji Jeŋ Hee Shishitsɔɔmɔ lɛ shishi lɛ.

Greek Ŋmalɛ Lɛ: Kɛjɛ afi 1850 kɛmiimɔ afi 1890 lɛ, woloŋlelɔi B. F. Westcott kɛ F.J.A. Hort kɛ blema Biblia wolokpoi kɛ wolokpoi ni etserɛ ni yɔɔ lɛ eko fɛɛ eko to ekroko he koni amɛna Greek Ŋmalɛ lɛ mli wiemɔi diɛŋtsɛ ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ koni amɛfee Greek Ŋmalɛ lɛ ekome bɔ ni abaanyɛ akwɛ nɔ atsɔɔ shishi. Yɛ aaafee afi 1950 mli lɛ, Jeŋ Hee Biblia Shishitsɔɔmɔ Ajinafoi Akuu lɛ kwɛ Greek Ŋmalɛ ni akwɛɔ nɔ atsɔɔ Biblia shishi ni Westcott kɛ Hort fee lɛ nɔ amɛtsɔɔ Kristofoi A-Greek Ŋmalɛ lɛ shishi. Amɛkwɛ blema papiro woji ni asusuɔ akɛ afee yɛ afi 101 kɛmiimɔ 300 Ŋ.B. lɛ hu anɔ. Kɛjɛ nakai beiaŋ kɛbaa nɛɛ, ana papiro woji krokomɛi. Agbɛnɛ hu, Ŋmalɛ ni akwɛɔ nɔ atsɔɔ Biblia lɛ shishi ni nibii hei ni ana yɛ Biblia lɛ he yɔɔ amɛmli tamɔ nɔ ni Nestle kɛ Aland fee lɛ kɛ nɔ ni United Bible Societies fee lɛ hu yɛ. Akɛ nibii hei ni ana yɛ Biblia lɛ he ni yɔɔ Ŋmalɛ ni akwɛɔ nɔ atsɔɔ Biblia lɛ shishi nɛɛ amli lɛ ekomɛi tsu nii kɛtsɔɔ Biblia nɛɛ shishi.

Ŋmalɛ ni akwɛɔ nɔ atsɔɔ Biblia lɛ shishi nɛɛ hã ana akɛ Kristofoi A-Greek Ŋmalɛ lɛ mli ŋmalɛi kukuji komɛi ni yɔɔ blema Biblia shishitsɔɔmɔi tamɔ King James Version lɛ mli lɛ bɛ Ŋmalɛ ni ajɛ mumɔŋ aŋma lɛ mli, shi moŋ woloŋmalɔi ni ba sɛɛ mli lɛ ji mɛi ni kɛwo mli. Shi akɛni kɛjɛ afi 1501 kɛyashi 1600 afii lɛ amli tɔ̃ɔ ajara Biblia lɛ mli saji lɛ amli awo kukuji ni akɛtsuɔ nii ŋmɛnɛ lɛ amli hewɔ lɛ, ajie kukuji nɛɛ amli wiemɔi lɛ kɛje Biblia shishitsɔɔmɔi pii amli, ni enɛ hewɔ lɛ nɛkɛ kukuji nɛɛ kãmɔ shi efolo yɛ Bibliai nɛɛ amli ni wiemɔ ko bɛ nakai kukuji lɛ amli. Kukuji nɛɛ ji Mateo 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Marko 7:16; 9:44,  46; 11:26; 15:28; Luka 17:36; 23:17; Yohane 5:4; Bɔfoi 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; kɛ Romabii 16:24. Yɛ Biblia shishitsɔɔmɔ ni ohiɛ nɛɛ mli lɛ, akɛ shishigbɛ niŋmaa okadii ewo kukuji nɛɛ ahe.

Odaseyelii yɛ ni tsɔɔ akɛ wiemɔ kakadaŋŋ ni akɛmu Marko 16 (kuku 9-20) lɛ naa, kɛ wiemɔ kuku ni akɛmu Marko 16 lɛ naa, kɛ wiemɔi ni yɔɔ Yohane 7:53–8:11 lɛ bɛ Biblia lɛ mli wiemɔi diɛŋtsɛ ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ amli. No hewɔ lɛ, ŋmalɛi nɛɛ ni aju shi akɛwo Biblia lɛ mli lɛ bɛ shishitsɔɔmɔ ni ohiɛ nɛɛ mli.

Ajaje wiemɔi komɛi yɛ Blɔfo Jeŋ Hee Shishitsɔɔmɔ momo lɛ mli koni ekɛ nɔ ni woloŋlelɔi babaoo ekpɛlɛ nɔ akɛ eyɛ Biblia lɛ mli wiemɔi ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ amli lɛ akpã gbee. Akɛ nɔkwɛmɔnɔ lɛ, yɛ woji ni akɛ niji ŋmala lɛ ekomɛi amli lɛ, Mateo 7:13 lɛ kaneɔ akɛ: “Nyɛtsɔa agbó bibioo lɛ mli, ejaakɛ agbó ni da kɛ gbɛ ni lɛɛ lɛ ji nɔ ni kɛ mɔ yaa hiɛkpatamɔ mli.” Yɛ Blɔfo Jeŋ Hee Shishitsɔɔmɔ momo lɛ mli lɛ, wiemɔ ni ji “agbó” lɛ bɛ nakai ŋmalɛ lɛ mli. Be ni asaa akwɛ woji ni akɛ niji ŋmala lɛ amli lɛ, ana akɛ wiemɔ ni ji “agbó” lɛ yɛ Biblia lɛ mli wiemɔi ni aŋmala klɛŋklɛŋ kwraa lɛ amli. No hewɔ lɛ, akɛwo nɔ ni afee lɛ ehee nyɛsɛɛ nɛɛ mli. Tsakemɔi krokomɛi hu ni tamɔ enɛ yɛ mli. Shi enɛɛmɛi ji tsakemɔi bibii kɛkɛ, ni amɛteŋ eko eko esaaa sane ni yɔɔ Nyɔŋmɔ Wiemɔ lɛ mli lɛ he.

Papiro ni akɛ nine eŋma 2 Korintobii 4:13–5:4 lɛ yɛ nɔ; aaafee afi 200 Ŋ.B.

^ kk. 5 Kɛjɛ biɛ kɛyaa lɛ wɔbaafo lɛ kuku akɛ Hebri Ŋmalɛ.

^ kk. 7 Yiŋtoo kome hewɔ ni ehe bahia ni akwɛ ŋmalɛi lɛ anɔ ni aŋmala eko ashwie shi lɛ ji akɛ, nibii ni aŋmala yɛ nɔ lɛ fiteɔ.