away from the shore: Along the shore of the Sea of Galilee near Capernaum, there is a spot that forms a natural amphitheater. The good acoustic properties of this location would have allowed a large crowd to hear Jesus speak to them from a boat.
illustrations: Or “parables.” The Greek word pa·ra·bo·leʹ, which literally means “a placing beside (together),” may be in the form of a parable, a proverb, or an illustration. Jesus often explains a thing by ‘placing it beside,’ or comparing it with, another similar thing. (Mr 4:30) His illustrations were short and usually fictitious narratives from which a moral or spiritual truth could be drawn.
Look!: The Greek word i·douʹ, here rendered “look!,” is often used to focus attention on what follows, encouraging the reader to visualize the scene or to take note of a detail in a narrative. It is also used to add emphasis or to introduce something new or surprising. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the term occurs most frequently in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke and in the book of Revelation. A corresponding expression is often used in the Hebrew Scriptures.
on rocky ground: Not referring to spots where rocks were scattered in the soil but to bedrock or a shelf of rock where there was little soil. The parallel account at Lu 8:6 says that some seed fell “on the rock.” Such terrain would prevent seeds from sinking their roots deep enough to find needed moisture.
among the thorns: Jesus is evidently referring, not to full-grown thornbushes, but to weeds that had not been cleaned out of the plowed soil. These would grow and choke out the newly planted seeds.
Let the one who has ears to listen, listen: Before telling the illustration of the sower, Jesus said: “Listen.” (Mr 4:3) He concludes the illustration with this exhortation, emphasizing how important it is for his followers to heed his counsel carefully. Similar exhortations can be found at Mt 11:15; 13:
system of things: The Greek word ai·onʹ, having the basic meaning “age,” can refer to a state of affairs or to features that distinguish a certain period of time, epoch, or age. Here the term is connected with the anxieties and problems that characterize life in the present system of things.
a basket: Used for measuring dry commodities, such as grain. The type of “basket” (Greek, moʹdi·os) mentioned here had a capacity of about 9 L (or 8 dry qt).
With the measure that you are measuring out: The context of verses 23 to 25 indicates that if the disciples measure out little interest and attention, they cannot expect to get much from Jesus’ teaching. But if they give him their fullest measure of attention, he will respond by giving them information and enlightenment beyond their expectations. Thus they will be enriched and better able to impart understanding to others. In his generosity, Jesus will favor them with more than they expected.
In this way the Kingdom of God is just as when a man casts seeds: Mark is the only Gospel writer to record the illustration found in verses 26 to 29.
mustard grain: Several kinds of mustard plants are found growing wild in Israel. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is the variety commonly cultivated. The relatively small seed, 1-1.6 mm (0.039 to 0.063 in.) in diameter and weighing 1 mg (0.000035 oz) produces a treelike plant. Some varieties of the mustard plant attain a height of up to 4.5 m (15 ft).
the tiniest of all the seeds: The mustard seed was used in ancient Jewish writings as a figure of speech for the very smallest measure of size. Although there are smaller seeds known today, it was evidently the tiniest of seeds gathered and sown by Galilean farmers in Jesus’ day.
a great violent windstorm: This expression renders three Greek words that could literally be translated “a great hurricane of wind.” (See study note on Mt 8:
the pillow: Or “the cushion.” This is the only place where this word appears in the Christian Greek Scriptures. The use of the definite article in Greek may suggest that the pillow was part of the boat’s equipment. It may have been a sack of sand kept as ballast beneath the stern deck, a leather-covered seat for the helmsman, or a fleece or cushion on which an oarsman could sit.
This domestic lampstand (1) is an artist’s concept based on first-century artifacts found in Ephesus and Italy. A lampstand of this kind was likely used in a wealthy household. In poorer homes, a lamp was hung from the ceiling, placed in a niche in the wall (2), or put on a stand made of earthenware or wood.
This rendering is based on the remains of a first-century fishing boat found buried in mud near the shores of the Sea of Galilee and on a mosaic discovered in a first-century home in the seaside town of Migdal. This kind of boat may have been rigged with a mast and sail(s) and may have had a crew of five