Gabon—A Haven for Wildlife
BY AWAKE! WRITER IN GABON
CAN you imagine a tropical beach where elephants graze by the seaside, hippos swim, and whales and dolphins gather offshore? On the African coast, there are 60 miles [100 km] of beaches where such scenes are still common.
For such scenes to be enjoyed in the future, this unique coastal area would clearly need to be preserved. Happily, this conservation priority was addressed on September 4, 2002, when the president of Gabon announced that 10 percent of Gabon—including stretches of pristine coastline—would be set aside as national parks.
These wilderness areas, covering some 10,000 square miles [30,000 km2]—equivalent to the size of Belgium—have much to offer. “Gabon has the potential to become a natural mecca, attracting pilgrims from the four points of the compass in search of the last remaining natural wonders on earth,” noted President Omar Bongo Ondimba.
What makes these reserves so important? Some 85 percent of Gabon is still forested, and as many as 20 percent of its plant species are found nowhere else on earth. Furthermore, its equatorial forests offer a haven for lowland gorillas, chimpanzees, forest elephants, and many other threatened species. The recently created parks will convert Gabon into an outstanding custodian of African biodiversity.
Loango—A Beach Like No Other
Loango National Park is possibly one of the most outstanding wildlife destinations in Africa. It conserves miles of unspoiled beaches fringed by freshwater lagoons and dense equatorial forest. But what really make Loango’s beaches unique are the animals that walk along the sand—hippos, forest elephants, buffalo, leopards, and gorillas.
Why does the beach attract those animals of the forest? Lining Loango’s white, sandy beaches are pastures where hippos and buffalo can graze. Rônier palm trees, which grow alongside the beach, produce abundant fruit that attracts forest elephants almost as much as ice cream attracts children. But most important of all is the solitude. The only footprints on the sand are those of animals.
The absence of human intrusion encourages the endangered leatherback turtles to choose these lonely beaches as a place to lay their eggs. Rosy bee-eaters have similar nesting tastes, and they excavate their colonial nests in the sand just a few yards above the high-water mark. During the summer months, over a thousand humpback whales congregate in Loango’s undisturbed waters to mate.
Two immense lagoons separate the beaches of Loango from the equatorial forest, and they provide an ideal habitat for crocodiles and hippos. Fish are plentiful in these inland seas, whose banks are lined with mangrove forests. African fish eagles and ospreys scour the open water of the lagoons, while several species of colorful kingfishers search for fish in the shallow waters. Elephants, who love water, happily swim across the lagoons to reach the beach and gorge on their favorite fruit.
Inside the equatorial forest, monkeys scamper along the upper branches of the canopy, while colorful butterflies glide around the sunny clearings. Fruit bats roost in their favorite trees during the day and then, during the night, go about their vital work of spreading seeds throughout the forest. At the forest edges, glittering sunbirds sip nectar from flowering trees and bushes. Understandably, Loango has aptly been described as “a place where you can experience the mood of equatorial Africa.”
Lopé—One of the Gorillas’ Last Stands
Lopé National Park includes large tracts of virgin rain forest, along with a patchwork of savanna and gallery forest in the north of the park. It is an ideal place for nature lovers who would like to observe gorillas, chimpanzees, or mandrills in the wild. There are between 3,000 and 5,000 gorillas roaming the 2,000 square miles [5,000 km2] of protected area.
Augustin, a former park official, remembers a unique encounter with gorillas in 2002. “While walking in the forest, I came upon a family of four gorillas,” he recalls. “The male, a huge silverback about 35 years old, towered over me. He must have weighed at least three times as much as I did. Following the recommended procedure, I immediately sat down, lowered my head, and looked at the ground in a sign of submission. The gorilla came and sat alongside me and put his hand on my shoulder. Then he got hold of my hand, opened it, and examined my palm. Once satisfied that I was no threat to his family, he ambled off into the jungle. On that memorable day, I discovered the fascination of coming into contact with animals in their natural habitat. Although people kill gorillas for bush meat or in the misguided belief that they are dangerous, they are peaceable animals that deserve our protection.”
In Lopé, mandrills, large baboons, congregate in huge groups that occasionally number over a thousand animals. This is one of the largest gatherings of primates in the world, and it is certainly a noisy one. A visitor from Cameroon describes his experience with one of these huge groups.
“Our guide detected the mandrills, thanks to the radio collars that several animals wear. We moved ahead of the group, quickly erected a camouflaged blind, and awaited their arrival. For 20 minutes we listened to the music of the forest, performed by a host of birds and insects. This tranquillity was abruptly broken when the mandrill troop drew near. The sound of snapping branches and loud calls gave me the impression that a big storm was approaching. But when I spotted the [leaders], they looked more like the advance guard of an army. The large males took the lead, walking briskly along the forest floor, while females and juveniles leaped from branch to branch above. Suddenly, one of the large males halted in his tracks and looked around suspiciously. A young mandrill that was moving along in the canopy had spotted us and sounded the alarm. The whole group accelerated its march, and the noise got even greater as they angrily shouted their annoyance. Within a few moments, they were gone. My guide estimated that some 400 mandrills had passed by alongside us.”
Chimpanzees make just as much noise as the mandrills and are even harder to spot as they move briskly through the forest in a constant search for food. On the other hand, visitors invariably see putty-nosed monkeys that sometimes bound along in the savanna bordering the forest. Perhaps the most reclusive resident of Lopé is the sun-tailed monkey, an endemic species that was only discovered about 20 years ago.
The large, colorful birds of the forest—such as turacos and hornbills—advertise their presence with raucous calls. Some 400 species of birds have been recorded within the park, making it a mecca for birdwatchers.
A Haven of Biodiversity
Loango and Lopé are only two of Gabon’s 13 national parks. Other parks preserve mangrove forests, protect unique flora, and safeguard areas for migratory birds. “Gabon has set aside the best ecosystems found in the entire country,” explains Lee White of the Wildlife Conservation Society. “It is not just the size but the quality of the areas conserved that matters. In 2002, they created overnight an optimum national park system, one that captures all the biodiversity of the country.”
Of course, many challenges remain, as President Bongo Ondimba freely admits. “We are talking about a world-wide operation,” he says, “that will doubtless involve both long and short term sacrifices, to enable us to achieve our ambition of leaving these wonders of nature to future generations.”
[Maps on page 17]
(For fully formatted text, see publication)
The 13 national parks of Gabon
Lopé National Park
Loango National Park
[Pictures on page 16, 17]
Humpback whale and an aerial view of Loango
Whale: Wildlife Conservation Society
[Pictures on page 16, 17]
A mandrill (left) and a gorilla (right)
[Picture Credit Line on page 15]
Robert J. Ross