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Jehovah’s Witnesses

English
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

C3

Verses Where the Divine Name Does Not Appear as Part of Direct or Indirect Quotations in the Book of Luke

VERSES THAT DO NOT CONTAIN DIRECT OR INDIRECT QUOTATIONS

LUKE 1:6 “the commandments and legal requirements of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Although Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here and in the other occurrences in the first two chapters of Luke, the context supports the use of the divine name to avoid ambiguity. The first two chapters are rich with allusions to expressions from the Hebrew Scriptures that contain the divine name. A phrase such as “commandments and legal requirements” and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Genesis 26:2, 5; Numbers 36:13; Deuteronomy 4:40; 27:10; Ezekiel 36:23, 27) Interestingly, these two legal terms occur in the Septuagint at Deuteronomy 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of this verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT: The use of the divine name here is further supported by the following translations and reference works that mention this occurrence of Kyʹri·os as referring to Jehovah or as an equivalent of the Tetragrammaton. It is also supported by a number of Bible translations into different languages that use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or that otherwise, in footnotes and marginal notes, indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God.

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, makes this comment on Luke 1:6: “‘The Lord,’ following Septuagint usage, where kurios renders Hebrew ʼadonay when standing for Yahweh. It has this meaning in all occurrences in chs. 1 and 2 (except 1:43 and 2:11), and in 5:17.”

  • The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, 1982, (Vol. 2, p. 508) states: “Greek kyrios is usually translated ‘Lord’ in the English versions and is the equivalent of Heb. YHWH in the LXX . . . ‘Lord’ may denote God (the Father; Mt. 5:33; Lk. 1:6).”

  • A Theology of Luke’s Gospel and Acts, by Darrell L. Bock, 2011, (p. 126) states: “The common κύριος (kyrios) has its roots in the LXX name for Yahweh. This usage is especially prominent in the infancy section [of Luke’s account], appearing twenty five times.”

  • A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, revised and edited by F. W. Danker, 2000, lists Luke 1:6, 9, 28, 46; 2:15, 22 under the definition of “lord” as “a designation of God.” It goes on to say concerning the use of the expression in the LXX: “It [frequently] replaces the name Yahweh in the MT [Masoretic Text].” It also lists Luke 1:17, 58 after the following explanation: “Without the art[icle] . . . , like a personal name.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:6, 9, 15, 16, 17, 25, 28, 32, 38, 45, 46, 58, 66, 68, 76(?); 2:9b, 15, 22, 23a, b, 24, 26, 39; 3:4; 4:8, 12, 18, 19; 5:17; 10:21, 27; 13:35; 19:38; 20:37, 42a as verses where Kyʹri·os is possibly “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:6: “As often in the rest of the infancy narrative, kyrios is here used of Yahweh. . . . The rest of the phrase is formulated in imitation of OT [Old Testament] expressions.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, capitalizes LORD in the main text of Luke 1:6 and adds this explanation in the margin: “The LORD. Must here and elsewhere be often rendered Jehovah.”

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, capitalizes the word “ADONAI” in this verse and most of the other verses where “Jehovah” appears in the text of Luke in the New World Translation. In the introduction to the Complete Jewish Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAIis used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

  • The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English (An American Translation of the Aramaic New Testament), by Glenn David Bauscher, 2012, uses “THE LORD JEHOVAH” in most verses where “Jehovah” appears in the text of Luke in the New World Translation.[J29]

  • The Holy Name Bible, revised by A. B. Traina, 2012, and the Hebraic Roots Bible (with study notes), published by Word of Truth Publications, 2012, both use “Yahweh” in most verses where “Jehovah” appears in the text of Luke in the New World Translation.[J32]

  • The Aramaic English New Testament, (Third Edition), by Andrew Gabriel Roth, 2008, uses “Master YHWH” in most verses where “Jehovah” appears in the text of Luke in the New World Translation.[J30]

  • The Messianic Jewish Shared Heritage Bible, 2012, uses ADONAI in small capitals in this verse and in most verses where “Jehovah” appears in the text of Luke in the New World Translation. The glossary on p. 1530 explains: “When written in small capitals, it [ADONAI] refers to God’s personal name YHWH as given in the Hebrew Bible. This personal name is God’s ‘covenant name,’ used when God is relating to the Jewish people in an intimate way.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-10, 17, 18, 22, 28-​35, 37-​40, 44, 46-​48, 52, 58-60

LUKE 1:9 “sanctuary of Jehovah”

REASON(S): In the Hebrew Scriptures, expressions corresponding to the combination “sanctuary [or, “temple”] of Jehovah” include the Tetragrammaton.​—Numbers 19:20; 2 Kings 18:16; 23:4; 24:13; 2 Chronicles 26:16; 27:2; Jeremiah 24:1; Ezekiel 8:16; Haggai 2:15; see comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference work indicates that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • New Testament Text and Translation Commentary, by Philip W. Comfort, 2008, makes this comment on Luke 1:9: “‘The Lord’ in this verse is not ‘the Lord Jesus Christ’ but ‘Yahweh.’”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-18, 22, 23, 28-​36, 38-​40, 44, 46-​48, 52, 59, 60

LUKE 1:​11 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, starting at Genesis 16:7. When it occurs in early copies of the Greek Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in this and many other verses, the Greek definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would normally call for it. The absence of the definite article here and in other verses may therefore be another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Matthew 1:20.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Matthew 1:20, the following reference work indicates that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:11: “‘The angel of the Lord’ also appears to the barren wife of Manoah, the father of Samson in Judg 13:3. . . . The Greek phrase angelos kyriou is a Semitism, reflecting the Hebrew construct chain, malʼak Yhwh, ‘messenger of Yahweh,’ as the lack of Greek def[inite] art[icle]s reveals. This is the exalted OT [Old Testament] figure who appears at times to be indistinguishable from Yahweh himself.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-13, 16-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38-​41, 46-​48, 52, 59-61

LUKE 1:​15 “in the sight of Jehovah”

REASON(S): The Greek expression e·noʹpi·on Ky·riʹou (lit., “in sight of [before] Lord”) reflects a Hebrew idiomatic construction and occurs in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew phrases where the Tetragrammaton is often used in the original Hebrew text.​—Judges 11:11; 1 Samuel 10:19; 2 Samuel 5:3; 6:5; see comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • New Testament Text and Translation Commentary, by Philip W. Comfort, 2008, says of Luke 1:15: “The Lord here is Yahweh, not the Lord Jesus Christ.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:15: “John’s greatness (see Luke 7:28) is here measured in terms of the Kyrios, who in this context is to be understood as Yahweh.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:15: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:15, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7, 8, 10-18, 22, 23, 28-​36, 38-​41, 46-​48, 52, 53, 59, 60

LUKE 1:​16 “turn back . . . to Jehovah their God”

REASON(S): The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects constructions in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered “Jehovah their God”) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (See the expression “Jehovah your God” at Luke 4:8, 12; 10:27.)​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, comments on Luke 1:16: “Here and [Luke] 1:32, 68 in passages strongly reminiscent of the Old Testament. The term is, therefore, to be understood from the Old Testament background as the Greek rendering of Yahweh ʼElohim in which Yahweh is a proper name and ʼElohim a class noun.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:16: “Fitted out with prophetic spirit and power, John will become Yahweh’s instrument to convert Israel from its estrangement. . . . Here Kyrios clearly refers to Yahweh.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:16: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:16, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-18, 22-24, 28-​41, 46-​48, 52-​55, 57, 59-61

LUKE 1:​17 “get ready for Jehovah a prepared people”

REASON(S): The angel’s words to Zechariah (verses 13-17) echo several expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the Tetragrammaton is used. (See comments on Luke 1:15, 16.) This verse contains allusions to such passages as Malachi 3:1; 4:5, 6; and Isaiah 40:3.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) makes these comments on Luke 1:17: “Go before him. I.e. before Yahweh, as the messenger of Mal 3:1. . . . In Mal [4:5, 6] he is identified as the messenger to be sent before ‘the great and awesome day of Yahweh’ (cf. Mal 3:2). . . . It is in this sense that the angel now tells Zechariah that his son John is to go before the Lord (= Yahweh). See Luke 1:76. . . . to make ready a people fit for the Lord. The first part of the clause is an OT [Old Testament] expression, ‘to make ready a people’ (2 Sam 7:24).”

  • The French reference work Évangile Selon Saint Luc (The Gospel According to St. Luke), by M. J. Lagrange, 1921, says of Luke 1:17: “Κυριώ without the article corresponds to Iahvé.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:17: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:17, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 39, 40, 44, 46-​48, 52, 53, 61

LUKE 1:25 “Jehovah has dealt with me”

REASON(S): The Hebrew Scriptures often use the corresponding Hebrew verb for “has dealt with me” (or, “has done for me”) along with the divine name, to describe Jehovah’s dealings with humans.​—Exodus 13:8; Deuteronomy 4:34; 1 Samuel 12:7; 25:30; see comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

Word Biblical Commentary, by John Nolland, 1989, Vol. 35A, p. 34, explains this about Luke 1:25: “Elizabeth expresses her wonderment at God’s graciousness to her in terms reminiscent of the experience of Sarah (Gen 21:1) and Rachel (Gen 30:23). . . . The infancy narratives are reported with almost constant echoing of OT [Old Testament] items: what happens here is to be understood in terms of what happened there.”

  • The French reference work Évangile Selon Saint Luc (The Gospel According to St. Luke), by M. J. Lagrange, 1921, says of Luke 1:​25: “The critical editions omit the article in front of Κύριος, which here stands for Iahvé.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:25: “Jehovah.”

  • The Messages of Jesus According to the Synoptists, by Thomas Cuming Hall, 1901, renders Luke 1:25: “Thus Jehovah dealt with me in the days he looked (favorably) upon me.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-18, 22, 23, 28-​36, 38-​41, 44, 46, 47, 52-​54, 59, 60

LUKE 1:28 “Jehovah is with you”

REASON(S): This and similar phrases often occur in the Hebrew Scriptures along with the divine name. (Ruth 2:4; 2 Samuel 7:3; 2 Chronicles 15:2; Jeremiah 1:19) The angel’s greeting to Mary is similar to that of Jehovah’s angel when he addressed Gideon at Judges 6:12.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 1:28: “The Lord is with you! This is a frequently used OT [Old Testament] phrase, but it occurs as a greeting only in two places in the OT, Ruth 2:4 and Judg 6:12. . . . In the OT the phrase often expresses Yahweh’s help and assistance and carries a military connotation. Obviously, kyrios here is to be understood of Yahweh.”

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.), Vol. I, p. 463, makes this comment on Luke 1:28: “The Lord (Jehovah) is or be with thee.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5, 7-18, 22, 23, 32-​36, 38-​41, 44, 46-​48, 52, 59, 60

LUKE 1:32 “Jehovah God will give him the throne”

REASON(S): This expression is an allusion to 2 Samuel 7:11-13, where the divine name appears twice.​—See comments on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comments on Luke 1:6, 16, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, 2002, (Vol. 1, pp. 331-​332) makes this comment on Luke 1:32: “Most High . . . the Lord God (1:32). Both of these are Greek translations of Old Testament names for God. The first is from El Elyon, ‘God Most High,’ and the second from Yahweh Elohim, ‘Yahweh God.’”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, comments on the expression “the Most High” found at Luke 1:32: “The first use of the designation which stresses Jehovah’s majesty and sovereignty is found in Gen. 14:18.”

  • The Moody Bible Commentary, by Michael Rydelnik and Michael Vanlaningham, 2014, says with regard to Luke 1:31-33: “The Lord God (Yahweh of the OT [Old Testament]).”

  • The Jewish Annotated New Testament, by Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Zvi Brettler, 2011, says with regard to Luke 1:32: “‘Most High’ translates the Heb ‘El Elyon’ or ‘YHWH Elyon.’”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on the expression “Lord God” at Luke 1:32: “Jehovah Elohim: only occurrence in the Gospels.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:32, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​41, 44, 46-​48, 52, 53, 55, 56, 59-61

LUKE 1:38 “Jehovah’s slave girl”

REASON(S): Mary here echoes expressions of other servants of Jehovah mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures, for example, Hannah, whose prayer is recorded at 1 Samuel 1:11. The Greek Septuagint uses the same Greek word for “slave girl” at 1 Samuel 1:11 as is used in Luke’s account. The context, as well as the Hebrew Scripture background, supports the use of the divine name in this verse. Additionally, scholars have noted that the unexpected absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os makes it tantamount to a proper name. This may be another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 1:38: “Mary is made to identify herself with the OT [Old Testament] term used by Hannah in 1 Sam 1:11, expressive of her lowly condition before Yahweh, who is here the Kyrios.” The same volume on p. 203 makes this point: “Elizabeth is made to refer to Mary as ‘the mother of my Lord’ in 1:43, whereas Mary in calling herself the ‘handmaid of the Lord’ (1:38) is rather referring to Yahweh with this title.”

  • The Gospel of Luke​—A Commentary on the Greek Text (The New International Greek Testament Commentary), by I. H. Marshall, 1978, says that at Luke 1:38, Kyʹri·os “can be used without the article since it is tantamount to a proper name.”

  • A Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, by Herman Heinfetter, 1863, uses “Jehovah” in the main text of Luke 1:38, as well as at Luke 1:11, 16, 17, 32, 45, 58, 66, 68, 76; 2:9a, 9b, 23, 24, 26, 39; 5:17; 20:37.[J24]

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:38: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:38, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5, 7-18, 22-24, 28-​35, 38-​40, 44, 46, 47, 52, 55, 59-61

LUKE 1:45 “things spoken to her from Jehovah”

REASON(S): The things spoken to Mary by the angel had their origin with Jehovah. The Greek expression pa·raʹ Ky·riʹou, here rendered “from Jehovah,” occurs in existing copies of the Greek Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew expressions in which the divine name is often used. (Genesis 24:50; Deuteronomy 18:16; Isaiah 21:10; Jeremiah 11:1; 18:1; 21:1) Although existing Greek manuscripts of Luke use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the context and the Hebrew Scripture background give good reasons for using the divine name in the main text.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:45: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:45, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38-​41, 46, 47, 52, 53, 59-61

LUKE 1:46 “My soul magnifies Jehovah”

REASON(S): These words of Mary may echo such passages in the Hebrew Scriptures as Psalm 34:3 and 69:30, where the divine name is used in the same verse or in the context. (Psalm 69:31) The Greek word me·ga·lyʹno (magnifies) can also be rendered “praise (proclaim) the greatness of.” A similar thought is found at 1 Samuel 2:1.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this phrase at Luke 1:46: “It expresses praise and thanksgiving for Yahweh’s greatness and majesty which are recognized as the source of the blessings that have come to Mary.” A note on the expression “God my Savior” found at Luke 1:47 says: “This phrase is parallel to ‘Lord’ in v. 46, showing that kyrios there is to be understood of Yahweh, the source of blessing to Mary.”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, makes this comment on Luke 1:46-48: “Mary says, ‘My soul magnifies the Lord,’ that is, proclaims the greatness of Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:46, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

  • The Messages of Jesus According to the Synoptists, by Thomas Cuming Hall, 1901, renders Luke 1:46: “My soul exalts Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22, 23, 28-​36, 38-​41, 44, 46, 47, 52, 53, 55, 59, 60

LUKE 1:58 “Jehovah had magnified his mercy”

REASON(S): The expression rendered “that Jehovah had magnified his mercy to her” reflects a typical Hebrew way of expressing things and evidently echoes the wording of Genesis 19:18-20. There Lot is addressing Jehovah, saying: “Jehovah! . . . You are showing great kindness to me [lit., “You are magnifying your kindness”].” The context, as well as the Hebrew Scripture background, supports the use of the divine name in this verse.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:58: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:58, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24 32-​35, 38-​41, 44, 46, 52, 55, 59, 61

LUKE 1:66 “The hand of Jehovah”

REASON(S): This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Exodus 9:3; Numbers 11:23; Judges 2:15; Ruth 1:13; 1 Samuel 5:6, 9; 7:13; 12:15; 1 Kings 18:46) In these verses where the Tetragrammaton is found in the Hebrew text, existing copies of the Septuagint use Kyʹri·os without the definite article where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. In this context, Kyʹri·os is tantamount to a proper name. Similarly, scholars have noted the unexpected absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os at Luke 1:66. This is another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 1:66: “There is little doubt that kyrios here refers to Yahweh.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:66: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:66, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​35, 38-​41, 44, 46, 47, 52, 55, 59-61

LUKE 1:68 “Let Jehovah be praised”

REASON(S): This expression of praise is common in the Hebrew Scriptures where it is often used with the divine name.​—1 Samuel 25:32; 1 Kings 1:48; 8:15; Psalm 41:13; 72:18; 106:48; see comment on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comments on Luke 1:6, 16, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, comments on Luke 1:68: “Because of the Old Testament background of the phrase it is best to understand kurios as representing the name Yahweh and not as a title.”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, comments on Luke 1:68: “Zechariah begins with a doxology. He praises Jehovah.”

  • The Jerome Biblical Commentary, edited by Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, 1968, says with regard to Zechariah’s speech that starts to be recorded at Luke 1:68: “The hymn blesses Yahweh for what he has achieved of salvation.”

  • The Scofield Study Bible, by C. I. Scofield, 1945, says in a marginal note on Luke 1:68: “Jehovah. Psa. 106.48.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:68: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:68, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​41, 44, 46-​48, 52-​55, 59-61

LUKE 1:76 “go ahead of Jehovah”

REASON(S): These prophetic words of Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist, reflect the wording of Isaiah 40:3 and Malachi 3:1, where the divine name occurs in the original Hebrew text.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • A Commentary on the Holy Bible, edited by J. R. Dummelow, 1936, says of Luke 1:76: “Of the Lord] Zacharias understood it of Jehovah.”

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke, by Alfred Plummer, 1920, says of Luke 1:76: “Here Κυρίου means Jehovah, not the Christ, as is clear from vv. 16, 17.”

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.), Vol. I, p. 469, makes this comment on the verse: “John will go before the Lord (Jehovah).”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 1:76: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 1:76, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​35, 39-​41, 46, 48, 52, 53, 60, 61

LUKE 2:9a “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): See comments on Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1:11.

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5, 7-13, 16, 17, 22-24, 32-​36, 38-​41, 46-​48, 52, 55, 59-61

LUKE 2:9b “Jehovah’s glory”

REASON(S): This expression is common in the Hebrew Scriptures where it is used with the divine name. (Exodus 16:7, 10; 24:17; 40:34, 35; Leviticus 9:6, 23; Numbers 14:10, 21; 16:19; 20:6; 1 Kings 8:11; 2 Chronicles 5:14; 7:1, 2, 3; Psalm 104:31; 138:5; Isaiah 35:2; 40:5; 58:8; 60:1; Ezekiel 1:28; 3:12, 23; 10:4, 18; 11:23; 43:4, 5; 44:4) An early copy of the Greek Septuagint found in a cave in Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E., contains the Tetragrammaton written in Hebrew characters within the Greek text at Habakkuk 2:14.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 2:9: “In the LXX doxa translates Hebrew kābôd, the ‘splendor, brilliance,’ associated with Yahweh’s perceptible presence to his people.”

  • The Critical and Exegetical Hand-Book to the Gospels of Mark and Luke, by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, (Sixth edition of 1884), says of this expression at Luke 2:9: “— δόξα κυρίου] יְהוָֹה [YHWH] כְּבוֹד, radiance by which God is surrounded.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:9: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 2:9, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5, 7, 8, 10-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38-​41, 46-​48, 52, 55, 59, 61

LUKE 2:15 “Jehovah has made known to us”

REASON(S): The angels conveyed the message, but the shepherds recognized the Source as being Jehovah God. Although existing Greek manuscripts use Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Septuagint, the Greek verb rendered “has made known” is used to translate a corresponding Hebrew verb in contexts where the divine name is used and where Jehovah communicates his will to humans. (Psalm 25:4; 39:4; 98:2; 103:​6, 7) Therefore, it would be natural to connect the divine name with what the Jewish shepherds are here saying.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 2:15: “Which the Lord has made known to us. I.e. Yahweh.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:15: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5, 7, 8, 10-18, 22, 23, 28-​31, 33-​36, 39-​41, 44, 46, 47, 52, 59-61

LUKE 2:22 “To present him to Jehovah”

REASON(S): See comment on Luke 1:6. A similar thought is expressed at 1 Samuel 1:​22-28, where the divine name is used.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference work indicates that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:22: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22, 23, 28-​36, 38-​41, 47, 52, 59-61

LUKE 2:23 “just as it is written in Jehovah’s Law”

REASON(S): The expression “Jehovah’s Law” occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, often along with the divine name. (Exodus 13:9; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 16:40; 22:12; 2 Chronicles 17:9; 31:3; 34:14; 35:26; Nehemiah 9:3; Psalm 1:2; 119:1; Isaiah 5:24; Jeremiah 8:8; Amos 2:4) The expression “just as it is written” is a common introduction to Hebrew Scripture quotes in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Mark 1:2; Acts 7:​42; 15:15; Romans 1:17; 9:33; 10:15) The expression “just as it is written” can be found in the Greek Septuagint at 2 Kings 14:6, where it is also used to introduce a scripture quote. The full expression “just as it is written in Jehovah’s Law” reflects an expression in the Hebrew Scriptures that can be found at 2 Chronicles 31:3 and 35:26, where the divine name is used.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Gerhard Kittel, 1967, says of this expression at Luke 2:23: “In Lk. 2:23 there is no art[icle], but we have the combination νόμος κυρίου, which is to be defined in the light of יהוה [YHWH] תורת.”

  • The Scofield Study Bible, by C. I. Scofield, 1945, says in a marginal note on Luke 2:23: “Jehovah. Ex. 13.2, 12.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:23: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 2:23, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​31, 33-​36, 38-​41, 46, 47, 52, 55, 58-61

LUKE 2:24 “in the Law of Jehovah”

REASON(S): See comments on Luke 1:6; 2:23.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comments on Luke 1:6; 2:​23, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:24: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 2:24, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38-​41, 46, 47, 52, 55, 56, 58-61

LUKE 2:26 “the Christ of Jehovah”

REASON(S): The expression in the original Greek corresponds to the Hebrew expression “ma·shiʹach YHWH” (“anointed [one] of Jehovah”) used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures. (1 Samuel 24:6; 26:9; 2 Samuel 1:14; Lamentations 4:20) In view of this Hebrew Scripture background, there are good reasons to use the divine name here. The absence of the Greek definite article before Kyʹri·os in existing copies of the Septuagint rendering of this Hebrew expression that includes the Tetragrammaton as well as the absence of the article before Kyʹri·os here in Luke’s account is an indication that Kyʹri·os should be treated, not as a title, but as an equivalent of the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comment on Luke 1:6, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, 2002, (Vol. 1, pp. 345-​346) says of Luke 2:26: “This phrase is equivalent to the Old Testament expression ‘the LORD’s Anointed’ . . . and carries the sense, ‘Yahweh’s chosen agent of redemption.’”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 2:26: “The OT [Old Testament] expression, “the Anointed of Yahweh” (see e.g. 1 Sam 24:7, 11; 26:9, 11, 16, 23), is used here in the strictly messianic sense, of a future, expected David.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:26: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 2:26, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38-​41, 46, 47, 52, 58-61

LUKE 2:39 “Law of Jehovah”

REASON(S): See comments on Luke 1:6; 2:23.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comments on Luke 1:6; 2:​23, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 2:39: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 2:39, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J5-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38, 40, 41, 44, 46-​48, 52, 55, 59-61

LUKE 5:17 “Jehovah’s power”

REASON(S): The context clearly shows that Kyʹri·os is used here with reference to God. The Greek word dyʹna·mis, which could be rendered “power” or “strength,” is used in the Greek Septuagint where the Hebrew text refers to Jehovah’s power, or strength, and uses the Tetragrammaton. (Psalm 21:1, 13; 93:1; 118:15) Scholars have noted the absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os at Luke 5:17. This is noteworthy because when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in many places in the Hebrew Scriptures, the definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would normally call for it. The absence of the definite article here is therefore an indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comments on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comments on Luke 1:6, 16, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, makes this comment on Luke 5:17: “Significantly Luke adds that the power of the Lord—that is, of Jehovah—was with Jesus ‘for healing.’”

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke, by Alfred Plummer, 1920, says of Luke 5:17: “‘The power of Jehovah was present for Him to heal with’ . . . Κύριος without the article means Jehovah.”

  • Word Pictures in the New Testament, by Archibald Thomas Robertson, 1930, (Vol. 2) says of Luke 5:17: “Here Kuriou refers to Jehovah.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 5:17: “This phrase is clearly a Lucan creation, a description of Yahweh’s power present in Jesus for the sake of curing people. In effect, it echoes 4:14, 36 and prepares for the miracle and the pronouncement that are to come. Here Kyrios is clearly distinguished from Jesus and means Yahweh.”

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to S. Luke, by Alfred Plummer, 1916, comments on this expression at Luke 5:17: “[Luke] often calls Christ ‘the Lord’; but in such cases Κύριος always has the article [7:13, 10:1, 11:39, 12:42, 13:15, 17:5, 6, 18:​6, 19:8, 22:61]. Κύριος without the article means Jehovah [1:11, 2:9, 4:18; Acts 5:19, 8:26, 39, 12:7].”

  • The New American Commentary, by Robert H. Stein, 1992, (Vol. 24) says with regard to Luke 5:17: “The term ‘Lord’ here refers to God/YHWH as in 1:6, 9, 11, 15, 16.”

  • The French reference work Évangile Selon Saint Luc (The Gospel According to St. Luke), by M. J. Lagrange, 1921, says of Luke 5:​17: “But when Luke does not use the article, Κύριος is Iahvé.” It then lists similar occurrences at Luke 1:11; 2:9; 4:18; Acts 5:19; 8:26, 39; 12:7.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 5:17: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 5:17, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-18, 22-24, 28-​36, 38-​41, 44, 46, 47, 52, 55, 58, 61

LUKE 20:37 “when he calls Jehovah”

REASON(S): The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used here with reference to God. The quote that immediately follows is taken from Exodus 3:6, where the preceding verses indicate that Jehovah is the one speaking. The wording of this quote is also similar to Exodus 3:​15, where the divine name occurs. Scholars have noted the absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os at Luke 20:37. This is noteworthy because when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in many places in the Hebrew Scriptures, the definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would normally call for it. The absence of the definite article here is therefore an indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comments on Luke 1:​6, 16.

SUPPORT: In addition to the support shown in the comments on Luke 1:6, 16, the following reference works indicate that this occurrence of Kyʹri·os refers to the divine name.

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, makes this comment on Luke 20:37: “Kurios (cp. on 1:6) is without article as if a personal name.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1985, (Vol. 28-​28A) says of this verse: “When he speaks of the Lord. I.e. Yahweh (see Exod 3:4).” It goes on to explain with regard to this verse: “The main point in the argument is that Yahweh identifies himself to Moses as the God of the patriarchs long after they have died.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on Luke 20:37: “Jehovah.”

  • The Newberry Reference Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1973 printing. At Luke 20:37, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J9, 11-18, 21-24, 27, 28-​41, 44, 46-​48, 52, 54, 55, 57-61