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Jehovah’s Witnesses

English
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

C3

Verses Where the Name Jehovah Does Not Appear in Direct or Indirect Quotations

The following list shows the remaining verses where the name Jehovah occurs in the main text of the Christian Greek Scriptures of the New World Translation. These verses do not contain either a direct or an indirect quotation from the “Old Testament” that uses the Tetragrammaton. However, there are either strong contextual grounds or linguistic reasons for restoring the divine name in these verses. After each occurrence, reasons are provided for restoring the divine name in the verse. A list is also provided of other Bible translations and references that have restored the divine name in that verse or have indicated that it should be represented. Bible translations and reference books that have used some form of the divine name in these verses have been designated by the letter J followed by a number. (The letter J stands for Jehovah.) The complete listing of these references is found in Appendix C4.

VERSES THAT DO NOT CONTAIN DIRECT OR INDIRECT QUOTATIONS

MATTHEW 1:20 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): The expression “Jehovah’s angel” occurs many times in Hebrew in the “Old Testament,” starting at Genesis 16:7. When “Jehovah’s angel” occurs in early copies of the Greek Septuagint, a translation of the “Old Testament,” the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written with Hebrew characters. That is how this expression is handled at Zechariah 3:5, 6 in a copy of the Greek Septuagint found in Nahal Hever, Israel, which some scholars have dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in this and many other verses, the definite article was omitted. This may be another indication that Kyʹri·os replaces the divine name here and in similar contexts.

SUPPORT: The use of the divine name here is further supported by the following reference works that mention this occurrence of Kyʹri·os as referring to God or as an equivalent of the Tetragrammaton. It is also supported by a number of Bible translations into different languages that use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or that otherwise, in footnotes and marginal notes, indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God.

  • A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, revised and edited by F. W. Danker, 2000, lists Matthew 1:20, 24; 2:13, 19; 28:2 under the definition of “lord” as “a designation of God.” It goes on to say: “Without the art[icle] . . . , like a personal name.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Matthew 1:20, 24; 2:13, 19; 28:2 as verses where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920 (corresponding to the German Elberfelder Bibel, 1891), says in a footnote on this verse (as well as in footnotes on Matthew 1:24 and 2:13): “‘Lord’ without the article, signifying, as often, ‘Jehovah.’”

  • The Restored New Testament, by Willis Barnstone, 2009, states in a footnote on the expression “an angel of the Lord”: “From the Greek . . . (angelos kyriou), from the Hebrew . . . (malakh yahweh), . . . A literal rendering would be Yahweh’s malakh or ‘messenger.’” In the main text of Matthew 28:2, this translation reads: “An angel of Yahweh.”

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, capitalizes the word “ADONAI” in this verse. In the introduction to this Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAI’ is used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, capitalizes LORD in the main text of Matthew 1:20 and adds this footnote: “the LORD = Jehovah.”

  • The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English (An American Translation of the Aramaic New Testament), by Glenn David Bauscher, 2012, says in this verse, as well as at Matthew 1:24; 2:13, 19; 28:2: “The Angel of THE LORD JEHOVAH.”[J29]

  • The Holy Name Bible, revised by A. B. Traina, 2012, says in this verse, as well as at Matthew 1:24; 2:13; 28:2: “the angel of Yahweh,” and at Matthew 2:19: “an angel of Yahweh.”[J32]

  • The Hebraic Roots Bible (with study notes), published by Word of Truth Publications, 2012, says in this verse, as well as at Matthew 2:13, 19; 28:2: “a Cherub of YAHWEH,” and at Matthew 1:24: “the cherub of YAHWEH.”[J31]

  • The Aramaic English New Testament, (Third Edition), by Andrew Gabriel Roth, 2008, says in this verse, as well as at Matthew 28:2: “a messenger of Master YHWH,” and at Matthew 1:24; 2:13, 19: “the messenger of Master YHWH.”[J30]

  • The Messianic Jewish Shared Heritage Bible, 2012, uses ADONAI in this verse. The glossary on page 1530 explains: “When written in small capitals, it [ADONAI] refers to God’s personal name YHWH as given in the Hebrew Bible. This personal name is God’s ‘covenant name,’ used when God is relating to the Jewish people in an intimate way.”

  • The Newberry Study Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1890 printing, (Hodder and Stoughton, London), p. 2. At Matthew 1:20, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “Heb. Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J3, 4, 7-14, 16-18, 22-24, 28-41, 43, 45-50

MATTHEW 1:22 “spoken by Jehovah”

REASON(S): The quotation that immediately follows (Matthew 1:23) is taken from Isaiah 7:14, which is the prophetic message spoken by Jehovah through Isaiah.

SUPPORT: The use of the divine name here is supported by the following reference works that mention this occurrence of Kyʹri·os as referring to God and by a number of Bible translations into different languages.

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920 (corresponding to the German Elberfelder Bibel, 1891), says in a footnote on this verse and on Matthew 2:15: “‘Lord’ without the article, signifying, as often, ‘Jehovah.’”

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, capitalizes the word “ADONAI” in this verse. In the introduction to this Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAI’ is used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, capitalizes LORD in the main text of Matthew 1:22 and adds this explanation in Appendix 98: “Used of Jehovah . . . and printed ‘LORD’ throughout.”

  • The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English (An American Translation of the Aramaic New Testament), by Glenn David Bauscher, 2012, uses “THE LORD JEHOVAH” in the main text of Matthew 1:22.[J29]

  • The Holy Name Bible, revised by A. B. Traina, 2012, uses “Yahweh” in the main text of Matthew 1:22 and 2:15.[J32]

  • The Hebraic Roots Bible (with study notes), published by Word of Truth Publications, 2012, uses “YAHWEH” in the main text of Matthew 1:22.[J31]

  • The Aramaic English New Testament, (Third Edition), by Andrew Gabriel Roth, 2008, uses “YHWH” in the main text of Matthew 1:22.[J30]

  • The Messianic Jewish Shared Heritage Bible, 2012, uses ADONAI in this verse. The glossary on page 1530 explains: “When written in small capitals, it [ADONAI] refers to God’s personal name YHWH as given in the Hebrew Bible. This personal name is God’s ‘covenant name,’ used when God is relating to the Jewish people in an intimate way.”

  • The Newberry Study Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1890 printing, (Hodder and Stoughton, London). At Matthew 1:22, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “or Jehovah.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1-4, 7-14, 16-18, 22-24, 26, 28-41, 43, 45-50

MATTHEW 1:24 “the angel of Jehovah”

REASON(S): See comment on Matthew 1:20.

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1-4, 7-14, 16-18, 22-24, 28-41, 43, 45-50

MATTHEW 2:13 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): See comment on Matthew 1:20.

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1-4, 6-14, 16-18, 22-24, 28-37, 39, 40, 43, 45-50

MATTHEW 2:15 “spoken by Jehovah”

REASON(S): The quotation that immediately follows in this verse is taken from Hosea 11:1, and Hosea 11:11 clearly shows that this is a statement made by Jehovah God.—See study note on Matthew 1:22.

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1, 3, 4, 6-14, 16-18, 22-24, 28-41, 43, 45-50

MATTHEW 2:19 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): See comment on Matthew 1:20.

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1-4, 6-14, 16-18, 22-24, 28-40, 43, 45-50

MATTHEW 28:2 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON: See comment on Matthew 1:20.

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1-4, 7-13, 16-18, 22-24, 28-38, 40, 41, 43, 45-47, 49, 50

MARK 5:19 “things Jehovah has done”

REASON(S): Although Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the context supports the use of the divine name to avoid ambiguity. Jesus is speaking to the man who had been healed, attributing the miracle, not to himself, but to his heavenly Father. In recording the same event, Luke (8:39) uses the Greek word The·osʹ (God), supporting the thought that Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Mark 5:19 is used with reference to God.—See study note on Mr 5:19.

SUPPORT: The use of the divine name here is further supported by the following reference works that mention this occurrence of Kyʹri·os as referring to God. It is also supported by a number of Bible translations into different languages that use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or that otherwise, in footnotes and marginal notes, indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God.

  • A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, revised and edited by F. W. Danker, 2000, lists Mark 5:19 under the definition of “lord” as “a designation of God.” It goes on to say concerning the use of the expression in the Septuagint [LXX]: “It freq. [frequently] replaces the name Yahweh in the MT [Masoretic Text].”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Mark 5:19 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is possibly “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Gospel According to St Mark (The Greek Text With Introduction Notes and Indices), by Henry Barclay Swete, 1902, gives יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton) as one possible rendering.

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, capitalizes the word “ADONAI” in this verse. In the introduction to this Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAIis used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

  • The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English (An American Translation of the Aramaic New Testament), by Glenn David Bauscher, 2012, says: “what THE LORD JEHOVAH has done for you.”[J29]

  • The Holy Name Bible, revised by A. B. Traina, 2012, says: “how great things Yahweh hath done for thee.”[J32]

  • The Hebraic Roots Bible (with study notes), published by Word of Truth Publications, 2012, says in this verse: “what YAHWEH did for you.”[J31]

  • The Aramaic English New Testament, (Third Edition), by Andrew Gabriel Roth, 2008, says in this verse: “what Master YHWH did for you.”[J30]

  • The Messianic Jewish Shared Heritage Bible, 2012, uses ADONAI in this verse. The glossary on page 1530 explains: “When written in small capitals, it [ADONAI] refers to God’s personal name YHWH as given in the Hebrew Bible. This personal name is God’s ‘covenant name,’ used when God is relating to the Jewish people in an intimate way.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J7-10, 17, 18, 22, 29-32, 34, 36, 41, 43, 44

MARK 13:20 “unless Jehovah had cut short the days”

REASON(S): Although Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the context supports the use of the divine name to avoid ambiguity. Jesus is here describing to four of his disciples what his Father will do during the great tribulation, so he is clearly referring, not to himself, but to God.—See study note on Mr 13:20.

SUPPORT: The use of the divine name here is further supported by the following reference works that mention this occurrence of Kyʹri·os as referring to God. It is also supported by a number of Bible translations into different languages that use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text, or that otherwise, in footnotes or marginal notes, indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God.—See study note on Mr 13:20.

  • A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, revised and edited by F. W. Danker, 2000, lists Mark 13:20 under the definition of “lord” as “a designation of God.” It goes on to say: “Without the art[icle] . . . , like a personal name.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Mark 13:20 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1920, says in a footnote on “Lord” in this verse: “Without the article, ‘Jehovah.’”

  • The Gospel According to St Mark (The Greek Text With Introduction Notes and Indices), by Henry Barclay Swete, 1902, gives יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton) as one possible rendering.

  • The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English (An American Translation of the Aramaic New Testament), by Glenn David Bauscher, 2012, says: “And if THE LORD JEHOVAH had not shortened those days.”[J29]

  • The Holy Name Bible, revised by A. B. Traina, 2012, says: “Except that Yahweh had shortened those days.”[J32]

  • The Hebraic Roots Bible (with study notes), published by Word of Truth Publications, 2012, says in this verse: “And if YAHWEH had not shortened the days.”[J31]

  • The Aramaic English New Testament, (Third Edition), by Andrew Gabriel Roth, 2008, says in this verse: “And if Master YHWH had not shortened those days.”[J30]

  • The Messianic Jewish Shared Heritage Bible, 2012, uses ADONAI in this verse. The glossary on page 1530 explains: “When written in small capitals, it [ADONAI] refers to God’s personal name YHWH as given in the Hebrew Bible. This personal name is God’s ‘covenant name,’ used when God is relating to the Jewish people in an intimate way.”

  • The Newberry Study Bible, by Thomas Newberry, 1890 printing, (Hodder and Stoughton, London). At Mark 13:20, “LORD” appears in small capitals, and the marginal note says: “or Jehovah.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, capitalizes LORD in the main text of Mark 13:20 and adds this explanation in Appendix 98: “Used of Jehovah . . . and printed ‘LORD’ throughout.”

  • The Holy Bible Containing the Authorized Version of the Old and New Testaments, with Twenty Thousand Emendations, by J. T. Conquest, 1841, capitalizes LORD in the main text of Mark 13:20.

  • The following English translations use “God” instead of “Lord” at Mark 13:20: The Complete Jewish Bible, A Translator’s Translation of the New Testament, The Expanded Bible, and The Word New Century Version, New Testament. Additionally, A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Mark, produced by the United Bible Societies, says regarding this verse: “‘The Lord’: here, of course, God.”

OTHER TRANSLATIONS: J1-4, 7-14, 16-18, 22-24, 26, 28-37, 39-43, 46-49